Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words

Function words, they characterization. Determiners as inflected function words employed. Preposition "at": using, phrases, examples from "The White Monkey" (by John Galsworthy). Translation, using, examples in literature preposition "in", "of".

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Размещено на

The Ministry of Education

The Kazakh National University named after



On Theoretical Grammar

On Theme: Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words

Almaty, 2011

Functional words

Function words are characterized by their ambiguous lexical meaning and by their capacity to organize grammatical relationships between words within a sentence. There are a relatively small and fixed number of function words (as opposed to verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, which are limited but expandable sets). Prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs are all considered function words. Most of these words are uninflected although a few are inflected and may take affixes.

Auxiliary Verbs are verbs whose function is to characterize the main verbs they accompany with shades of meaning pertaining to tense and/or modality. Regarding tense, the core meaning of the verb can be modified to express perfect, progressive, or passive voices. Regarding modality, the main verb is altered to denote judgment or opinion in terms of ability, advice, expectation, intention/willingness, likelihood, necessity, permission/prohibition, or degrees of politeness.

Auxiliary verbs are necessary to form questions and negatives in English. If auxiliary verbs are used only to serve these functions, they are referred to as dummy auxiliaries. Additionally, the auxiliaries 'do', 'does', and 'did' can be inserted preceding the main verb for emphasis. Modal verbs are distinguished from other auxiliary verbs by their inability to function as main verbs and their lack of complete conjugations (infinitive for example).

Conjunctions are uninflected function words that serve to conjoin words, clauses, phrases, or sentences. There are three basic forms: single word (however), compound (as long as), and correlative (so... that). In terms of function, conjunctions can be grouped into additive (so, thus), adversative (but, instead), causative (so, because), and temporal (after, then).

Conjunctions are not structural elements in a clause. Rather, they are external elements that establish grammatical relations (coordination, correlation, subordination) between clauses. Certain adverbial and prepositional phrases can also act as conjunctions (subsequently, in addition to that).

Determiners are inflected function words employed as noun modifiers and that serve to alter the referents of noun phrases in terms of amount, location, possession, and general versus specific. In terms of form, determiners are simple (two, their, the) or compound (a number of, one half, a little). Also, possessive and demonstrative adjectives are considered determiners.

The determiner class is often divided into articles (a, an, the), determiners (both, neither, whichever), and quantifiers (much, various, little).

Prepositions are uninflected function words that combine with nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases to form prepositional phrases that can have, in turn, adverbial or adjectival relationships with other words. Prepositions can be simple (as, of) or compound (next to, in view of) forms. In terms of function, at least the following types of preposition can be distinguished: time (until, circa), location (along, amid), logical (since, given), possession (including, pertaining to), and movement (toward, to).

Prepositions can also occur in post position with: nouns (interest in, need for), adjectives (familiar with, sure of), participles (married to, made of), and verbs (give up, look forward). In this situation, the composite can be thought of as a unit.

Pronouns are inflected function words employed in place of nouns or noun phrases. In terms of form, pronouns are simple (nothing, herself) and compound (each other, one another). Also, some pronoun composites are used in relative clauses (all of whom, several of which).

Pronouns are classified into the following classes: subject personal (I, he, we), object personal (me, him, us), possessive (mine, his, ours), reflexive (myself, himself, ourselves), demonstrative (this, these, such), relative (who, all, that), indefinite (each, anybody, none), reciprocal (each other, one another), and interrogative (how, who, why). Additionally, reflexives also operate as so-called intensive pronouns when they are employed to emphasize an antecedent noun or pronoun (as in, "The boss himself prepared the coffee" or "I myself could not believe it").

Preposition “at”

At /t/-1) у, в

2) за

3) на

4) под

5) с, рядом

6) из, через, к

7) до

8) по, против

1) used for stating where someone or something is

1a) in a particular place: There's a telephone box at the crossroads.

at someone's ;at their house: I'm babysitting at Sally's tomorrow night.

at home: He wants to spend more time at home with his family.

at work in the place where someone works: Dad should be at work by now.

at the doctor's/dentist's/hairdresser's etc: Trevor's at the doctor's - he'll be back soon.

used for saying where you stop on a journey: Does this train stop at Newport?

sitting or standing close to something, especially in order to do something: Lambert was seated at the piano.

in a particular part of a process, activity, programme, or book: At some point in the process things started to go wrong.

used for stating what someone is doing

2a) used for saying that someone is doing something or taking part in an activity somewhere

at a party/concert/meeting etc: We were at a party last night when you called.

at school/college etc; studying at an educational institution: Has Karen graduated, or is she still at college?

2b) used for stating what state or situation someone or something is in: at rest/war/peace etc: The country was at war and life was difficult for everyone.

3) used for stating when something happens:

3a) used for stating the exact time when something happens: The match starts at 3 o'clock.

