The Main Song, Or What Is There in Your Words?

A hymn as a type of solemn song, usually religious, written for the purpose of praise. The National Anthem of England, Scotland. "The Star-Spangled Banner", "Advance Australia Fair", "God Defend New Zealand". Investigation of the Song "Priozersk".

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The Main Song, Or What Is There in Your Words?

1. Basis of the Subject Choice

An anthem, along with a coat of arms and flag, is an official symbol of each country. It sounds in orchestra or choir performing on special occasions: during the award ceremonies, taking the military oath, at the meetings of official delegations, during sports events, opening of various congresses, etc. The music of anthems reflects the spirit of nations.

Learning the lyrics of the National Anthem of Russia I discovered that it is full of special words which appeal to the sense of patriotism; listening to the anthems of foreign countries I was interested if there are such special words in them as well and which of them are the most common. So, I made up my mind to make an acquaintance with the anthems of the English-speaking countries to know more about them.

Working on my project I came across the information that a lot of cities and towns all over the world have got their own main songs and I was wondering if our town has got a special song as well. I'll develop this idea in the second part of my work.

2. Goals and Objectives

to learn information about the national anthems of Great Britain, the USA,

Canada, Australia and New Zealand;

to investigate the anthems of the countries to know if they are patriotic;

to know if our town has got a special song which can be named as its anthem

3. A Hymn or an Anthem

A hymn is a type of solemn song, usually religious, written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer and typically addressed to a deity or deities or to a prominent figure. The solemn songs can be national, religious, military as well. The word hymn is of Greek origin. It derives from the word hymnos which means a song of praise. In ancient times a hymn honored the gods and heroes. Centuries passed, and the songs of praise changed. Their contents began to glorify noble and lofty ideas. These songs were known as anthems.

4. British Anthems

God Save the Queen

God Save the Queen (alternatively God Save the King during the reign of a male sovereign) is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies. The words and title are adapted to the gender of the current monarch, i.e. replacing Queen with King, she with he, and so forth, when a king reigns. The author of the tune is unknown, and it may originate in plainchant, but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made.

God Save the Queen is the de facto British national anthem and also has this role in some British territories. It is one of two national anthems for New Zealand (since 1977) and for several of Britain's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is the royal anthem of Australia (since 1984), Canada (since 1980), Barbados and Tuvalu. In countries not previously part of the British Empire, the tune of God Save the Queen has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony. In the United States, the British anthem's melody is used for the patriotic My Country, 'Tis of Thee.

Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, it has many historic and extant versions: Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and, even today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung. Sometimes two verses are sung, and on rare occasions, three.

The sovereign and his or her consort are saluted with the entire anthem, while other members of the royal family who are entitled to royal salute (such as the Prince of Wales) receive just the first six bars. The first six bars also form all or part of the Vice Regal Salutein some Commonwealth realms outside the UK (e.g., in Canada, governors general and lieutenant governors at official events are saluted with the first six bars of God Save the Queen followed by the first four and last four bars of O Canada), as well as the salute given to governors of British overseas territories.

In The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes points out the similarities to an early plainsong melody, although the rhythm is very distinctly that of a galliard, and he gives examples of several such dance tunes that bear a striking resemblance to God Save the King/Queen. Scholes quotes a keyboard piece by John Bull (1619) which has some similarities to the modern tune, depending on the placing of accidentals which at that time were unwritten in certain cases and left to the discretion of the player (see musica ficta). He also points to several pieces by Henry Purcell, one of which includes the opening notes of the modern tune, set to the words God Save the King. George Frideric Hndel used the tune as the theme in the variation piece 'Sarabande' of his Suite No.4 in E minor, HWV 429, composed prior to 1720. Nineteenth century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, Remember O Thou Man was the source of the tune.

The first published version of what is almost the present tune appeared in 1744 in Thesaurus Musicus. The 1744 version of the song was popularised in Scotland and England the following year, with the landing of Charles Edward Stuart and was published in The Gentleman's. This manuscript has the tune depart from that which is used today at several points, one as early as the first bar, but is otherwise clearly a strong relative of the contemporary anthem. It was recorded as being sung in London theatres in 1745, with, for example, Thomas Arne writing a setting of the tune for the Drury Lane Theatre.

