Metonymy as the basis of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English phraseology
Metonymy: definition, structure and function, types. The relationship of metonymy and phraseology. Metonymy features of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English phraseology in chick-lit novels. Stylistic features of metonymy.
|Рубрика||Иностранные языки и языкознание|
|Размер файла||40,4 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Metonymy as the basis of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English phraseology
Great interest in linguistic science is continued to metonymy as one of the basic cognitive processes that require explanation.
Many different classifications have been proposed starting with Aristotle, other Greek, Roman and medieval scholars, modern critics and linguists, more recently by the Groupe de Liege. P. Koch, A. Blank and B. Nerlich; Todd and Clarke link their cognitive approach to metonymy to the rhetorical tradition. The cleavage between literal and figurative language has recently been challenged by R.W. Gibbs (1994). .
Y. Lotman defines metonymy act as much-specific selection and elimination of non-essential. According to Umberto Eco, the metaphorical replacement (substitution) is based on metonymic practice (Eco 1984). Zh. Lacan pointed out that metonymy based on the connection of words (word-to-word connection), while the metaphor is the replacement of one word by another (Lacan 1977). R. Jakobson determined that for typical metonymy adjacencies (and, accordingly, syntagmatic relations) (Theory 1990). This issue, according to I. Tolochin (Tolochin 1996), and more relevant for the study of fiction, where the difference between the categorization of contiguity and similarly are significant.
In a broad sense, the concept category (Greek nominatio - name, house name) can be seen as a symbol of all reflected and known human consciousness, all real and conceivable: objects, people, actions, attributes, relationships and events (Telia 1990). Nomination is the formation of linguistic units, characterized by the nominative function, i.e. employees to name and reality, and the reality of the isolation of the formation of the concepts of them in the form of words, phrases, sentences and phraseology. Metonymy is a cognitive phenomenon that may be even more fundamental than metaphor.
The study of linguistic phenomena is impossible without access to cognitive mechanisms that form the basis of human activity as the creator of the language, and therefore of common interest to the methods of cognitive linguistics verbalization.
The main idea is among the most wide-spread processes are extension and restriction / specification of codified phraseological meaning as a result of metonymic transfer. These processes serve as a major source of polysemy in the sphere of phraseology.
The topicality of thе paper is also related to insufficient knowledge of the object of the study. To date, the Modern English vocabulary and the role of metonymy in its conceptualization have not been analyzed from the standpoint of cognitive science. Actuality of a comprehensive study is the metonymy functions in the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary Еnglish phraseology.
The aim of this study is to analyze metonymy as a mean of in the secondary nomination.
In accordance with the aim we put forward the following objectives:
- - to consider the metonymy concept;
- - to appropriate research methods to analyze the role of metonymy as a mean of in the secondary nomination;
- - to identify the principles that affect metonymy rethinking;
- - to determine the specificity of metonymy;
- - to analyze the cognitive and pragmatic features of the metonymy functioning.
The object of the research is the phenomenon of metonymy in the system of the contemporary Еnglish phraseology.
The subject of the investigation is metonymy as a mean of in the secondary nomination.
The material of investigation is the metonymy in the women's novels at the end of XX - the beginning of the XXI century.
The purpose and objectives determined the choice of research methods. The paper uses the phraseology identification, definitional analysis as a kind of method of component analysis, some aspects of phraseological application, contextual analysis.
The research paper consists of introduction, two chapters with paragraphs, conclusions, references, list of sources, abstract.
Theoretical and practical value of the research deals with new data material in contemporary (the last two decades) English fiction. It can be used in learning English phraseology and teaching English
1. Metonymy as an important stylistic device and the phenomenon of contemporary language
1.1 Metonymy: definition, structure and function
metonymy novel phraseology
Metonymy is a Figure in which the name of one thing is used in place of another that is suggested by or associated with it (e.g. the London for «the Britain government»).
Metonymy is a figure of speech used in rhetoric in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept. Metonyms can be either real or fictional concepts representing other concepts real or fictional, but they must serve as an effective and widely understood second name for what they represent.
For instance, «Hollywood» is used as a metonym (an instance of metonymy) for the US cinema industry, because of the fame and cultural identity of Hollywood, a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, as the historical center of film studios and film stars.
