Adverbs in the literature as an example the story of Jack London's "White Fang"

Definition of adverb, its importance as part of the language, different classifications of famous linguists, such as: classification of adverbs according to their meaning, form, function in a sentence. Considered false adverbs and their features.

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1.1 The Notion of Adverb in English Grammar

a). Classification of Adverbs According to Their Structure

b). Classification of Adverbs According to Their Meaning

1.2 The Syntactic Functions of Adverbs

1.3 Parenthetical Adverbs and Their Peculiarities

a). The Peculiarities of Parenthetical Adverbs

b). Evaluative Adverbs as Subtype of Parenthetical Adverbs






Having been neglected for a long time, adverbs and adverbials have recently moved into the center of attention of quite a number of syntaxicians and semanticists. Adverbs provide an interesting field for study. Having once been identified as `perhaps the least studied and most maligned part of speech', the adverb has been widely investigated since, with little agreement arising. In English, adverbs seem to be both freely occurring and highly restricted in terms of distribution. Theories have been put forth in both the syntactic and semantic realms proposing dependency of adverb placement on specialized rules that access certain semantic factors of the adverbs themselves, on feature checking with predetermined nodes of attachment, and on scoping relations amongst adverbs themselves and amongst adverbs and verbs.

Among the disputable question of the structure of Modern English the problem of classification of adverbs is one of the most important, the one which is very complex and seem to be relevant to a number of aspects. The problems of defining adverbs as a class constitutes one of the stumbling-blocks in studying the language, because they comprise a most heterogeneous group of words, and there is considerable overlap between the class and other word classes. They have many kinds of form, meaning and function.

There exist a large amount of literature on this topic. Resent years were marked with a special interest to problem of distinguishing different classifications and functions of adverbs. Works of modern linguists helps us to understand the problem. Still most of the aspects appear to be disputable.

The variety of approaches to the problem of classification of adverbs, the peculiarities of using them, and distinguishing different functions of adverbs have determined the subject matter of this research.

The aim of research consists in the frequency of using different types of adverbs and identifying their functions in the language.

The objective is to investigate the variety of forms of adverbs, to discover the frequency of using adverbs in different functions .

Practical part is based on the selections of the examples from “White Fang ” by Jack London.

The course paper consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusions, resume and list of reference materials.

Chapter one deals with the theoretical approaches to the problem under study.

Chapter two contains the analysis of the examples selected from literary sources.

The results of research are found in Conclusions.

The Resume contains short overview of the course paper.

In List of references the books used in the research are listed.

Chapter 1. Meaning and Functions of Adverbs in Modern English

1.1 The notion of adverb in English grammar

The etymology of the word 'adverb' is the Latin 'ad-' meaning 'to' and 'uerbum', a verb or word. An adverb is usually attached to a verb, modifying or qualifying it. It tells us the way in which the action of the verb is carried out. It may also modify an adjective.

So the adverb is usually defined as a word expressing either property of an action, or property of another property, or circumstances in which an action occurs. This definition, though certainly informative and instructive, fails to directly point out the relation between the adverb and the adjective as the primary qualifying part of speech.

In an attempt to overcome this drawback, let us define the adverb as a notional word expressing a non-substantive property, that is, a property of a non-substantive referent. This formula immediately shows the actual correlation between the adverb and the adjective, since the adjective is a word expressing a substantive property.

Properties may be of a more particular, "organic" order, and a more general and detached, "inorganic" order. Of the organic properties, the adverb denotes those characterizing processes and other properties. Of the inorganic properties, the adverb denotes various circumstantial characteristics of processes or whole situations built around processes.

The above definition, approaching the adverb as a word of the secondary qualifying order, presents the entire class of adverbial words as the least self-dependent of all the four notional parts of speech. Indeed, as has been repeatedly pointed out, the truly complete nominative value is inherent only in the noun, which is the name of substances. The verb comes next in its self-dependent nominative force, expressing processes as dynamic relations of substances, i.e. their dynamic relational properties in the broad sense. After that follow qualifying parts of speech -- first the adjective denoting qualifications of substances, and then the adverb denoting qualifications of non-substantive phenomena which find themselves within the range of notional signification.

As we see, the adverb is characterized by its own, specific nominative value, providing for its inalienable status in the system of the parts of speech. Hence, the complaints of some linguists that the adverb is not rigorously defined and in fact presents something like a "dump" for those words which have been rejected by other parts of speech can hardly be taken as fully justified. On the other hand, since the adverb does denote qualifications of the second order, not of the first one like the adjective, it includes a great number of semantically weakened words which are in fact intermediate between notional and functional lexemes by their status and often display features of pronominal nature.

So we may say that the adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or characteristics.

From this definition it is difficult to define adverbs as a class, because they comprise a most heterogeneous group of words, and there is considerable overlap between the class and other word classes. They have many kinds of form, meaning and function. Alongside such undoubtful adverbs as here, now, often, seldom, always, there are many others which all function as words of other classes. Thus, adverbs like dead (dead tired), clear (to get clear away), clean (I've clean forgotten), slow, easy (he would say that slow and easy) coincide with corresponding adjectives (a dead body, clear waters, clean hands). Adverbs like past, above are homonymous with prepositions. There is also a special group of pronominal adverbs when, when how, why used either as interrogative words or as connectives to introduce subordinate clauses.