God save our gracious Queen,

Long live our noble Queen,

God save the Queen!

Send her victorious,

Happy and glorious,

Long to reign over us,

God save the Queen!

O lord our God arise,

Scatter her enemies,

And make them fall!

Confound their knavish tricks,

Confuse their politics,

On you our hopes we fix,

God save us all!

Not in this land alone,

But be God's mercies known,

From shore to shore!

Lord makes the nation see,

That man should brothers be,

And form one family,

The wide world over.

From every latent foe,

From the assassins blow,

God save the Queen!

O'er her thine arm e [tend,

For Britain's sake defend,

Our mother, prince, and friend,

God save the Queen!

Thy choicest gifts in store,

On her be pleased to pour,

Long may she reign!

May she defend our laws,

And ever give us cause,

To sing with heart and voice,

God save the our Queen!

The National Anthem of England

Although this anthem can identify with the whole of the UK by references to one empire Wider a till and wider, a shall thy bounds be set, it is also the unofficial national anthem of England, and is used for the English teams at the Commonwealth Gamed, though the English national football and rugby teams use God Save the Queen. The music is part of Elgar's Pomp & Circumstance March No. 1


Land of Hope and Glory,

Mother of the free,

How shall we extol thee,

Who are born of thee?

Wider still and wider,

Shall thy bounds be set,

God who made thee mighty,

Make thee mighrier yet!

God who made thee mighty,

Make thee mighrier yet.

Scotland's National Anthem

Although modern, this anthem commemorates the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 when the Scottish Army under Robert I (the Bruce) King of Scots defeated Edward II (of Canarfon) King of England. This ended the English rule of Scotland. Ironically in 1603 Elizabeth I, Queen of England, Wales, Ireland and France died childless and her second cousin James VI King of Scots ascended to the English throne. Thus marriage achieved what the force of arms could not.

O Flower of Scotland

When will we see

Your like again,

That fought and died for

Your wee bit Hill and Glen,

And stood against him,

Proud Edward's army,

And sent him homeward,

Tae think again.

The Hills are bare now,

And autumn leaves

Lie thick and still,

O'er land that is lost now,

Which those so dearly held,

That stood against him,

Proud Edward's army,

And sent him homeward,

Tae think again.

Those days are past now,

And in the past

They must remain,

But we can still rise now,

And be the nation again,

That stood against him,

Proud Edward's army,

And sent him homeward,

Tae think again.

Flower of Scotland,

When will we see

Your like again,

That fought and died for

Your wee bit Hill and Glen,

And stood against him,

Proud Edward's army,

And sent him homeward,

Tae think again.

5. The Star-Spangled Banner

The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. The lyrics come from Defense of Fort M'Henry, a poem written in 1814 by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet, Francis Scott Key, after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake Bay during the Battle of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812.

The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. The Anacreontic Song (or To Anacreon in Heaven), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed The Star-Spangled Banner, it would soon become a well-known American patriotic song. With a range of one and a half octaves, it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

The Star-Spangled Banner was recognized for official use by the Navy in 1889, and by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931, which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. Hail, Columbia served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. My Country, 'Tis of Thee, whose melody is identical to God Save the Queen, the British national anthem, also served as a de facto anthem. Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs would emerge to compete for popularity at public events, among them The Star-Spangled Banner.

The song gained popularity throughout the 19th century and bands played it during public events, such as July 4th celebrations. On July 27, 1889, Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy signed General Order 374, making The Star-Spangled Banner the official tune to be played at the raising of the flag.

In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that The Star-Spangled Banner be played at military and other appropriate occasions. The playing of the song two years later during the seventh-inning stretch of the 1918 World Series, and thereafter during each game of the series is often noted as the first instance that the anthem was played at a baseball game, though evidence shows that the Star-Spangled Banner was performed as early as 1897 at opening day ceremonies in Philadelphia and then more regularly at the Polo Grounds in New York City beginning in 1898. In any case, the tradition of performing the national anthem before every baseball game began in World War II. Today, the anthem is performed before the beginning of all MLS, NBA, NFL, MLB and NHL games (when at least one American team is playing), as well as in a pre-race ceremony portion of every NASCAR and AMA motocross race.