Another example is «Westminster», which is used as a metonym for the Parliament of the United Kingdom, because it is located there. Another example showing a different version of metonymy is the fictional character Scrooge McDuck's «money bin» or indeed Scrooge himself, often used in Disney works and parody works as metonymous with wealth - most currency in the modern era is now stored electronically, but the money bin is still drawn in comics and persists as a pop culture metonym for any financial holding of great value.
The words «metonymy» and «metonym» come from the Greek (from Late Latin metonymia): мефщнхмЯб, metфnymia, «a change of name», from мефЬ, meta, «after, beyond» and -щнхмЯб, - фnymia, a suffix used to name figures of speech, from ?н?мб, onyma or ?нпмб, onoma, «name.» Metonymy also may be instructively contrasted with metaphor. Both figures involve the substitution of one term for another. In metaphor, this substitution is based on some specific similarity, whereas, in metonymy, the substitution is based on some understood association (contiguity).
The White House released its official report today. - «The White House» for «The presidential administration»
The Crown has enacted a new social security policy. - «The Crown» for «The government of the United Kingdom».
A crowd of fifty heads - where «head» stands for person.
Put it on the plastic - material (plastic) for object (credit card) .
A solid definition of metonymy needs to meet at least two requirements: (1) it has to be capable of distinguishing metonymy clearly from related notions such as metaphor as well as from so-called literal uses of language; and (2) it needs to take into consideration not only the cognitive aspects of this phenomenon but also its grammatical and communicative import. .
The function of metonymy is to replace a noun with a figure of speech. This means replacing a word with another one.
Metonymy, on the one hand - a way to form new words, and stylistic mean, on the other. Thus, metonymy is divided into «language metonymy and speech metonymy». linguistic metonymy gets a shade of stamping. Metonymy gray hairs instead of old age; bottle instead of drunkenness - the examples of linguistic metonymy. «And the first cab having been fetched from the public house, where he had been smoking his pipe, Mr. Pickwick and his portmanteau were thrown into the vehicle.» (Dickens) - here the word cab, instead cabman, expressed attitude and instruments of production figure. It also is an expressive mean of the language along with other means of expression for the more emotional, imaginative interpretation of the phenomena described. Metonymy defined in linguistics differently. Some linguists define metonymy as the transfer of title to the adjacency concepts. Others define metonymy is much wider, as the replacement of one object by another name called on the relations that exist between the two. The second definition is so broad that it allows for a variety of metonymy cases of replacement of one concept to others. For example, the replacement of cause and effect, or a part of, or a particular abstract can be appropriately brought under this definition of metonymy. Structure metonymic concepts - is not only the language, but also our thoughts, attitudes and actions. As with other means, one of the main purposes of using a metonymy is to add flavor to the writing. Instead of just repeatedly saying, «the staff at the restaurant» or naming all of the elements of a dinner each time you want to refer to the meal, one word breaks up some of that awkwardness.
Using a metonymy serves a double purpose - it breaks up any awkwardness of repeating the same phrase over and over and it changes the wording to make the sentence more interesting. Thus, metonymy is the basis of the secondary nomination. If metonymic transfer is made within the formative type, then it may be due to polysemy suffix (for example, the suffix-ming, - enie). Association of objects by their adjacency and concepts to their logical proximity becomes thereby coupling value category. This kind of metonymy is nominative objectives and contributes to the development of language lexical. By metonymy also made to attribute changes in the value of attributive words (adjectives and verbs), based on the adjacency of objects characterized by (secondary metonymy value), ironed suit and a young man, the expansion of the compatibility of attributive words caused semantic proximity defined names: bold expression of the eyes, bold look, bold eye.
The main function of metonymic expressions - activate one cognitive category, correlating it with the other within a single model, and thus distinguish itself or sub model to which it belongs. E.g. We need a couple of strong bodies for our team.
There are a lot of good ears in the university.
We need some new faces around here.
Metonymy makes connection through a relationship that is already established between the two things. The use of the word «crown» to indicate royalty utilizes the fact that there is already an explicit connection between royal traditions and the wearing of a crown .
Metonymy, has primarily a referential function, that is, it allows us to use one entity to stand for another.
Metonymic concepts (like the part for the whole) are part of the ordinary, everyday way we think and act as well as talk. For example:
She's just a pretty face.