1.2 Classification of adverbs

a). Classification of adverbs according to their structure

Adverbs comprise a most heterogeneous group of words. They have many kinds of form and meaning. That's why there are many classifications of adverbs. There are several classifications of adverbs made by different scholars. And they differ from each other, representing various points of view conserning the way of classification. Adverbs vary in their structure.

Accordingly, Professor V. L. Kaushanskaya classified adverbs according to their word-building structure into simple and derived. [9, p. 143]

Simple adverbs are rather few, and nearly all of them display functional semantics, mostly of pronominal character: here, there, now, then, so, quite, why, how, where, when.

In derived adverbs the most common suffix is -ly, by means of which new adverbs are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately, immediately, constantly, purely, slowly, charmingly.

The less common suffixes are the following:

-wise clockwise, crabwise, corkscrew -wise, education-wise

-ward(s) onward(s), backward(s), homeward(s), eastward(s)

-fold twofold, manifold

-like warlike

-most innermost, outermost

-way(s) longways, sideways

The first two of these suffixes are more productive than the rest.

Compound adverbs are formed of two stems: sometimes, somewhere, everywhere, downstairs, etc.

Composite phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-forms, as a great deal, a little bit, far enough, now and then, from time to time, sort of, kind of, a hell of, a lot of, a great deal of.

As adverbs make up a rather complicated group of words varying widely

in form and distribution there is one more classification of adverbs according to their structure.

Considered in their morphemic structure, Rayevskaya classified adverbs

in eight groups. [10, p. 115]

1--2. The two largest groups are those formed from derived and base adjectives by adding the suffix -ly, e. g.: hopefully, physically, strangely, falsely, etc.

3. The third group consists of those that are formed by means of the derivational prefix -a (phonemically [?]) to nouns, adjectives or verbs. Of about sixty of them in more or less common use nearly half are formed from nouns: e.g. aboard, aside, away, etc.

The rest are about equally divided among those formed from verbs, e. g.: amiss, astir; from adjectives -- anew, abroad.

In traditional grammars such words are generally classed as both adjectives and adverbs and they are so listed in most dictionaries, which seems hardly justified since from the structural point of view none of them can fit the basic adjective position between determiner and noun. (We cannot say the aloud voice or the adrift boat) .

4. The fourth size of rapid growth includes those formed by adding the derivational suffix -wise to nouns.

A few adverbs of this type are well-established words like clockwise, otherwise, likewise; others are recent coinages or nonce words like crabwise and actor-wise. In American English the suffix -wise is most active and can be more freely attached to many nouns to create adverbs like personnel-wise. Such forms are recognized in writing by the use of the hyphen.

5. Then comes a smaller group of adverbs formed by the addition of the derivational suffix -ward(s) to a limited group of nouns; home-ward(s), forward(s), backward(s). Most adverbs of this group have two forms, one with the final s and one without, variously distributed. The forms without s are homonymous with adjectives: the backward child, he looked backward.

6. Next we come to a group of adverbs formed by combining the pronouns some, any, every and no with a limited number of nouns or pronominal adverbs, such as: someplace, anyway, everywhere, nowhere, etc. , There are fewer than twenty of these in common use.

7. Another relatively small group of adverbs includes those that are formally identical with prepositions: about, around, before, down, in, inside, over, on, etc.

8. The last group of adverbs is the miscellaneous class of those that have no formal signals at all to distinguish them in isolation; we know them as adverbs because of their positions in utterances, in which the other parts of speech are clearly identifiable. Many adverbs in this group are fairly frequent in occurrence: always, now, then, here, there, often, seldom, still, even. Others in this group are words which may also appear as other parts of speech, such as: downstairs, home, late, little, fast, slow, early, far, near.

A word should be said about adverb-qualifiers. Among adverbs there are some which have degrees of comparison and others which have not.

Adverbs in the comparative degree, whether formed by adding the suffix -er or analytically by adding more and most may take the same qualifiers that comparative adjectives do, e. g.: still more difficult, a little louder.

The adverbial meaning can be intensified by adding right, far, by far, e. g.: far ahead, right ahead, far better, better by far, far down, far below, etc.

Intensity of adverbial meaning may also be produced by the use of full and well as intensifies. The latter are survivals of Old English and less frequent in present-day use, e. g: He was well out of sight; well ahead, etc.

A special point of linguistic interest is presented by the development of "merged" or "separable" adverbs. The term "merged" is meant here to bring out the fact that such separable compounds are lexically and grammatically indivisible and form a single idea.

Considered in their structure, such "separable" compounds may be classified as follows:

a) preposition + noun: at hand, at home, by heart, on horseback,
[on foot (= by foot -- arch.), in turn, to date;

noun + preposition + noun: arm in arm, day by day, day after day, day to day, face to face, word for word, year by year;

preposition + substantivized adjective: at last, at first, at large, in large, in full, in quiet, in short, in vain, of late, of old;

preposition + verbal noun made through conversion: at a guess, at a run, in a rush, on the move, on the run;

preposition + numeral: at first, at once, at one, by twos;

coordinate adverbs: by and by, on and off (== off and on), on and on;

g) pronoun + adjective (or participle): all right, all told, 0. K- (all

h) preposition + pronoun: after all, in all, at all.

In point of fact most adverbs of that kind may be reasonably referred to as grammatical idioms. This can be seen, for instance, in the unusual absence of the article before their noun components and specialized use of the noun in its singular form only: on foot (but not on the foot, or on feet which may occur in tree prepositional word-groups), in fact (but not in the fact), at first (but not at the first), etc.

b) Classification of adverbs according to their meaning

According to their meaning, Morokhovskaya divides adverbs into the following groups:

adverbs of time: now, then, yesterday, lately, already, soon, yet, afterwards, presently, immediately, eventually, suddenly, at once, when, etc.