On November 3, 1929, Robert Ripley drew a panel in his syndicated cartoon, Ripley's Believe it or Not!, saying Believe It or Not, America has no national anthem. In 1931, John Philip Sousa published his opinion in favor, stating that it is the spirit of the music that inspires as much as it is Key's soul-stirring words. By a law signed on March 3, 1931 by President Herbert Hoover, The Star-Spangled Banner was adopted as the national anthem of the United States of America.

O say can you see by the dawn's early light,

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,

Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,

O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?

And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;

O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave,

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,

Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,

What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,

As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?

Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,

In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:

'Tis the star-spangled banner, O! long may it wave

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore

That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,

A home and a country, should leave us no more?

Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.

No refuge could save the hireling and slave

From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:

And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand

Between their loved home and the war's desolation.

Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n rescued land

Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,

And this be our motto: In God is our trust.

And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

6. O Canada

O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Thodore Robitaille for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony; Calixa Lavalle wrote the music as a setting of a French Canadian patriotic poem composed by poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The lyrics were originally in French and translated into English in 1906. Robert Stanley Weir wrote in 1908 another English version, which is the official and most popular version, one that is not a literal translation of the French. Weir's lyrics have been revised twice, taking their present form in 1980, but the French lyrics remain unaltered. O Canada had served as a de facto national anthem since 1939, officially becoming Canada's national anthem in 1980 when the Act of Parliament making it so received Royal Assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Daycelebrations.

It has been noted that the opening theme of O Canada bears a strong resemblance to the March of the Priests from the opera The Magic Flute, composed in 1791 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and that Lavalle's melody was inspired by Mozart's tune. The line The True North strong and free is based on Alfred, Lord Tennyson's description of Canada as that true North, whereof we lately heard / A strain to shame us. In the context of Tennyson's poem To the Queen, the word true means loyal or faithful.

The lyrics and melody of O Canada are both in the public domain, a status unaffected by the trademarking of the phrases with glowing hearts and des plus brillants exploits for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Two provinces have adopted Latin translations of phrases from the English lyrics as their mottos: Manitoba - Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and Free) and Alberta - Fortis et Liber (Strong and Free).

7. Advance Australia Fair

Advance Australia Fair is the official national anthem of Australia. Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878, and was sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It did not gain its status as the official anthem until 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national anthem in 1977. Other songs and marches have been influenced by Advance Australia Fair, such as the Australian vice-regal salute.

Advance Australia Fair was composed in the late 19th century by Peter Dodds McCormick under the pen-name Amicus (which means friend in Latin). It was first performed by Andrew Fairfax at a Highland Society function in Sydney on 30 November 1878. The song quickly gained popularity and an amended version was sung by a choir of around 10,000 at the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. In 1907 the Australian Government awarded McCormick 100 for his composition.

In a letter to R.B. Fuller, dated 1 August 1913, McCormick described the circumstances that inspired him to write Advance Australia Fair:

One night I attended a great concert in the Exhibition Building, when all the National Anthems of the world were to be sung by a large choir with band accompaniment. This was very nicely done, but I felt very aggravated that there was not one note for Australia. On the way home in a bus, I concocted the first verse of my song & when I got home I set it to music. I first wrote it in the Tonic Sol-fa notation, then transcribed it into the Old Notation, & I tried it over on an instrument next morning, & found it correct. Strange to say there has not been a note of it altered since. Some alteration has been made in the wording, but the sense is the same. It seemed to me to be like an inspiration, & I wrote the words & music with the greatest ease.

The earliest known sound recording of Advance Australia Fair appears in The Landing of the Australian Troops in Egypt, a short commercial recording dramatising the arrival of Australian troops in Egypt en route to Gallipoli.