There are an awful lot of faces out there in the audience.
We need some new faces around here .
1.2 Types of metonymy
There are different types of metonymy:
a) the material of which an object is made may become the name of the object, e.g. a glass, boards, iron etc.;
b) the name of the place may become the name of the people or of an object placed there, e.g. the House - members of Parliament, Fleet Street - bourgeois press, the White House - the Administration of the USA etc.;
c) names of musical instruments may become names of musicians, e.g. the violin, the saxophone;
d) the name of some person may becomе a common noun, e.g. «boycott» was originally the name of an Irish family who were so much disliked by their neighbours that they did not mix with them, «sandwich» was named after Lord Sandwich who was a gambler. He did not want to interrupt his game and had his food brought to him while he was playing cards between two slices of bread not to soil his fingers.
e) names of inventors very often become terms to denote things they invented, e.g. «watt», «om», «rentgen» etc.,
f) some geographical names can also become common nouns through metonymy, e.g. holland (linen fabrics), Brussels (a special kind of carpets), china (porcelain), astrachan (a sheep fur) etc. ;
g) abstract nouns denoting emotion condition, the process that are used instead of the name of the subject or object: subservience sprang round the corner;
h) a special case of metonymy, part for the whole, is known as is synecdoche:
· The automobile is clogging our highways. (= the collection of automobiles)
· We need a couple of strong bodies for our team. (= strong people)
· There are a lot of good heads in the university. (= intelligent people)
· I've got a new set of wheels. (= car, motorcycle, etc.)
· We've got some new blood in the organization. (= new people).
There are, however, plenty of other kinds of metonymy:
- product for producer: He bought a Ford. He's got a Picasso. object used for user sax has the flu today. The buses are on strike.
- controller for controlled. Napoleon lost at Waterloo. A Mercedes rear-ended me.
- institution for people responsible. Exxon has raised its prices again. You'll never get the university to agree to that.
- the place for the institution. The White House isn't saying anything. Wall Street is in a panic.
- the place for the event. Remember the Alamo. Watergate changed our politics.
1.3 Research traditions
Despite the fact that the study of metonymy goes back to Aristotle, in the last twenty years, there is a rise of interest in metonymy - a concept has existed for over two thousand years.
When R. Jakobson pulled metaphor and metonymy to the center of the stage in linguistics and poetics, structuralists were trying to account for meaning by means of a componential model of clearly defined semantic elements (Jakobson, «Closing Statement»). Inspired by the success of V. Propp's structuralist narratology, which attempted to account for story structure by means of a limited set of plot ingredients, and by structuralist phonology, which was able to characterize the various phonemes of language by means of a limited set of sound primitives and their combinations, structuralist semanticists set out to develop a similar approach for word meaning.
This phenomenon is treated rather briefly in Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Lakoff and Turner (1989), Lakoff (1987), and Taylor (1995 Goossens (1990), Croft (1993), and Dirven (1993), and the collections of articles in Panther and Radden (1999), and in Barcelona (2000 and Niemeier, 2000). This is in agreement with the claims of some scholars who argue that metonymy occupies a more central role in our conceptual apparatus than granted so far .
1.4 The relationship of metonymy and phraseology
A. Kunin rethinking the type of the expression considered metonymy as a kind of phraseologism.
The type reconsideration is metonymy. It also serves to create imagery. Considering the idiom, we can not leave aside their main features - imagery and expressiveness, because in most cases these characteristics and distinguish PU from words.
In modern English idioms, some of the groups formed on the basis of unrealistic situations and, therefore, does not have the equivalent of variable combinations of words, which increases their expressiveness: turn a blind eye to smth - blind to smth., turn a deaf ear to smth, seal one's ears - a deaf ear.
Large group of metonymical phraseology in the study of phraseological subsystem are PU, prototypes of which are combinations of variables words for facial expressions and gestures.
One type of metonymic transfer is the transfer of functional items, which is the name of the function that is replaced by a combination of the words that describe the presence of a body, for which this feature is characteristic, that is, have eyes in place to see, have ears instead to hear, have a nose instead to smell, semantic separation of these units indicates that they are phraseological.