E.g. He is coming tomorrow.

Adverbs of time may be subdivided as follows:

Of time present: now, yet, today, nowadays, presently, instantly, immediately, straightway, directly, forthwith.

Of time past: already, just now, lately, recently, yesterday, formerly, anciently, once, since, till now, long ago.

Of time to come: tomorrow, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by-and-by, soon, shortly.

Of time relative: when, then, first, just, before, after, while, whilst, meanwhile, as, till, until, seasonably, betimes, early, late, whenever, afterward, afterwards, otherwhile, otherwhiles.

Of time absolute: always, ever, never, aye, eternally, forever, perpetually, continually, incessantly, endlessly, evermore, everlastingly.

Of time repeated: often, oft, again, occasionally, frequently, sometimes, seldom, rarely, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, annually, once, twice, thrice, or three times. Above this, we use only the phrases four times, five times, six times. Whether these ought to be reckoned adverbs, or not, is questionable: times, for repetitions, or instances, may be supposed a noun; but such phrases often appear to be used adverbially.

2) adverbs of frequency: often, seldom, sometimes, always, hardly ever, never, constantly, occasionally, twice, three times, etc.

E.g. He is always in time for meals.

They sometimes stay up all night.

3) adverbs of place or direction: here, there, everywhere, downstairs, below, ashore, abroad, inside, outside, seaward(s), to and fro, backwards, where, etc.

E.g. I looked for him everywhere.

It was all rather dark within.

A dog began to bark somewhere inside.

The use of somewhere, anywhere and nowhere in different kinds of sentences is similar to the use of the corresponding indefinite pronouns some, any and no.

4) adverbs of manner: well, badly, fast, quickly, clearly, deeply, sincerely, willingly, sideways, somehow, how, etc.

E.g. He speaks English well.

George played very badly in the match yesterday.

Adverbs of manner saying how an action is performed can freely occur with dynamic verbs, but not with stative verbs.

E.g. He looked into the problem carefully.

He walked upstairs quietly.

The boy blushed violently.

5) adverbs of degree or intensifiers: very, quite, extremely, somewhat, really, enough, too, pretty, so, rather, unusually, terribly, highly, perfectly, much, completely, nearly, etc.

E.g. I quite agree with you.

He is very clever.

He did it quickly enough.

Adverbs of degree or intensifiers may be subdivided into three semantic groups:

a) emphasizers (emphasizing the truth of the communication): really, actually, clearly, definitely, indeed, plainly, simply, literally, fust, at all, etc.

E.g. I really don't know what he wants.

I just can't understand it.

You haven't done it well at all.

b) amplifiers (expressing a high degree): absolutely, altogether, completely, entirely, extremely, fully, perfectly, quite, thoroughly, utterly, very, much, badly, bitterly, deeply, (by) far, greatly, heartily, terribly, a great deal, etc. E.g. I thoroughly disapprove of his methods.

He completely ignored my request.

He needs a warm coat badly.

c) downtoners (lowering the effect): quite, rather, enough, sufficiently, more or less, moderately, partly, slightly, somewhat, (a) little, a bit, barely, hardly, scarcely, almost, nearly, kind of, sort of, etc.

E.g. I know him slightly.

I partly agree with you.

I almost believed him.

6) focusing adverbs which can be of two kinds:

a) restrictive: alone, exactly, just, merely, only, precisely,
purely, simply, especially, etc.

E.g. I am simply asking the time.

My father alone could help me at the time.

b) additive: again, also, either, equally, even, too, etc.

E.g. He didn't answer my letter again.

I, too, am very busy at the moment.

7) viewpoint adverbs: morally, politically, scientifically, economically, weatherwise, program-wise, etc. Such adverbs are understood to mean 'from a moral (political, scientific) point of view'.

E.g. Geographically and linguistically, these islands are closer to the mainland than to the neighbouring islands. Economically, the project is bound to fail.

8) attitudinal adverbs which express the speaker's comment on the content of what he is saying. Such adverbs can be of two kinds:

a) adverbs expressing a comment on the truth-value of what is being said, indicating the extent to which the speaker believes what he is saying is true: admittedly, certainly, decidedly, definitely, surely, undoubtedly, allegedly, doubtless, quite likely, maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably, presumably, supposedly, obviously, apparently, etc.

E.g. Perhaps the public does not have much choice in the matter.

Certainly, he had very little reason to fear anyone.

b) adverbs expressing some attitude towards what is being said: amazingly, curiously, funnily enough, incredibly, ironically, oddly, remarkably, strangely, unexpectedly, typically, (un)fortunately, (un)happlly, (un)luckily, preferably, tragically, significantly, (in)correctly, (un)justly, cleverly, foolishly, reasonably, sensibly, etc.

E.g. He is wisely staying at home tonight.

Naturally we were extremely annoyed when we received the letter.

9) conjunctive adverbs: flrst(ly), secondly, next, then, finally, lastly, further, furthermore, too, above all, likewise, similarly, incidentally, by the way, thus, therefore, namely, for example, that is, accordingly, consequently, hence, so, as a result, otherwise, in other words, in that case, rather, alternatively, on the one (other) hand, instead, on the contrary, anyhow, anyway, besides, however, nevertheless, still, though, yet, at any rale, for all that, in spite of that, meantime, meanwhile, etc.