3b )used for saying when a particular situation exists

at present/at the moment ; now: Everyone's busy with exams at present.

at the time; when something happened in the past: Monica was born in 1972. We were living in Edinburgh at the time.

at the beginning/start/end of something: It's a style that was popular at the beginning of the 20th century.

3c) during a particular period: What are you doing at the weekend?

at night; during any night: At night temperatures sometimes fall to 30 degrees below zero.

3d) when someone is a particular age: Mozart was already composing music at the age of five.

4) used for stating what someone reacts to used for stating what makes someone react in a particular way: Audiences still laugh at his jokes.

5) used for showing prices, temperatures, speeds etc used for showing the level of prices, temperatures, speeds etc: Tickets are now on sale at ?12 each.

6) in a particular direction used for stating the direction in which you look, point, or aim something:

Armed gangs were shooting at police cars.

7) trying to hold or hit someone or something used for stating what someone is trying to catch, hold, or hit: He grabbed at my sleeve, but I pulled away.

8) continuing to do something used for showing that you repeat an action many times with small movements but without doing it completely: I muttered to myself, sipping at my coffee.

9) used for stating what someone can do well used for stating the activity or subject that someone is skilful or not skilful in: Brownstein is an expert at cooking.good/bad at somethingI've never been very good at sports.

10) used for giving phone numbers (American) used for stating the phone number where someone can be reached. The British word is on: You can reach us at 555-3964.


at all

used for emphasis when you are saying or asking whether something is even slightly true, especially after words such as `any', `anything', `anyone', or `nothing': Has the situation improved at all?

used for saying that someone or something shows their best/worst etc qualities in a particular event or situation: This is an example of old-fashioned prejudice at its worst.

at lunch/dinner/breakfast etc used for saying that someone is having a meal: I'm sorry, the person you want is at lunch.

at someone's request/suggestion/invitation etc because someone has asked you to do something/suggested something etc: A meeting was arranged at the ambassador's request.

be at it(spoken) be at it if someone is at it, they are doing something that you do not approve of: He's at it again, trying to cheat the customers.

while you're at it(spoken) used for telling someone to do something while they are doing something else: I'm just going to clean my boots.' `Well, you can clean mine too while you're at it.'

Examples from “The White Monkey” (by John Galsworthy): “at”

That trim grey head, with the deep furrow between the eyes, and those eyes staring as if at pain behind them, steadied Michael. (p.294)

Седая аккуратная голова, с глубокой складкой между бровями, и глаза, словно углубленные страданием, успокоили Майкла

When he had rung up Green Street and been answered at last, he sat with the door of his study open, waiting for “Old Forsyte” to come. (p.294)

Позвонив на Грин-стрит и добившись наконец ответа, он пошел в кабинет и, открыв дверь, стал ждать "Старого Форсайта".

Soames looked at the old fellow, and compunction stirred within him-as ever, at any sign that he was appreciated. (p.288)

Сомс посмотрел на Грэдмена и ощутил легкие угрызения совести - как всегда, когда чувствовал, что его ценят.

At the mouth of the backwater he paused for a second, as if to print its buffness on his brain. (p.286)

На углу переулка он еще раз остановился, как будто хотел запечатлеть его в памяти.

Then came a face straight from a picture of Her Majesty's Government in 1850, round and pink, with a high nose, a small mouth, and little white whiskers; while at the end on the right was a countenance whose jaw and eyes seemed boring into a conundrum beyond the wall at Michael's back.(p.273)

Следующее лицо словно сошло с портрета "Министры ее величества королевы Виктории в 1850 году"- круглое и розовое, с прямым носом, маленьким ртом и беленькими бачками. Справа, в конце, сидел человек с выступающим подбородком и глазами, буравившими стену сзади Майкла.

Turning from the window, he leaned against the lacquered back of the jade-green settee, and stared at the wall space between the Chinese tea-chests.(p.267)

Отвернувшись от окна, он прислонился к лакированной спинке изумрудного дивана и стал разглядывать опустевшее пространство между двумя китайскими шкафчиками.

However much better he might become, his daughter, his reputation, and possibly his fortune, were not apparently at the disposition of his subconscious self. (p.256)

Как бы он себя хорошо ни чувствовал, его дочь, его репутация и, возможно, даже его состояние не зависели от его подсознательного "я".

He was silent at dinner, and went up afterwards to his picture gallery, to think things over. (p.256)

За обедом он молчал, а потом прошел в свою картинную галерею, чтобы все обдумать.

For half an hour he stood at the open window, alone with the summer evening; and the longer he stood there, the more clearly he perceived that the three were really one.(p.256)

Полчаса он простоял у открытого окна, наедине с летним вечером; и чем дольше он стоял, тем лучше понимал, что в его жизни все связано одно с другим.