2. Metonymy features of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English phraseology in women's novels at the end of xx - the beginning of the xxi century
2.1 Stylistic features of metonymy in the women's novels
The basic idea behind the usage of metonymy is that people create associations between a particular object and a related object. In the phrase «the pen is mightier than the sword,» for example, there are two instances of metonymy at work. «The pen» does not literally refer to a writing instrument, but instead refers to the process of writing and the expression of ideas, while «the sword» again does not mean a literal weapon, but instead refers to a military group or armed action. Someone who hears this type of phrase is typically able to understand what is meant, since these associations are quite common within a particular culture or society, particularly, within a genre.
The material for the study is based on four modern novels - samples of women's prose of the end of XX - the beginning of XXI century, written in English.
The basic idea of modern post feminism - the transition from 'feminisequality ', when women asserted their rights and the realization of equality in a patriarchal society, to the 'difference feminism'. Britain's postfeminist prose genre «chick lit» - is a new trend in women's writing.
Britain's post-feminist prose is named chick lit: Lit - short form for literature, and Chick - slang designation of girls and young women - «baby», «chick». The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2005) attributes two meanings to the word chick as a simple term. It can refer either to a baby bird, especially a baby chicken, or to a young woman. When used to refer to a young woman, it can, sometimes, be considered offensive.
The novel, initiating the field of «chick lit» was:» Bridget Jones's Diary» by H. Fielding, 1996. Helen Fielding's «Bridget Jones's Diary» and Candace Bushnell's «The Sex and the City» are examples of such work that helped to establish contemporary connotations of the term. The subgenre raises issues of everyday life of women consumer culture, appearance, the concept of «success» career. Authors and heroines approach these questions with great humor and a fair amount of self-irony, that led to our interest in the works of this genre as a material for research.
In chicle's humor and self-irony, the heroine is never perfect beauty, virtuous and highly positive. On the contrary, they are characterized by defects and bad habits. Important for their heroines «urban family» are friends. The presence of the main character - a man of the dreams - not always noticeable, love line is not always central. The heroine has other worries besides a life - self-discovery, career, friendship.
Ms. Mansell's books are easy reading books, that pull you in to the lives of the characters and don't let go until you finish the story. She is known as a chick lit bestselling author with smart, sassy style. Jill Mansell's books have sold over five million copies .
Mansell grew up in the Cotswolds and attended Sir William Romney's School in Tetbury. After working at the Burden Neurological Institute in Bristol for many years she became a full-time writer in 1992. She lives in Bristol with her partner and children.
Jill Mansell's writing style, with its many levels of humor, its multiple plots, and intriguing characters, makes «A Walk in the Park», 2012, splendid reading. It is funny, sassy, and it lifts the spirit. Mansell knows how to create characters. It not only oozes modern romance, but also sarcasm and wit. Lots of situational humor, tragedy, and foresight that you wish the characters could see.
Jane Green (born in 1968 in London, England) is an U.S.-based British author. She attended the University of Wales, Aberystwyth and worked as a journalist throughout her twenties, writing women's features for The Daily Express, The Daily Mail, Cosmopolitan and others. She is also considered a founder of the genre known as chick lit. Jane Green has written 12 best selling novels all dealing with women and falling under the chick-lit genre. They even have (with Jill Mansell) the same title of one of the book - A Walk in The Park. Frequent themes in her most recent books include cooking, class wars, children, infidelity, and female friendship. She says she does not write about her life, but is inspired by the themes of her life. «Second Chance», 2007, was on the New York Times bestseller list for several weeks during the summer of 2008 .
Rachel Cusk was born in Canada in 1967 and spent much of her childhood in Los Angeles before finishing her education at St Mary's Convent in Cambridge. She read English at New College, Oxford, and has travelled extensively in Spain and Central America . Travel writing about Italy might be an oversubscribed genre, but The Last Supper more than earns its place at the table», - Celia Brayfield, The Times (London) says. The Last Supper is a wonderful travel book about life on the most famous art trail in the world, from one of Britain's most pre-eminent writers. 'Cusk is a natural and gifted writer from whom dazzling descriptions, analyses, metaphors and similies gush forth in rich profusion… delightful and perceptive.' - Daily Telegraph .