E.g. I'd like you to do two things for me. First, phone the office and tell them I'll be late. Secondly, order a taxi to be here in about half an hour.

I didn't like the food there. However, I didn't complain about it.

10) formulaic adverbs (markers of courtesy): kindly, cordially, please, etc.

E.g. Will you kindly help me with the parcel?

We cordially invite you to our party.

Let me have a look at the picture, please.

The adverbs when, where, how and why belonging to different semantic groups mentioned above have one point in common--they serve to form questions and introduce some kinds of subordinate clauses. In the former case, owing to their auxiliary function, they are called interrogative adverbs (a). In the latter case, also owing to their auxiliary function, they are called conjunctive adverbs (b). In both cases they perform different adverbial functions in the sentence.

E.g. a) When did you see him last? (adverbial modifier of time)

Where are you going? (adverbial modifier of place)

How did you manage it? (adverbial modifier of manner)

Why didn't you tell me about it? (adverbial modifier of cause)

E.g. b) Sunday was the day when he was least busy, (adverbial modifier of lime)

The thing to find out was where he was then, (adverbial modifier of place)

How it was done remains a mystery to me, (adverbial modifier of manner)

I wanted to know why he had left us so abruptly. (adverbial modifier of cause)

As is seen from the above examples, the conjunctive adverbs can introduce attributive, predicative, subject and object clauses. [11, 346]

The adverb how, in addition to the above functions, can also be placed at the head of an exclamatory sentence. In this case it is often followed by an adjective or an adverb but it may also be used alone. This how is sometimes called the exclamatory how.

E.g. How unfair grown-ups are! Oh, how the baby cries!

There is one more classification of adverbs according to their meaning.

Adverbs are commonly divided into qualitative, quantitative and circumstantial.

By qualitative such adverbs are meant as express immediate, inherently non-graded qualities of actions and other qualities. The typical adverbs of this kind are qualitative adverbs in -ly.

E.g. The little boy was crying bitterly over his broken toy.

The plainly embarrassed Department of Industry confirmed the fact of the controversial deal.

The adverbs interpreted as "quantitative" include words of degree. These are specific lexical units of semi-functional nature expressing quality measure, or gradational evaluation of qualities. They may be subdivided into several very clearly pronounced sets.

The first set is formed by adverbs of high degree. These adverbs are sometimes classed as "intensifiers": very, quite, entirely, utterly, highly, greatly, perfectly, absolutely, strongly, considerably, pretty, much. The second set includes adverbs of excessive degree (direct and reverse) also belonging to the broader subclass of intensifiers: too, awfully, tremendously, dreadfully, terrifically. The third set is made up of adverbs of unexpected degree: surprisingly, astonishingly, amazingly. The fourth set is formed by adverbs of moderate degree: fairly, comparatively, relatively, moderately, rather. The fifth set includes adverbs of low degree: slightly, a little, a bit. The sixth set is constituted by adverbs of approximate degree: almost, nearly. The seventh set includes adverbs of optimal degree: enough, sufficiently, adequately. The eighth set is formed by adverbs of inadequate degree: insufficiently, intolerably, unbearably, ridiculoulsy. The ninth set is made up of adverbs of under-degree: hardly, scarcely.

As we see, the degree adverbs, though usually described under the heading of "quantitative", in reality constitute a specific variety of qualitative words, or rather some sort of intermediate qualitative-quantitative words, in so far as they are used as quality evaluators. In this function they are distinctly different from quantitative adverbs which are directly related to numerals and thereby form sets of words of pronominal order. Such are numerical-pronominal adverbs like twice, thrice, four times, etc.; twofold, threefold, manyfold, etc.

Thus, we will agree that the first general subclass of adverbs is formed by qualitative adverbs which are subdivided into qualitative adverbs of lull notional value and degree adverbs -- specific functional words.

Circumstantial adverbs are also divided into notional and functional.

The functional circumstantial adverbs are words of pronominal nature. Besides quantitative (numerical) adverbs mentioned above, they include adverbs of time, place, manner, cause, consequence. Many of these words are used as syntactic connectives and question-forming functionals. Here belong such words as now, here, when, where, so, thus, how, why, etc.

As for circumstantial adverbs of more self-dependent nature, they include two basic sets: first, adverbs of time; second, adverbs of place: today, tomorrow, already, ever, never, shortly, recently, seldom, early, late; homeward, eastward, near, far, outside, ashore, etc. The two varieties express a general idea of temporal and spatial orientation and essentially perform deictic (indicative) functions in the broader sense. Bearing this in mind, we may unite them under the general heading of "orientative" adverbs, reserving the term "circumstantial" to syntactic analysis of utterances.

Thus, the whole class of adverbs will be divided, first, into nominal and pronominal, and the nominal adverbs will be subdivided into qualitative and orientative, the former including genuine qualitative adverbs and degree adverbs, the latter falling into temporal and local adverbs, with further possible subdivisions of more detailed specifications.

1.3 Syntactic Functions of Adverb

Adverbs may perform different functions, modifying different types of words, phrases, sentences. Some adverbs are restricted in their combinability whereas others may modify different words, for instance enough, which may be used in to work enough, not quickly enough, quick enough.