His fortune-well, he had better make another settlement on Fleur and her child at once, in case of accidents; another fifty thousand.(p.257)

Его состояние... да, надо будет на всякий случай теперь же перевести на имя Флер и ее ребенка ещe пятьдесят тысяч.

He came away from the Board, however, without any sense of power at all.(p.256)

Однако, уходя с собрания, он чувствовал полный упадок сил.

The words of Michael stirred something deep in Soames; but, far from giving it away, he continued to gaze at the white monkey.(p.251)

Слова Майкла задели что-то глубоко в душе Сомса; но, не выдавая своих переживаний, он продолжал смотреть на "Белую обезьяну".

Soames looked mechanically at the fellow's cuffs-beautifully laundered, with a blue stripe; at his holland waistcoat, and his bird's-eye tie-a regular dandy. He would give him a second barrel! (p.242)

Сомс машинально посмотрел на манжеты этого человека, отлично выглаженные, с голубой полоской; на его пикейный жилет и пестрый галстук - настоящий денди. Ничего, сейчас он ему закатит вторую порцию!

Where would Fleur hang it? In the hall, he shouldn't be surprised-good light there; and the sort of people they knew wouldn't jib at the nude.(p.239)

Куда Флер повесит картину? Возможно, в холле - там хорошее освещение, а тех, кто у них бывает, вряд ли особенно смутит обнаженное тело. Интересно, куда девались все картины с нагой натурой?

At a tangent his thoughts turned towards the object of his pilgrimage-the P. P. R. S. and its half-year's accounts.(p.239)

По странной ассоциации Сомс вспомнил о цели своего похода - об ОГС и полугодовом отчете.

At his suggestion, they were writing off that German business wholesale-a dead loss of two hundred and thirty thousand pounds.(p.239)

По его предложению они постановили просто списать эти германские дела - чистого убытку на двести тридцать тысяч фунтов!

Well! better have a rotten tooth out at once and done with; the shareholders would have six months to get used to the gap before the general meeting.(p.239)

Но лучше вырвать гнилой зуб сразу и покончить с этим; акционеры за шесть месяцев до общего собрания привыкнут к потере.

Soames made no reply; he was evidently thinking: `How on earth I missed those things when they first came on the market!' Then, raising his umbrella, and pointing it as if at the book trade, he asked: “Young Butterfield-how's he doing?”(p.228)

Сомс не отвечал; он, очевидно, думал: "И как это я пропустил эти вещи, когда они только что появились на рынке?" Он поднял зонтик и, словно указывая на все издательское дело, спросил: А как молодой Баттерфилд с этим справляется?

At five minutes before noon he snapped his tray to-not a bally balloon left!(p.205)

Без пяти двенадцать он сложил лоток - ни единого шара не осталось!

She would slip her forehead against his eyes if he looked at her too hard, and kiss his lips till his head was no longer clear.(p.203)

Она прижмется лбом к его глазам, если он станет слишком пристально смотреть на неe, и зацелует его так, что у него голова закружится.

Preposition “in”

In [in]-1) в, во

2) в течение, во время, в то время как

3) через

4) на, над

5) в, на, с, по

In can be used in the following ways:

As a preposition (followed by a noun ): The children are in the garden. They met in 2009.

As an adverb (without a following noun): Come in and sit down.

After the verb “to be”: “Is Philip in?“ “No, he's gone out.”

As an adjective: It was the in thing to do.

Used for showing where somebody or something is.

1a) inside a container, room, building, vechile, etc: He had left his passport in his coat pocket.

1b. within an area, city or country: The books are printed in Hong Kong.

1c) at home, or at your office: I asked to speak to the manager but he wasn't in.

1d) within an object, space or substance: The bacteria in our drinking water.

In the air, in the sky, in space: It was the the astronauts' first experience of living in space.

1e) at a specific part of something: Further details can be found in Section 90.

In the middle/ centre: a new department store in the centre of London.

1f ) held or enclosed by something: They lay together in each other's arms.

1g ) a ball that is in during a game such as tennis or basketball is within the area of play.

Into smth

2a ) into your home, or place of work: I invited her in for a drink.

2b) moving into a place or space: The door was open so I just walked in.

2c. looking or pointing into something: Look in the top drawer of my desk.

Arriving somewhere 3a. used for saying that a train, bus, plane or ship arrives somewhere: The ferry won't be in for another hour. 3b. arriving at your home or olace of work: I'm going to be late, so don't expect me in till after ten.

Used for showing when smth happens

4a) during a particular period, year, month or season, or during a part of the day: In winter the lake freezes over.

4b. at the end of period of time in the future: Wait, I'll be with you in a minute or two.

4c. within a period of time: Unemployment has risen by over 15% in the past period. 4d. used for saying how long it is since something last happened: It was the President's first public appearance in three months.