The Gardian asked the author: What do you mean by what you call «the feminist principle of autobiographical writing»? «I mean that there is, for me, a defensible principle of autobiography where female experience is concerned; defensible in the sense that I personally would defend my decision to write about my own life, against the accusation that it is merely so much self-obsession or is the product of a self-obsessed culture. If there is a disjuncture between how women live and how they actually feel - which to me there is, in motherhood and marriage - I will feel entitled to attempt to articulate it. And given that this disjuncture is usually deeply personal, and relates to a personalised problem with a generalised image, autobiography becomes the best possible form for this articulation to take», - she answered .
Lauren Weisberger (born 1977) is an American novelist and author of the 2003 bestseller The Devil Wears Prada, a speculated roman a clef of her real life experience as a put-upon assistant to Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour.
Helen Fielding (born 1958) is an English novelist and screenwriter, best known as the creator of the fictional character Bridget Jones, a sequence of novels and films that chronicle the life of a thirtysomething single woman in London as she tries to make sense of life and love .
Bridget Jones's Diary and Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason have been published in forty countries and sold over 15 million copies. The two movies of the same name have achieved worldwide success. Bridget Jones's Diary was named as one of the ten novels that best defined the 20th century, in a survey conducted by The Guardian newspaper.
In November 2012, Fielding announced she has begun writing the third instalment in the Bridget Jones' series, which is due to be published in Autumn 2013 .
On my opinion, one of the main stylistic features of the English women's writing is metonymy. The study of metonymy in these thee authors' writing is to illustrate the feature. I also wants to raise specific interest in the impact of one conceptual mechanism, metonymy, on the realization of a stylistically marked (expressive) meaning in the context of the genre.
2.2 The role of metonymy in the women's novels at the end of XX - the beginning of the XXI century
The function of metonymy in literature is to replace a noun with a figure of speech. This means replacing a word with another one. The replacing word is usually known within the culture, but may not be immediately obvious to second language speakers. Metonymy is used in rhetoric, literature and news reporting. An example of metonymy is the use of `Westminster' to mean the British government.
Metonymy is closely related to other phenomenon. This includes polysemy, kennings and synecdoche. Polysemy occurs when a word or phrase can have more than one meaning. Synecdoche occurs when a word meaning a part of something is used to mean the whole. An example of synecdoche is the use of keel to mean a whole boat or wheels to mean car.
Kennings are an old Anglo-Nordic literary device often found in old poetry. A kenning performs a similar function to the metonymy in literature. Instead of replacing word for word, the kenning replaces a noun with two words. Like metonymy, the kenning is a circumlocution, which uses words as tools. Examples of kennings include using `whale road' to mean `sea' and `wave steed' to mean `ship' .
According to Lakoff «Metonymy is one of the basic characteristics of cognition. It is extremely common for people to take one well-understood or easy-to perceive aspect of something and use it to stand either for the thing as a whole or for some other aspects or part of it» (Lakoff 1987). This means that metonymy can be an effective cognitive tool for accessing abstract things or things that are for some reason not mentally accessible in an easy way. Due to this central role that metonymy plays in cognition, the term was redefined to better fit the cognitive view. The new cognitive definition was that «Metonymy is a cognitive process in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides a mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same domain» (Kovecses 1998) .
Metonymy may take place not only when the name of the signified object is changed, but also when the function of the said object is changed within the syntax of a sentence. So, the inanimate nouns that occupy the position of a subject, by analogy with a nuclear sentence, must metonymically represent a semantic function of the agent of an action. In this case, when the position of the subject is utilized to fulfill a semantic function other than that of the agent of an action, we are dealing with functional metonymy .
Metonymy in many potential cases of personification in discourse can be illustrated by the following examples from fiction: `It's just a friendly letter, asking how you are. Valentine's Day brought two happy events.
They can also be resolved by a metonymic interpretation, in which happy events are events that make people happy and the letter was written by a person with friendly intentions who wrote this letter to ask how she is doing.
Metonymy also creates the effect of oral language. The practical essence of metonymy is that part of the situation is recognized by the other part being completed and the situation in general, or on the overall situation recognizable parts of it.