So we see that in accordance with their categorial meaning, adverbs are characterized by a combinability with verbs, adjectives and words of adverbial nature. The functions of adverbs in these combinations consist in expressing different adverbial modifiers. [6, p. 289]

The combinability and functions of the adverbs are as follows:

1. Adverbs may function as adverbial modifiers of manner, place
time, degree to a finite or non-finite form of the verb:

During my walks I occasionally met people I knew.(frequency)

I went back inside. (place)

I loved her passionately. (degree)

The father held the boy tightly in his arms, (manner)

Some adverbs of time though synonymous, are used in different syntactical patterns. Thus, already is used in affirmative sentences, and yet - in interrogative and negative sentences:

E.g. They have already finished.

They haven't finished yet

Have they finished yet?

However, already may occur in interrogative and negative sentences when there is an element of surprise or the question is suggestive, that is the speaker expects an affirmative answer.

E.g. Have they finished already? (The speaker is surprised at their having already finished.)

In the same way still, meaning "continuously, up to this moment", is used in affirmative sentences and any more in negative sentences. If any more is used in a question, it implies that the speaker expects a negative answer.

E.g. He still works at the library.

He does not work there any more.

Does he take music lessons any more? - No, he doesn't.

2. Adverbs may function as adverbial modifiers to an adjective or another adverb. When adverbs modify adjectives or other adverbs, they serve as adverbial modifiers of degree (as intensifies). So usually the modifying adverb is an intensifier: very, rather, awfully, so, terribly, extremely, most, utterly, unusually, delightfully, unbelievably, amazingly, strikingly, highly, that, etc.

The same applies to composite adverbs, such a kind of, sort of, a good bit of, a lot of, a hell of, a great deal of, etc.

E.g. She is terribly awkward; they are very happy: Meg is clever enough; . you speak so slowly; they settled in a rather quiet street; the boy is unbelievably fat; she was strikingly handsome; we did it sort of proudly, quite definitely, too much, right there, a great deal too much.

Some adverbs - still, yet, far, much, any combine with comparative adjectives: much worse, not any better, still greater, etc.

E.g. He could not speak any plainer.

You could do it far more neatly.

She is much wittier than her friend.

Comparative adverbs are used in clauses of proportional agreement, that is, parallel clauses in which qualities or actions denoted in them increase for decrease at an equal rate.

E.g. The longer I think about it the less I understand your reasons.
To express the idea that a quality or action decreases or increases at an even rate the comparative may be repeated, the two identical forms being connected by and:

E.g. He ran faster and faster.

There are some adverbs which may modify nouns or words of nominal character, functioning as attribute, as in: the way ahead, the trip abroad, the journey home, his return home, the sentence above(below), my friend here, the house opposite, the day before, etc.

In some combinations the adverbs modifying a noun become adjectivized, e.g. the then Prime Minister, in the above examples, in after
years and some others.

Some groups of adverbs, namely, viewpoint, attitudinal and formulaic ones, modify whole sentences.

Whole phrases of words can also perform the function of an adverb. If the phrase contains a subject and a verb, it is called an adverbial clause.

E.g. When the bus arrived, we were able to start our journey

The phrase, 'when the bus comes', contains a subject ('the bus') and a verb ('comes'), and it modifies the sentence verb, 'able'.

If the phrase does not contain a subject and verb, then it is called an adverbial phrase.

E.g. In the morning, we started our journey. We started in the morning.

In the both sentences, the phrase 'in the morning' modifies the verb 'started' by telling us when the journey was started. In this example, the adverbial phrase is also a prepositional phrase.

1.4 Parenthetical adverbs and their peculiarities

a). The peculiarities of parenthetical adverbs

Parenthetical adverbs are adverbs that don't change the meaning of the sentence. They are often used at the beginning of the sentence.

The most common parenthetical adverbs are the following: however, still, indeed, yet, moreover, furthermore, likewise, namely, accordingly, nevertheless, consequently, anyhow.

E.g.: Most demonstrators were exhausted namely two were carried to the hospital.

E.g.: Fortunately, all people returned home in peace.

Most parenthetical adverbs are separated by commas. Logically speaking, they don't add any meaning to the sentence. For example, “perhaps” is usually not separated by commas, because it's essential to the meaning. Parenthetical adverbs can also be called modal adverbs or sentence adverbs.

Let's analyse the varieties of parenthetic:

1) Speech act adverbs: `honestly', etc.

*Provide a comment on the manner in which the main speech act was executed.

2) Connectives: `therefore, so', etc.

*Specify how the current speech act (and/or its content) relates with the current discourse.

3) Agentives (`subject-oriented'): `kindly', etc.

*Comment on an agent's attitude in bringing about a certain state of affairs.

4) Evaluatives: `fortunately', etc. [7, p. 27]

*Provide a comment on the speaker's appreciation of the semantic content.

b). Evaluative adverbs as subtype of parenthetical adverbs

Evaluative adverbs belong to the class of parenthetical adverbs, together with speech act adverbs (e.g. `honestly'), agentive adverbs (so-called `subject oriented', e.g. `kindly'), and connectives (e.g. `therefore'). Parenthetical expressions are constituents whose semantic contribution does not get inserted in the main semantic content. Rather, they provide some sort of comment on either (part of) the content of the clause or the speech act as a whole. In the case of evaluative adverbs, this is shown clearly by examples such as (1) and (2). In (1a), where the adverb occurs inside the antecedent of a conditional, it is intuitively clear that the presence of the adverb does not modify what condition is expressed; compare (1b), where the quasi-synonymous evaluative adjective has a quite different effect. [8, p. 188]

a. `If, unfortunately, Paul goes and sees Marie, she will be furious.'

b. `If, it is unfortunate that Paul met Marie, it is tragic that he insulted her.'