Before its adoption as Australia's national anthem, Advance Australia Fair had considerable use elsewhere. For example, Australia's national broadcaster, the Australian Broadcasting Commission, used it to announce its news bulletins until 1952. It was also frequently played at the start or end of official functions. Towards the end of World War II it was played in picture theatres after God Save the King and the American national anthem.

8. God Defend New Zealand

New Zealand has two official national anthems: God Defend New Zealand and God Save the Queen. Legally they have equal status, but God Defend New Zealand is more commonly used, and is popularly referred to as the national anthem.

God Save the Queen was the sole national anthem until 1977, but is now most often only played when the sovereign, Governor-General or other member of the Royal Family is present, or on some occasions such as Anzac Day.

God Defend New Zealand was written by Thomas Bracken in the 1870s, and in 1940 the New Zealand government bought the copyright and made it New Zealand's national hymn in time for that year's centennial celebrations. It was used at the British Empire Games from 1950 onward, and at the Olympics from 1972. Following the performance at the Munich games, a campaign began to have the song adopted as the national anthem.

In 1976 a petition was presented to Parliament asking God Defend New Zealand to be made the national anthem, and, with the permission of Queen Elizabeth II, it became the country's second national anthem on 21 November 1977, on equal standing with God Save the Queen.

Some other Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia use God Save the Queen, but unlike New Zealand, it is not the co-official national anthem in those countries. It is regarded as a royal anthem, and is used only on monarchy-related occasions. However, the actual uses in those countries are similar to use in New Zealand because New Zealand uses God Save the Queen almost only in occasions associate with the monarchy now.

Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency forms the Realm of New Zealand along with New Zealand proper and have separate anthems.

Te Atua Mou E and Ko e Iki he Lagi are anthems of Cook Islands and Niue, respectively. Tokelau uses God Save the Queen as its sole national anthem. The Ross Dependency uses the national anthems of New Zealand.

God of nations! At thy feet

In the bonds of love we meet,

Hear our voices, we entreat,

God defend our Free Land.

Guard Pacific's triple star,

From the shafts of strife and war,

Make her praises heard afar,

God defend New Zealand

Men of ev'ry creed and race

Gather here before Thy face,

Asking Thee to bless this place,

God defend our Free Land.

From dissension, envy, hate,

And corruption guard our State,

Make our country good and great,

God defend New Zealand.

Peace, not war, shall be our boast,

But, should foes assail our coast,

Make us then a mighty host,

God defend our Free Land.

Lord of battles in thy might,

Put our enemies to flight,

Let our cause be just and right,

God defend New Zealand

Let our love for Thee increase,

May Thy blessings never cease,

Give us plenty, give us peace,

God defend our Free Land.

From dishonor and from shame

Guard our country's spotless name

Crown her with immortal fame,

God defend New Zealand.

May our mountains ever be

Freedom's ramparts on the sea,

Make us faithful unto Thee,

God defend our Free Land.

Guide her in the nations' van,

Preaching love and truth to man,

Working out Thy Glorious plan,

God defend New Zealand.

9. Investigation Part I

Investigation of the Anthems

When I was listening to the English-speaking countries' anthems I was wondering what patriotic words they have and if the anthems are similar to each other. I decided to explore five of them: the national anthems of Great Britain, the USA, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

I have investigated the state anthems of these countries thoroughly, and I have found that each word, each line of them can be an example of patriotic ideas.

For instance, in God Save the Queen people's values of unity and brotherhood are expressed in the following lines:

Lord makes the nation see,

That man should brothers be,

And form one family,

The wide world over.

In Advance Australia Fair we can find the same idea:

For those who've come across the seas

We've boundless plains to share;

With courage let us all combine

To advance Australia fair.

In God Defend New Zealand people ask the God to defend them and their country from the most horrible evils that may face the society:

God defend our Free Land.

From dissension, envy, hate,

And corruption guard our State

From dishonor and from shame

They ask,

Make our country good and great,

God defend New Zealand.

The anthems are very peaceful, they are not warlike.