2.3 The features of metonymic expressions of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English in women's novels at the end of XX - the beginning of the XXI century
The examples below illustrate that in discourse, language users exploit the cognitive ability to metonymically infer via salient reference points. Complex frames, scripts, scenarios, which are stored in long-term memory, can be evoked by merely referring to a salient part of that frame and in much the same way a target referent can be accessed through a causally related reference point within the same frame.
From Jill Mansell's «A Walk in the Park» .
The redhead slid down - someone with red hair, in a previous line [44, p. 4]. I considered it as a special case of metonymy, part for the whole, metonymy expresses simple contiguous relations between objects, such as part-whole.
Your dad answered the door - answered the door ring [44, p. 7]. Abstract nouns denoting emotion condition, the process that are used instead of the name of the subject or object.
The offices smelled…dust and Pledge - brand, a cleaning product made by S.C. Johnson & Son [44, p. 9] - the name may becomе a common noun.
She had stood in Boots the Chemist - UK Limited (formerly Boots the Chemist) - is a pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom [44, p. 9], the name may becomе a common noun.
In front of the Aga - The AGA cooker is a heat storage stove and cooker [44, p. 13] - a common noun.
… a can of Diet Coke - called Coca-Cola Light in some territories, is a sugar-free soft drink produced and distributed by The Coca-Cola Company [44, p. 15], the same.
And nothing for Sotheby's - is a multinational corporation, originally English but now owned and headquartered in the United States, that is one of the world's largest auctioneers [44, p. 15] - the name may becomе a common noun.
The Georgian houses - houses look like the houses of King George epoch - the name become a common noun [44, p. 17].
The Buck's Fizz - is an alcoholic drink made of two parts orange juice to one part champagne. the name may becomе a common noun [44, p. 21].
She wouldn't be Beresford any more, she'd become Barber instead - the name may becomе a common noun [44, p. 21].
Having made his money in London's square mile - The City constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD. In this context it is also colloquially known as the «Square Mile» - some geographical names can also become common nouns through metonymy, in the context of British culture London and its components become a metonymy.
From Rachel Cusk's «The last supper. A summer in Italy» .
Men with Giotto faces [41, p. 54] - Giotto di Bondone, better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. The faces on his pictures had some features - a big nose, for example. The name of some person - Giotto di Bondone - becomе a common noun Giotto. Names of inventors very often become terms to denote things they invented: Giotto invented his style in painting.
She tells the table [41, p. 55] - She tells to all the guests sitting at the table - the part of the whole.
She wants to put an end to the tennis-watching, to the Brit-minding [41, p. 56] - product for process.
The Resurrections hang there - the pictures described Resurrection in museum [41, p. 58] - object used for user.
The Piazza is rounded [41, p. 179] - the Piazza San Pietro - the place for the institution, the main square for social events in the town, is known to hold 300,000 people.
The train was so pell-mell, so indifferent [41, p. 180] - the people in the train were indifferent, the part of the whole.
There was a storm in the English Channel» [41, p. 180] - when sick people pilgrimmed. Metonymy is a figure of speech, in which something (like rain) is used to stand for something else (like sorrow). For example, the film industry likes to use metonymy as a quick shorthand, so we often notice that it is raining in funeral scenes.
We have a tent. It is Tiziana's: she lent it for us [41, p. 183] - product of process.
… would sit in the Nottinghamshire evenings [41, p. 177] - the place for the event - it would change his life.
In our English reverence to Parmesan [41, p. 113] - the sort of cheese. Geographical name of Parma province becomes a common name of the cheese.
… in their Gucci sunglasses… [41, p. 172] - the name of some person may becomе a common noun, product for producer.
From Lauren Weisberger's «The Devil Wears Prada»  as to Gucci brand:
A pair of brown suede Gucci pants looked as though they could turn any schlub into a supermodel … and maybe even Gucci (because who hasn't heard of Gucci?) - the name of some person may becomе a common noun, product for producer.
From Helen Fielding's «Bridget Jones's Diary» .
The male hero bearing the same name as Austen's creation - Darcy. The name of a person may become common (some other women writers use it). This was underscored in the film by the use of the same actor for the role as played Darcy in the television film of «Pride and Prejudice».