This data suggests that evaluatives and other parentheticals have a distinct illocutionary status that sets them apart from ordinary constituents.

Most existing descriptions of parenthetical expressions hypothesize a strict correlation between the special illocutionary status of parentheticals and a special prosodic status: parentheticals are supposed to receive a so-called `comma intonation', which may be modelled by saying that they form a distinct prosodic phrase. Such a description might be correct for some kinds of parenthetical expressions. For instance, it seems that appositive relative clauses are both illocutionarily and prosodically distinct from restrictive relative clauses.

(2) a. Did Paul hire the author Mary likes?

b. Did Paul hire the author, who Mary likes?

However this shows that the situation is different in the case of adverbs: for adverbs, illocutionary parenthetical status is a lexical property, that is independent of prosody. That is, most adverbs can receive either an integrated or a `comma'-type prosody, irrespective of their illocutionary status. This is exemplified in (3) with a sample of parenthetical (connective, evaluative, agentive) adverbs and in (4) with a sample of nonparentheticals (modal, frequency, manner).

(3) a. `Nevertheless, my brother came.'

b. `Fortunately, my brother came.'

c. `My brother kindly came.'

(4) a. `My brother probably came.'

b. `My brother came often.'

`My brother came quickly.'

This data shows that we need to make a strict distinction between the illocutionary status and the prosodic properties of an adverb.

There is a large consensus that evaluatives provide a commentary on content, rather than being part of the content of the sentence. This is challenged by Bach, who contrasts evaluatives (which he calls `assesives') both with adverbs such as modals and with a number of expressions which he classifies as `utterance modifiers' (usually called `speech act modifiers'). The reason is that, although they differ from modals in contributing a different proposition from the main one, they can be found in embedded sentences, as in (1), which prevents them from being considered utterance modifiers. However, Bach himself does not propose an explicit analysis. The first question is: what is the status of the commentary? and the second one: how can it be implemented in a formal grammar? As to their status, evaluatives have been considered either to constitute a speech act, independent of the main one , or to convey conventional implicatures.

The two speech act analysis cannot be maintained. It shows that the utterance of a parenthetical (an in particular, an evaluative) does not have full assertoric force. Evaluatives can express commitments of an agent distinct from the speaker, at least in reportive contexts.

Chapter 2. Meaning and functions of adverbs in the novel

“White Fang” by Jack London

Through this course paper, we attempt to distinguish different forms and functions of the adverbs. In order to do this, we need to learn not only rules but its practical application in discourse. For this we took the novel “White Fang” by Jack London. Adverbs comprise a most heterogeneous group of words. They have many kinds of form, meaning and function. So we observe different types of adverbs in this book.

E. g. The thing done thoroughly and with dispatch. [3, p. 147]

The grey cub's eyes had not been open long, yet already he could see with steady clearness. [3, p. 63]

Adverbs vary in their structure and meaning. That's why there are many different classifications of adverbs.

In accordance with their word-building structure adverbs may be simple and derived.

We observe many simple and derived adverbs in the novel “White Fang”. This can be demonstrated by the following examples.

Simple adverbs:

E.g. After several experiences, White Fang was to be let alone. [3, p. 151]

Here and there he could see one curled up in the snow like a dog, taking the sleep that was now denied himself. [3, p. 31]

The typical adverbial affixes in affixal derivation are first and foremost, the basic and only productive adverbial suffix -ly. We can find many examples of such a type of adverbs in the book.

E.g. He bristled fiercely and looked ominously across the shin-bone at White Fang. [3, p. 140]

His mate looked at him anxiously. [3, p. 57]

This gave them the seeming of ghostly masques, undertakers in a spectral world at the funeral of some ghost. [3, p. 7]

He got out of bed carefully, so as not to disturb the sleep of his comrade, and threw more wood on the fire. [3, p. 12]

Small group of adverbs are formed by adding the derivational suffix --wise to nouns.

E.g. Grey Beaver's wrath was terrible; likewise was White Fang's fright. [3, p. 111]

Otherwise he ignored them. [3, p. 131]

She brushed her nose her paws, trying to dislodge the fiery darts, thrust it into the snow, and rubbed it against twigs and branches and all the time leaping about, ahead, sidewise, up and down, in a frenzy of pain and fright. [3, p. 61]

Then comes a smaller group of adverbs formed by the addition of the derivational suffix -ward(s) to a limited group of nouns.

E.g. Beauty Smith's remaining leg left the ground, and his whole body seemed to lift into the air as he turned over backward and stuck the snow. [3, p. 187]

It soured upward with a swift rush, till it reached its topmost note. [3, p. 7]

He had not rushed forward after the manner of the dogs. [3, p. 212]

I came back to the bag afterward an' got `m his fish. [3, p. 9 ]

We can also find some examples of adverbs formed by adding the less derivational suffix - way(s).

E.g. He swung the club smartly, stopping the rush midway and smashing White Fang down upon the ground. [3, p. 167]

Well, Spanker's troubles is over anyway. [3, p. 21]

Examples of adverbs formed by the characteristic adverbial prefix a- are the following:

E.g. “They yes' swallowed `m alive.” [3, p. 13]

All that was left him to do was to keep his long rope taut and his flanks ahead of the teeth of his mates. [3, p. 123]

The men toiled without speech across the face of the frozen world. [3, p. 17]

“It's no use, Mr Scott, you can't break `m apart that way,” Matt said at last. [3, p. 188]

But there was life, abroad in the land and defiant. [3, p. 5]

They got out of his way when he became along. [3, p. 131]

So we can see that there are many derived adverbs in the novel “White Fang”, formed by means of different suffixes productive and non-productive and by adding prefix a-.