4e. during the time that someone is involved in smth, or is experiencing something: Owen's brother died in the war.

Used for talking about numbers and amounts

5a. used for saying how many units of money, weight, measurement etc make up a larger unit: There are 1000 kilograms in a tonne.

5b. used for saying how big groups of people or things are when they do something: People began to arrive in twos and threes.

5c. used for saying how common something is by showing it as a number in relation to the total number: One in twelve of the adult population suffers from stress.

5d. used for saying that a number is within a particular range, especially a temperature, a score, or someone's age:

in the twenties/ fifties/ seventies etc: Damage is estimated in the thousands of dollars.

In your teens / twenties/ thirties etc: My daughter is in her mid-thirties now.

5e. British used for showing something such as a rate of tax: Income tax now stands at 22 pence in the pound.

Used for saying areas of activity

6a. used for saying what organized activity someone does with other people: Bailey was in the long-distance cycle race.

6b. used for saying what type of work someone does: She's a teacher and her husband works in publishing.

6c. used for saying what area of work or activity you are talking about: The crisis in farming.

6d. used for saying what subject someone studies: A university degree in economics.

Used for describing a particular state, situation, or relationship.

7a. used for describing the state or condition of someone or something: The army retreated in confusion.

7b. used for saying what the situation is for someone or smth: Their lives were in danger.

7c. used for describing the relationship between people and organizations: Are we all in agreement.

Wearing smth used for saying what someone is wearing: A man in a clown's hat came and sat beside her.

Used for saying what changes used for saying what things change, increase, improve, etc: The recent rise in oil prices.

Used for talking about the way sth is done

10a. using a particular method or style: You have to pay in cash.

10b. used for describing a particular type of behaviour or way of speaking: We all sat in silence.

In tears (= crying ): some of the children were in tears.

10c. using a particular language:

in English/ Spanish etc, There are instructions in eight languages.

Used for describing ways of writing, drawing, or painting

11a. used for stating what you use for writing, painting, drawing: in ink/ pencil/ chalk/ oils etc A short note written in pencil.

11b. using a particular type or style of writing: Write your name and address in capital letters.

Included as part of smth used for saying what group someone or smth is part of smth: Beckham is back in the England team.

Used for describing how things are arranged

13a. arranged in a way that forms a particular shape or pattern: We all sat round in a circle.

13b. arranged according to a particular order: The names are listed in alphabetical order.

Used for referring to colours used for saying what colour decorations, clothes etc are: Are these curtains available in green?

Used for referring to the weather affected by a particular type of weather: Flags were fluttering in the breeze.

Used for mentioning the book, film etc. where sb/smth appears

16a. used for mentioning a story, play, film, etc. where a character or event appears or happens: The disaster is vividly recalled in James Cameron's film Titanic.

16b. used for mentioning a film or paly where an actor appears: Who's in the new movie with Brad Pitt?

16c. used for mentioning a book, newspaper etc where you can read or see smth: I saw the house advertised in the local paper.

Used for showing in what way sth is true used for saying what aspect of someone or something you are referring to: The words are similar but there are is a difference in meaning.

Written or drawn to complete sth written or drawn where sth is needed: Fill in your name and address at the top of the form.

Doing sth with a particular feeling used for describing someone's feelings when they do sth: In my enthusiasm I quite forgot Dr Ziegler's warning.

Given or received given or sent to someone or received by someone: Have you sent in your application form?

Used for saying what a particular substance contains used for saying what product, food, or drink contains a particular substance: Do you take milk in your tea?

Available to buy used for saying that sth is available in a shop: Smoked salmon? We'll have some in on Wednesday.

Used for stating who is batting in cricket British a player or team that is in during a game of cricket is batting.

Used for saying who or what has particular qualities used for saying the person or thing that has the qualities needed for a particular job or situation: In Nelson Mandela the people had a leader that they could respect and admire.

Elected if a politician or political party is in, they have been elected: We hope things will get better now the Tories are in.

get in (= be elected) The labour candidate got back in with an increased majority.

Fashionable smth that is in is fashionable: Pale colours are definitely in this summer.

The in thing (to do) We used to go to boring cocktail parties just because it was the in thing to do.

When the sea is high if the tide is in or comes in, the sea has reached or is reaching its highest level on the land.

Breaking inwards used for saying that smth breaks or fails inwards: They kicked the door in and charged through.


be in at smth to be present when smth happens: Karpati had been in at the birth of the Socialist movement.

Be in for smth informal to be going to to experience smth, especially unpleasant: It looks as if we're in for some stormy weather.

Be in for it (= be likely to be punished): When Mum finds out, you'll be in for it.

Be in on smth to take part in smth that is being planned or discussed: I don't know what they agreed to because I wasn't in on the deal.