In God Defend New Zealand we can read:

Guard Pacific's triple star,

From the shafts of strife and war

Peace, not war, shall be our boast,

But, should foes assail our coast,

Make us then a mighty host,

God defend our Free Land.

People are proud of their native land and brave people:

in Advance Australia Fair:

Our land abounds in nature's gifts

Of beauty rich and rare;

In history's page, let every stage

Advance Australia Fair!

in The Star-Spangled Banner:

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,

And this be our motto: In God is our trust.

And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

The state anthem O Canada is a real triumph of patriotism:

O Canada!

Our home and native land!

True patriot love in all thy sons command.

With glowing hearts we see thee rise

The True North strong and free!

I have found that the anthems of the English-speaking countries have some key words as well.

The words home - and land - are used in all of the anthems.

The words victory - , peace - and heart - are used in three of them.

The words glorious - , , God - and free - are used in two of them.

And in Russian anthem we can see the same words , and .

That's why we can say that the national anthems are the solemn, patriotic songs which glorify things dear to our hearts: home, land, peace, God, victory, freedom.

10. Investigation Part II

Investigation of the Song

Nowadays not only countries have their own anthems but a lot of cities and towns have got them as well. I decided to know if the town of Priozersk, my native town, has got an official anthem. I asked some officials to answer this question; their answer was No.

Then I held an opinion poll among the students of our school. Fifty-seven students of the 7th and 11th forms answered the following questions:

1) Has our town got an official anthem?

A) Yes - 35% B) No - 65%

2) If you have answered Yes, the question Do you know its lyrics? is for you.

A) Yes - 0% B) No - 100%

3) Has our town got an unofficial anthem?

A) Yes - 95% B) No - 5%

4) If you have answered Yes.

What song is considered to be an unofficial anthem of the town of Priozersk?

Don't know - 5%

The song Priozersk - 95%

5) When was it performed for the first time?

In 1980s - 1990s - 20%

Don't know - 75%

Other answers - 5%

So, I decided to try to answer the last question in my investigation.

I set a goal to find a person who wrote the song Priozersk.

I have found him. And he is Alexander Fokin, the former student of our school. Sometimes we exchange e-mails with him. I asked Alexander to tell me when, how and why he wrote the song Priozersk. Here what Alexander has written: The song Priozersk was written in 1987. I was only 17 then. I have forgotten what gave me an idea of this song, but the first line Priozersk, Priozersk, it's my lovely place of birth was written very easily. Then came two couplets and that year my friends and I visited Karkaralinsk. And there the song was performed for the first time.

Alexander modestly said that he considered the song to be the anthem of Priozersk. All the boys who were in Karkaralinsk loved it. They sang the song everywhere they could using only two guitars. At that time Aleksander Fokin desired to finish writing the song but he couldn't line up the words. In the year of 1988 Alexander was going to finish our school and he worried about parting with his native town. And then he wrote these words I will part with you some day. Then he showed the song to their school group CHANCE. They were happy to arrange it immediately and the song started its life as something already integral and finished. The first performance of this song was made in 1988 by Andrei Antonov who also played the guitar. Andrei Pankov played the synthesizer, Eugene Goloshchapov played the bass guitar and Aleksander Fokin played the drums. All people who were listening to this song loved it. Love to his native town and, of course, love to his girlfriend inspired Alexander Fokin for writing our favourite song Priozersk.


There are a lot of songs which people love dearly or don't love them at all, or they are simply indifferent to them. There are songs whose lyrics people know very well and those they know only two or three lines, or simply can't remember any of them.

But there are songs we appreciate, worship and esteem, songs whose lyrics we ought to know because these songs are known as the main songs of the countries or national anthems. National anthems glorify God, kings, queens, native land, freedom, victory over enemies, greatness of the country, its strength and might, greatness of nation's spirit; they express people's wishes and hopes. Each line of them is an example of patriotic spirit.

And, of course, there are songs which are known to a small group of people; songs which you can't listen to on the radio or TV, but they are dear to people's hearts and minds because they are songs about the places where they were born and where they are living now - about their native towns.

song hymn solemn fair

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