We observe examples of compound adverbs which are formed of two stems.

There is a group of adverbs formed by combining the pronouns some, any, every and no with a limited number of nouns or pronominal adverbs.

E.g. It was to rear, somewhere in the snow expanse they had just traversed. [3, p.8]

I don't feel right, somehow. [3, p.12]

He, on the other hand, being the fastest-footed, was afraid to venture anywhere. [3, p. 118]

But White Fang was here, there, and everywhere, always evading and eluding, and always leaping in and splashing with his fangs and leaping out again in time to escape punishment. [3, p. 173]

But also there are other compound adverbs:

E.g. Thereafter they spoke no more, though their ears were keen for the hunting-cries that continued to rise behind them. [3, p. 8]

So White Fang, in manner somewhat similar, lured Lip-lip into Kiche's avenging jaws. [3, p. 107]

Furthermore, the sled was of some service, for it carried nearly two hundred pounds of outfit and food. [3, p. 127]

Whenever he ventured away from his mother, the bully was sure to appear, trailing at his heels, snarling at him, picking upon him, and watchful of an opportunity, when no man-animal was near, to spring upon him and force a fight. [3, p.106]

Among the adverbs we can distinguish such type of adverbs as composite phrasal adverbs which consist of two or more word-forms.

E.g. In short, Beauty Smith was a monstrosity, and the blame of it lay elsewhere. [3, p. 163]

At first, the killing of the white men's dogs had been a diversion. [3, p. 158]

He sat for a long while upon the sled. [3, p. 31]

And in the meanwhile, the she-wolf, the cause of it all, sat down contentedly on her haunches and watched. [3, p.45]

A special point of linguistic interest is presented by the development of "merged" or "separable" adverbs. The term "merged" is meant here to bring out the fact that such separable compounds are lexically and grammatically indivisible and form a single idea.

Considered in their structure, examples of such "separable" compounds may be classified as follows:

preposition + noun:

E.g. The other end of the stick, in turn, was made fast to a stake in the ground by means of a leather thong. [3, p. 18]

Once at the tree, he studied the surrounding forest in order to fell the tree in the direction of the most firewood. [3, p. 36]

b) noun + preposition + noun

One and all, from time to time, they felt his teeth; and to his credit, he gave more than he received. [3, p. 115]

Two by two, male and female, the wolves were deserting. [3, p. 45]

The men slept, breathing heavily, side by side, under the one covering.

[3, p. 12]

Cry after cry, and answering cries, were turning the silence into a bedlam. [3, p. 10]

He came out of a thicket and found himself face to face with the slow-witted bird. [3, p. 58]

preposition + substantivized adjective:

At last Grey Beaver withheld his hand. [3, p. 111]

The man waited in vain for them to go. [3, p. 35]

preposition + verbal noun

They remained in a circle about him and his fire, displaying an arrogance of possession that shook his courage born of the morning light. [3, p. 35]

preposition + numeral

At first this caused trouble for the other dogs. [3, p. 151]

For once White Fang did not make an immediate attack. [3, p. 179]

coordinative adverbs:

White Fang darted in and out unscathed, while Cherokee's wounds increased. [3, p. 181]

g) preposition + pronoun

His reason was unseated by the blind yearning of the fresh to exist and move, at all hazards to move, to continue to move, for movement was the expression of its existence. [3, p. 183]

Never, in all his fighting, had this thing happened. [3, p. 184]

According to their meaning, adverbs fall into the following groups:

1) adverbs of time:

Adverbs of time may be subdivided as follows:

Of time present:

E. g. Now the grey cub lived all his days on a level floor. [3, p. 73]

Of time past:

E. g. Forgotten already were the vanquished rivals and the love-tale red-written on the snow. [3, p. 47]

Of time to come:

E. g. “I'll tie `em up out of reach of each other tonight,” Bill said, as they took the trail. [3, p. 22]

I'll have to cheer him up tomorrow. [3, p. 27]

Of time relative:

E. g. In midsummer White Fang had an experience. [3, p. 141]

Of time absolute:

E. g. Continually changing its intensity and abruptly variant in pitch, it impinged on his nerves and senses, made him nervous and restless and worried a him with a perpetual imminence of happening.[3, p. 103]

Of time repeated:

E.g. Or again, he would be in the pen of Beauty Smith. [3, p. 261]

2) adverbs of frequency:

E.g. Several times they encountered solitary wolves. [3, p. 48]

He was always a little demon of fury when he chanced upon a stray ptarmigan. [3, p. 84]

“He'll never stand the climate!” he shouted back. [3, p. 223]

White Fang tried the trick once too often. [3, p. 182]

3) adverbs of place and direction

E. g. They were evidently coming down the creek from some prospecting trip. [3, p. 186]

Beauty Smith's remaining leg left the ground, and his whole body seemed to lift into the air as he turned over backward and struck the snow. [3, p. 187]

They did not remain in one place, but travelled across country until they regained the Mackenzie River, down which they slowly went, leaving it often to hunt game along the small streams that entered it, but always returning to it again [3, p. 48]

Outside as they had been originally to get to the Inside. [3, p. 221]

4) adverbs of manner

E. g. His allegiance to man seemed somehow a law of his being greater than the love of liberty, of kind and kin. [3, p. 137]

This seem to satisfy his master, who flung him down roughly in the bottom of the canoe. [3, p. 111]

“What d'ye think?” Scott queried eagerly. [3, p. 194]

Bill began to eat sleepinly.