Day in day out/ week in week out etc continuously or frequently over a period of days, weeks etc: I don't know how you can stand eating the same thing day in day out.

In doing smth used for saying that as a result of doing one thing, you also do smth else: In trying to solve one problem, I created another.

In length/ width/ height/ area etc used when showing measurements: The rear garden is nearly 30 metres in length.

In that used for introducing an explanation of what you have just said, showing in what way it is true: The new system is better in that it provides faster access to the internet.

In their hundreds/ thousands/ millions British used for saying how many people or things do smth, without being exact: Londoners came out on the streets in their thousands.

Roll/ flood/pour in used for saying that large numbers of people or things, or large amounts of smth, arrive somewhere: The Red Cross made in appeal, and the money started rolling in.

Examples from “The White Monkey” (by John Galsworthy):”in”

Soames just touched her hand, nodded, as if implying approval of the baby, and came walking back, but, in a mirror, Michael saw his lips quivering.(p.298)

Сомс погладил ей руку и, как бы выражая свое одобрение младенцу, кивнул и пошел к двери, но в зеркале Майкл увидел, что губы у него дрожат.

In the midst of excited expectation he retained enough modernity to think: “No more blurb! Go and eat your breakfast quietly!” (p.295)

Несмотря на лихорадочное ожидание, он все-таки сумел остаться современным и сказать себе: "Нечего распускаться! Ступай и спокойно позавтракай".

Half his sight remarked a round hole burnt in his trouser leg-he hadn't even noticed the smell; hadn't even realized that he had been smoking.(p.294)

Мельком он заметил круглую дырочку, выжженную в левой штанине, - он даже не заметил запаха гари, он даже не помнил, что курил.

The air here is too clear for sentiment of any kind; and passion in exile soon becomes sickly.(p.293)

Здесь слишком чистый воздух для всяких сентиментов, а страсть в изгнании быстро чахнет.

The publisher in Michael was dead during that hour in the telephone booth, the friend alive and kicking hard.(p.292)

В течение этого часа разговоров по телефону издатель в нем молчал, зато друг бился за своего друга.

After calling in at two big booksellers, he made for his club, and closeted himself in the telephone booth.(p.291)

Он зашел к двум крупным книготорговцам, потом отправился в свой клуб и заперся в телефонной будке.

Past the Connoisseurs, and the Palace, and Whitehall; past all preserves whence nature was excluded, deep in the waters of primitive emotion Soames sat, grey, breathless.(p.290)

Мимо "Клуба знатоков", мимо дворца, по Уайтхолу, мимо всех заповедных мест, откуда была изгнана природа, охваченный самыми примитивными чувствами, ехал Сомс, посеревший от волнения.

He found her, a little youthful in costume, drinking Chinese tea, which she did not like-but what could one do, others teas were “common”.(p.288)

Он застал ее в платье, не совсем подходящем ей по возрасту, за чашкой китайского чая; она его, правда, терпеть не могла, но что поделаешь, всякий другой чай - вульгарность.

Well, he might as well tell Gradman at once that he must exercise his own judgment in the future.(p.286)

Что ж, пожалуй, надо сразу сказать Грэдмену, что он может теперь вести дела по собственному усмотрению.

Apart from the horror of seeing himself in print, he was beginning to feel that he had been extravagant.(p.286)

Он не только боялся, что о нем заговорят газеты, он еще вдруг почувствовал, что вел себя экстравагантно: никогда не следует выходить из себя!

I have been familiar with the City all my life, and I have not been in the habit of meeting with suspicions and ingratitude.(p.285)

Я всю жизнь работаю в Сити и не привык к подозрениям и неблагодарности.

And the question for us shareholders would seem to be whether a Board who placed confidence in such a person, and continued it after their suspicions were aroused, are the right people to direct this important concern.(p.277)

И перед нами встает вопрос: может ли правление, которое доверяло подобному лицу и продолжало ему доверять после того, как против него возникли подозрения, - может ли такое правление стоять во главе солидного предприятия?

He heard Soames say: “In these circumstances we came to the conclusion that there was nothing for it but to wait and see.”(p.275)

Майкл услышал слова Сомса: “ Ввиду таких обстоятельств, мы пришли к заключению, что остается только ждать у моря погоды.”

Back-centre of the platform was a door, and in front, below it, a table, where four men were sitting, fiddling with notebooks.(p.272)

Сзади эстрады была дверь, а перед эстрадой, пониже, - столик, за которым четыре человека поигрывали блокнотами.

Their faces were cast in an infinity of moulds, but all had the air of waiting for something they knew they would not get.(p.272)

Лица у них были самые разнообразные, но у всех было выражение, как будто они ждут чего-то, чего им, наверно, не получить.