There is a great reliance on brand names, which function almost metonymically as indicators of certain lifestyles; indeed, much of the humour depends upon the reader's ability to interpret these social markers correctly, to understand the semiotic significance of using a particular style of dress, car, hairstyle, for example: Patchouli, we are told `was wearing a crocheted midi-dress with a floppy straw hat and an orange Brinylon saddle-stitched blouse on top' [p. 214], which suddenly reveals her as a kind of New Age hippy. Brand names, which, after so many years of advertising, now function as metonyms for particular lifestyles - Bri-Nylon, Fantasy Toilets.
From Jane Green «Second Chance» .
…in the first-class lounge at LAX - the geographical name of the city may dtcome a common name of the chain of airports - Los Angeles (LAX) Star Alliance Lounge First Class Section [42, p. 270].
The was no Googling to find out about the Powwels - to serch in Google, the product of the process [42, p. 441].
There is lack of metonymy in this book.
In my term paper I investigated metonymy as the basis of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English phraseology.
In the First chapter I researched the definition of metonymy as a figurative use of language. Metonymy means a change of name. Metonymy - Greek metonumia, expressing change, name-change. The substitution of the name of an attribute of a thing for the name of the thing itself, as crown for king, city for inhabitants, Shakespeare for Shakespeare's plays.
Transference based on metonymy is a transfer of name from one object (phenomenon, thing, etc.) to another based on the contiguity of their properties, relations, etc. It is conditioned by close ties between the two objects, e.g., the metonymical transference in the PU a silk stocking meaning `a rich, well-done'.
The types of the metonymy are:
- the part for the whole;
- the face for the person;
- product for process;
- a punctuation mark;
- product for producer;
- controller for controlled;
- institution for people responsible;
- the place for the institution;
- the place for the event.
Despite the fact that the study of metonymy goes back to Aristotle, in the last twenty years, there is a rise of interest in metonymy. I studied the approach of ancient and modern linguists from ancient Greek to D. Lodge, R. Jakobson, Lakoff / Johnson etc.
In the Second chapter of the paper I studied metonymy features of the secondary nomination in the system of the contemporary English phraseology in
women's novels at the end of XX - the beginning of the XXI century of so-called chick-lit sub-genre. A short review of the genre is represented by its bestseller women authors and their novels:
- Jill Mansell's «A Walk in the Park»;
- Rachel Cusk's «The last supper. A summer in Italy»;
- Lauren Weisberger «The Devil Wears Prada»;
- Helen Fielding's «Bridget Jones's Diary»;
- Jane Green's «Second Chance».
The reason of metonymy secondary nomination in this subgenre corresponds with everyday life of women consumer culture, appearance, the concept of «success» career. Authors and heroines approach these questions with great humor and a fair amount of self-irony, that led to our interest in the works of this genre as a material for research.
Thus, the often types of metonymy in these novels are the cases when the name of some person may becomе a common noun - product for producer, geographical names become a common name, the place for the event, object used for user.
I considered, unmarked change of word category is one of the most productive ways for coining new words in English.
Metonymy involved in the completion of the conceptual and linguistic inventory as a result of cognitive operations already existing linguistic values.
Metonymy is one of the ways of the historical development of language and means of organizing synchronous language, one of the most productive means of increasing the vocabulary of the language and promotes linguistic world, which reflects the world view of a people, as enshrined in the existing meaning of words.
The practical significance of the study is that it collected the material and the findings can be used in the practice translation of modern English fiction, as well as teaching English.
Study of the problem of functional metonymy is not only important for the further development of the theory of metonymy but for dynamic use of language.
1. Арнольд И.В. Интерпретация английского художественного текста:
Лекция. - Л., 1983. - 40 с.
2. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык: Учебник для вузов. - 6-е изд. - М.: Флинта: Наука, 2004. - 384 с.
3. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка: Стилистика декодирования: Учебное пособие. - 3-е изд. - М.: Просвещение, 1990. - 301 c.
4. Арутюнова A. Метонимия/ Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь. - М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 1998. С. 300
5. Будагов, Р.А. Язык и речь в кругозоре человека / Р.А. Будагов. - М.: Добросвет-2000, 2000. - 304 с.
6. Гуревич B.B. English Stylistics. Стилистика английского языка. Учебное пособие - Москва: Флинта, 2011. - 72 с.