White Fang knew the law well: to oppress the weak and to obey the strong. [3, p. 131]

5) adverbs of degree:

E.g. He'll learn soon enough. [3, p. 226]

He was too busy and happy to know that he was happy. [3, p. 77]

Then he perceived that they were very little, and he became bolder.[3, p.76]

Adverbs of degree or intensifiers may be subdivided into three semantic groups:

emphasizers (emphasizing the truth of the communication):

E.g. And, first, last and most of all, he hated Beauty Smith. [3, p. 173]
amplifiers (expressing a high degree):
E.g. He could not quite suppress a snarl, but he made no offer to snap. [3, p. 95]
“They're pretty wise, them dogs.”[3, p. 8]
The very atmosphere he breathed was surcharged with hatred and malice. [3, p. 151]
downtoners (lowering the effect):
E.g. It ran below its ordinary speed. [3, p. 43]
He dared not risk a flight with this young lightning -- flash, and again he knew, and more bitterly, the enfeeblement of oncoming age. [3, p. 141]
6) Focusing adverbs:
a) restrictive:
E.g. They alone moved through the vast inertness. [3, p. 44]
Tied securely, White Fang could only rage futilely beating. [3, p. 168]
b) additive:
E.g. One foot also he held up, after the manner of a dog. [3, p. 49]
She, too, soared high, but not so high as the quarry, and her teeth clipped emptily together with a metallic snap. [3, p. 51]
7) attitudinal adverbs which express the speaker's comment on the content of what he is saying. Such adverbs can be of two kinds:
adverbs expressing a comment on the truth-value of what is being said, indicating the extent to which the speaker believes what he is saying is true:

E.g. Perhaps they sensed his wild-wood breed, and instinctively felt for him the enmity that the domestic dog feels for the wolf. [3, p. 115]

And certainly it was he that caused the mother the most trouble in keeping her little from the mouth of the cave. [3, p. 66]

b) adverbs expressing some attitude towards what is being said:

E.g. He is wisely staying at home tonight. [3, p. 189]

8) conjunctive adverbs:

E.g. On the other side ran a gaunt old wolf, grizzled and marked with the scars of many battles. [3, p. 42]

Nevertheless, with the exception of the ones that liped, the movements of the animals were eftortless and tireless. [3, p. 201]

Besides, it was not fear, but terror, that convulsed him. [3, p. 74]

Instead, he pointed towards the wall of darkness that pressed about them from every side. [3, p. 11]

Every little while, however, one dog or another would flame up in revolt and be promptly subdued. [3, p. 131]

9) formulaic adverbs (markers of courtesy):

E.g. She took the rabbit from him, and while the sapling swayed and teetered threateningly above her she calmly gnawed off the rabbit's head. [3, p. 52]

10) interrogative adverbs:

E.g. “Where are you goin'?” Henry suddenly demanded, laying his hand on his partner's arm. [3, p. 30]

11conjunctive adverbs with when, why, how, where:

E.g. The first time occurred when the master was trying to teach a spirited thoroughbred the method of opening and closing gates without the rider's dismounting. [3, p. 249]

Adverbs are commonly divided into qualitative, quantitative and circumstantial.

By qualitative such adverbs are meant as express immediate, inherently non-graded qualities of actions and other qualities. The examples of qualitative adverbs are the following:

E.g. “Well, don't be a miser with what you know,” Scott said sharply, after waiting a suitable length of time. [3, p. 194]

A panic seized him, and he ran madly toward the village.[3, p. 122]

She was strangely stirred, and sniffed with an increasing delight. [3, p. 49]

The adverbs interpreted as "quantitative" include words of degree. These are specific lexical units of semi-functional nature expressing quality measure, or gradational evaluation of qualities. We observe the following examples of such adverbs in the novel “White Fang”:

Behind Riche followed White Fang, greatly perturbed and worried by this new adventure he had entered upon. [3, p. 98]

Very gently and somewhat suspiciously, he first smelled the tallow and then proceeded to eat it. [3, p. 125]

He had come to know quite thoroughly the world in which he lived. [3, p. 132]

White Fang scarcely knew what happened. [3, p. 134]

The circumstantial adverbs express a general idea of temporal and spatial orientation and essentially perform deictic (indicative) functions in the broader sense. As for circumstantial adverbs of more self-dependent nature, they include two basic sets: first, adverbs of time; second, adverbs of place. There are many examples of circumstantial adverbs using in the book.

Life is always happy when it is expressing itself. [3, p. 90]

This continued, but every time the hand lifted, the hair lifted under it. [3, p. 203]

He turned tail and scampered off across the open in inglorious retreat. [3, p.78]

Inside this circle he crouched, his sleeping outfit under him as a protection against the melting snow. [3, p. 38]

As we see adverbs can be classified from different point of view. The novel “White Fang” by Jack London is full of different types of adverbs

Adverbs can have different functions in the sentence. Most adverbs serve to modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs in the sentence. When they modify verbs, they can serve as adverbial modifiers of time, frequency, place, manner and degree. There are many examples of adverbs in this function in the novel.

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