He was musing on the colour scheme of green picked out with chocolate and chased with gold, when the door behind the platform was thrown open, and seven men in black coats filed in, and with little bows took their seats behind the quills.(p.273)

Он рассматривал зеленоватые стены с коричневым бордюром и золотыми орнаментами, когда дверь за эстрадой распахнулась и семь человек в черных сюртуках вошли и с легким поклоном уселись за стол, против гусиных перьев.

Michael had an odd conceit: a little thing in a white top-hat sat inside the brain, driving the features eight-inhand.(p.273)

Майклу пришла в голову нелепая фантазия: внутри черепа сидит маленький человечек в белом цилиндре и правит этими чертами, как четверкой.

A bearded man, a little behind on the Chairman's left, was already reading from a book, in a rapid monotonous voice.(p.273)

Бородатый человек, рядом с председателем, начал что-то читать по книге, быстро и монотонно.

It had a platform with a long table, behind which were seven empty chairs, and seven inkpots, with seven quill pens upright in them.(p.272)

В глубине была эстрада с длинным столом, за которым стояло семь пустых стульев; на столе - семь чернильниц с семью гусиными перьями, торчавшими стоймя.

Michael had thought better of the Press, and took up a position in the passage, whence he could watch for a chance.(p.271)

Майкл передумал насчет прессы и просто решил занять наблюдательный пост в коридоре и ждать случая.

Preposition “of”

function word preposition

Of /?v/-1) у

2) из

3) от

4) из-за

5) в

6) в результате, по причине

7) о, об, относительно

connected with or part of someone/something used for saying who or what has a particular feature, aspect, or quality: We were impressed by the size of the building.

saying which specific thing

2a) used for saying which specific thing belonging to a more general type you are referring to: I had a feeling of duty towards him.

2b) used for giving a specific age, amount, value etc: She met Charles at the age of 20.

3) saying who or what does something

3a) used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or what does the action:

This is clearly the work of more than one person.

3b) used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or what is affected by the action: the baptism of children

4) saying who something belongs to used for saying who something belongs to:

They ended up living in the house of Jeanne's oldest brother.

5) showing or describing someone/something concerning or showing someone or something: She had a photograph of him beside her bed.

6) saying what something is part of used for saying what something is part of: He moved to the far side of the bed.

7) containing or consisting of something

7a) used for saying what something contains: He handed her a glass of water.

7b) used for saying what type of thing is in a particular quantity or group: a kilo of rice

millions of insects

7c) used for talking about individual pieces of a substance: a grain of sugar/sand

7d) used for saying what group a particular person or thing is from: She's one of my best friends.

8) in names or titles used after names and titles for talking about the relationship between a person and a place or organization: He listed the kings and queens of England.

9) describing materials or fabrics used for saying what substance is used for making something:

He was wearing a shirt of soft pink cotton.

10) in datesused for giving dates and periods of time: the 27th of November

11) in descriptions of feelings used after some adjectives for saying a person or thing that a feeling is directed towards: You should be ashamed of yourself!

12) linking one noun describing another used for saying what type of person or thing has been described by another noun: He was an angel of a child.

13) saying who has a quality used for saying which person behaves in a particular way in a situation

it was nice/sweet/stupid etc of someone: It was nice of you to help me.

14) giving the cause of something used for saying what causes something: the beneficial effects of red wine

15) saying what quality someone has used for mentioning a quality that someone or something has: He was a man of great charm.

1 6)created by someone used for saying who wrote a book or play, produced a work of art etc: the wonderful paintings of Picasso

17) linking a time and an event used for describing when something happens in relation to something else: She didn't invite him till the evening of the party.

18) giving the time (American)used in saying the time to mean a particular number of minutes before the hour: It's twenty of two 1.40.It's a quarter of nine 8.45.

19)describing relationships used for saying who has a particular relationship with someone else: Lori is the daughter of my father's sister.

20) saying what happened during a period of time used for saying what type of activity or situation lasts for a particular period of time: We had weeks of problems with the new computer system.

21) indicating the best, biggest etc used for saying the period of time for which someone or something is the biggest, best, most important etc: Reynolds was named businessman of the year in 1998.

used for describing the importance of a quality that something has: It was really more of a comment than a question.

(british) used for saying that you often do something at weekends/on Sundays etc: I generally do the gardening of a Sunday.

Examples from “The White Monkey” (by John Galsworthy):”of”

He went out to a closet under the stairs, and, from beneath four pairs of curtains done up in mouth-preserver and brown paper, took out the picture.(p.298)

- Он пошел в чулан под лестницей и из-под четырех пар пересыпанных нафталином и завернутых в бумагу занавесок достал картину.

If you've published the things I left behind, send any royalties to me care of my governor.(p.293)

- Если ты издал то, что я оставил, передай, что мне причитается, моему отцу.