7. Дубенец Э.М. «Курс лекций и планы семинарских занятий по лексикологии английского языка» http://www.homeenglish.ru/Textdubenez.htm
8. Казакова Т.А. Практические основы перевода. СПб.: «Издательство Союз», 2001 г. - 320 с. Серия: Изучаем иностранные языки
9. Бадеева Е.Я. Метонимия имени в общественно-политической лексике английского языка: когнитивный и прагматический аспекты. Aвтореф. Дис.канд філ.наук, Владивосток, 2004. http://www.dissercat.com/content/metonimiya-imeni-v-obshchestvenno-politicheskoi-leksike-angliiskogo-yazyka-kognitivnyi-i-pra#ixzz2E1FeMCa4 http://www.dissercat.com/content/metonimiya-imeni-v-obshchestvenno-politicheskoi-leksike-angliiskogo-yazyka-kognitivnyi-i-pra#ixzz2E16tCrmx
10. Blank A. Co-presence and Succession. A Cognitive Typology of Metonymy / Electronic resource. - Режим доступа: [«http://www.psvc.leeds.ac.uk/cgi-bin/search /metaphorabstracts /abstract.pl? Blank AO
11. Gibbs Jr., Raymond W. (1999). «speaking and thinking with metyonymy», in pattern and process: a whiteheadina perspective on linguistics, ed. klaus-uwe panther and gunter radden
12. Cruse A.D. Meaning in Language. An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics / A.D. Cruse. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. - 424 p.
13. Goossens L. Metaphtonymy: the Interaction of Metaphor and Metonymy in Expressions for Linguistic Actions / L. Goossens // Cognitive Linguistics. - 1990. -1-3 - P. 323-340.
14. Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh, p. 245
15. Luigi A. The Definition of Metonymy in Ancient Greece http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-144718131/the-definition-of-metonymy-in-ancient-greece.
16. Tompkins P. and Lawley J. Metonymy and Part-Whole Relationships
Размещено на Allbest.ru
General characteristics of the stylistic features of English articles, the main features. Analysis of problems the article in English as one of the most difficult. Meet the applications of the definite article, consideration of the main examples.
доклад [15,8 K], добавлен 28.04.2013
Comparison of understanding phraseology in English, American and post-Soviet vocabulary. Features classification idiomatic expressions in different languages. The analysis of idiomatic expressions denoting human appearance in the English language.
курсовая работа [30,9 K], добавлен 01.03.2015
Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary school. Current concepts in secondary school graduates EFL. Psychological analysis of Gardner's Theory. Learning environment in teaching English conversation.
дипломная работа [71,5 K], добавлен 20.11.2004
Definition and classification of English sentences, their variety and comparative characteristics, structure and component parts. Features subordination to them. Types of subordinate clauses, a sign of submission to them, their distinctive features.
курсовая работа [42,6 K], добавлен 06.12.2015
Different definitions and types of metaphor, stylistic use. Metaphor compared as metonymy. Stylistic use of metaphor in the play "Heartbreak House" by Bernard Shaw. The metaphor is one of the most used stylistic devices in literature and language.
курсовая работа [40,3 K], добавлен 19.09.2013
From the history of notion and definition of neologism. Neologisms as markers of culture in contemporary system of language and speech. Using of the neologisms in different spheres of human activity. Analysis of computer neologisms in modern English.
научная работа [72,8 K], добавлен 13.08.2012
The structure of words and word-building. The semantic structure of words, synonyms, antonyms, homonyms. Word combinations and phraseology in modern English and Ukrainian languages. The Native Element, Borrowed Words, characteristics of the vocabulary.
курс лекций [95,2 K], добавлен 05.12.2010
Regarding the development stages of the education system in England XIX - XXI century. The system of primary and secondary education in England. The traditional base of British higher education system of universities, polytechnic schools and colleges.
презентация [509,1 K], добавлен 20.12.2013
Kinds of synonyms and their specific features. Distributional features of the English synonyms. Changeability and substitution of meanings. Semantic and functional relationship in synonyms. Interchangeable character of words and their synonymy.
дипломная работа [64,3 K], добавлен 10.07.2009
Irony, as a widely used figure of speech, received considerable attention from linguists. The ways of joining words and the semantic correlation of words and phrases. Classification of irony and general distinctions between metaphor, metonymy and irony.
реферат [20,5 K], добавлен 05.02.2011