The book-he said-was bound to “get the goat of the old guard” and the duds generally; it would want a bit of the drum-beating from the cognoscenti. (p.291)

- Эта книга, говорил он, обязательно должна вызвать злобу старой гвардии и вообще всяких снобов; поэтому надо, чтобы сочувствующие ее поддержали.

They had pitched on Old Forsyte, who, of all, was least to blame; for if Bart had only held his tongue, they would certainly have lumped him into the vote of confidence.(p.291)

Они прицепились к "Старому Форсайту", который меньше всех виноват. Ведь если бы Барт держал язык за зубами, они, конечно, и его бы включили в вотум доверия. Все очень естественно и нелогично.

They just repeated each other, like a lot of shareholders, or got their precious sentiments out of The Daily Liar. (p.289)

Они просто повторяют друг друга, как эта свора пайщиков, или вычитывают свои драгоценные убеждения в "Ежедневном лгуне".

Whether under its influence or that of the Chinese tea-which, made in the English way, of a brand the Chinese grew for foreign stomachs, always upset him - he was soon telling her the whole story.(p.288)

Под влиянием ли этого, или от китайского чая, заваренного по-английски из смеси, специально изготовляемой в Китае для иностранцев, и плохо действовавшего на него, последний неожиданно для себя рассказал ей всю историю.

At the mouth of the backwater he paused for a second, as if to print its buffness on his brain.(p.286)

На углу переулка он еще раз остановился, как будто хотел запечатлеть его в памяти.

What a tale of trust deeds executed, leases renewed, houses sold, investments decided on-in that back room up there; what a mint of quiet satisfaction in estates well managed!(p.287)

Сколько было подписано доверенностей, возобновлено договоров, продано домов, распределено вкладов там, в его кабинете; какое удовлетворение он испытывал от правильного управления имуществом!

Passing the Bank of England, he had a feeling of walking away from his own life.(p.286)

Проходя мимо Английского банка, он почувствовал, будто уходит от своей собственной жизни.

His acumen, his judgment, his manner of dealing with affairs-aspersed!(p.286)

Его проницательность, его осведомленность, его деловой опыт - все опозорено!

No amount of eating your cake and wanting to have it could take the place of common honesty.(p.286)

Нельзя обыкновенную честность подменить сидением меж двух стульев.

Apart from the horror of seeing himself in print, he was beginning to feel that he had been extravagant.(p.286)

Он не только боялся, что о нем заговорят газеты, он еще вдруг почувствовал, что вел себя экстравагантно: никогда не следует выходить из себя!

“I have no objection whatever to having the Board in,” he said in a rather jeering voice, “and passing a vote of no confidence in their presence.(p.280)

- Я бы ничего не имел против того, чтобы пригласить директоров, - начал он с некоторой насмешкой в голосе, - и провести вотум недоверия в их присутствии.

14) There is a question, which no one has touched on, of how far, if we turn them out, we could make them liable for this loss.(p.280)

- Но возникает другой вопрос, которого еще никто не коснулся: можем ли мы, дав им отставку, взыскать с них убытки?

15) The impression made by this speech was of quite a different order from any of the others. (p.281)

- Эта речь произвела совсем иной эффект по сравнению с остальными.

16) When a Government makes a bad mistake of judgment, the electorate turns against it as soon as it feels the effects.(p.279)

- Когда правительство делает ошибку, избиратели восстают против него, как только почувствуют на себе последствия этой ошибки.

17) Mr. Tolby, being our informal Chairman, was out of order in proposing a vote of no confidence; if that be so, I should be happy to do so, myself.(p.279)

- Мистер Толби, будучи нашим неофициальным председателем, может быть, нарушил порядок, самолично предложив вотум недоверия; в таком случае я с радостью вношу это предложение от своего лица.

18) All hands were held up, with the exception of Michael's, of two women whose eager colloquy had not permitted them to hear the request, and of one shareholder, just in front of Michael, so motionless that he seemed to be dead.(p.277)

- Все подняли руки, за исключением Майкла, двух женщин, которым оживленный разговор помешал услышать предложение, и одного пайщика, который сидел впереди Майкла неподвижно, как мертвый.

19) “I take it from you, then, sir,” he said, “that these two directors represent the general attitude of the Board, and that the Board were content to allow a suspected person to remain manager.(p.276)

- Если я вас правильно понял, сэр, - начал он, - эти два директора представляют общую позицию правления, и правление ничего не имело возразить против того, что находившийся на подозрении человек оставался директором-распорядителем.

20) There appears to have been gross over-confidence; a recent instance of the sort must be in all our minds.(p.277)

- Очевидно, мы слишком слепо доверяли нашему правлению; пример такого рода излишнего доверия, вероятно, всем вам памятен.

Preposition “on”

On /?n/-1) на, у, около


3) во время, в течение

4) о, об, относительно, по поводу

5) в, после

6) при, под, с,из

On can be used in the following ways:

As a preposition: She was lying on the floor.

It happened on a hot summer's day.

As an adverb: Put your clothes on now.

When the bus stopped he got on.

After the verb “to be”: Is the central heating on?

Touching a surface or an object: 1a) touching and supported by the top surface of smth:

Chad was asleep on the floor in a heap of blankets.

He left a note for you on the kitchen table.

Who was the first man on the moon?

1b) onto a surface:

Alanis dropped her books on the desk.

We could hear the rain falling on the roof.

1c) touching, sticking to, or hanging from a surface or object:

There were several interesting posters on the wall.

He had a lot of blood on his arm.

The key is hanging on a hook in the hall.

At a particular time used for saying the day or date when smth happens:

He's coming home on Wednesday.

My birthday is on the 27th of November.

They met on a rainy day in January.

Supported by a part of your body used for saying which part of your body is supporting you:

He propped himself up on an elbow and looked me in the eye.

She gets down on her knees every night and prays for her family.

Can you skate backwards on one leg?

In a particular place: 4a)in a particular area, or on a particular type of land:

The house was built on a beautiful piece of land.

The princess is buried on a small island.

4b) in a particular road or street:

Gordie's grandparents live on Crescent Drive.

4c) at the side of a river or area of water:

The hotel stands on the water's edge just outside Henley.

In a list included in a list:

The future of the charity will be one of the items on the agenda.

Hitting against smth used for saying which thing a part of your body accidentally hits or touches causing you to be hurt:

I cut my hand on a piece of glass from the broken window.

Wearing smth used for saying that you are wearing a piece of clothing, jewellery etc, or for saying which part of your body it covers:

Come on, put your socks on, you'll be late for school.

Looking at smb/smth if your eyes are on someone or smth, you are looking at them:

Hannah fixed her grey eyes on me once again.

Happening, or being broadcast:

9a) being broadcast by radio or television:

I usually listen to the news on the radio while I'm driving to work.

9b) taking place or happening somewhere:

There's a wedding on in the church.

About smth concerning a particular subject:

I have to write a report on the Civil War for homework.


11a) used for saying that someone is continuing to do smth:

They talked on through the night.

.11b) continuing to move forwards:

They talked on beside the river to a cafe they knew.

In or into a vehicle in or into a bus, train, plane etc:

We got on the train at Bournville.

Using a particular type of machine or equipment:

13a) used for saying which type of machine or equipment is used for doing smth: Much of the work is done on computer.

13b) used for saying in what form music, films, information etc are recorded:

The Grinch was released last year on video.

Working, or in use if a machine or piece of electrical equipment is on, it is in use or working:

She had left her light on and I went in to turn it off.

taking part in a journey used for saying that someone takes part in an activity in which they travel or see something: He has been going on expeditions since he was eleven years old.

using a drug using a particular drug: She's on antibiotics for a mild eye infection.

when someone is a member of something if someone is on a team, committee etc, they are a member of it: There are only three directors on the board.

happening immediately (formal) used for saying that an event is followed immediately by another event or that the two events happen at the same time: On being made aware of complaints, he informed the committee.

using something to live or work

19a )eating or drinking only a particular type of food or drink in order to stay alive: Using a cave as shelter, the two men survived on wild berries and raw fish.

19b) using a particular type of fuel or electrical power in order to operate:

run on something: Why can't they make a car that runs on water?

19c) used for saying how much money you have to buy the things that you need in order to live: He was just managing to survive on a small student grant.

used for showing who or what is affected used for saying who or what is affected by something: The rough weather had little effect on the ship.

used for giving phone numbers (british) used for giving the phone number which you can use to talk to someone.(The American word) is at: Call us on 0800 0900017.

compared with something compared with someone or something: Subscriptions are down by 66,000 on last year and that is a serious situation.

paid for by someone(spoken) used for saying who will pay for something: Drink up! The next round's on me.

Performing used for saying that an actor or performer can be seen appearing on the stage or screen: Wait! She'll be on in a couple of seconds.


1)Be/go on about(informal)

to keep talking about someone or something, especially when other people think it is boring: She's always on about her children.

2)Be/go on at someone (british) (informal)

to keep asking someone to do something, or keep complaining about their behaviour, in a way that annoys them: Dad's always on at me to get a better job.

3)be on for something (spoken)

to want to do something: Are you still on for a trip to the coast on Thursday?

4)from now/then/that moment etc on

starting at a particular time and continuing to happen: The new rules will apply to all members from now on.From that moment on, I knew that I wanted to be a doctor.

5)have something on

to have an arrangement to do something: Have you got anything on this weekend?

have a lot on( be very busy): I've got a lot on this week, so I won't be able to see you.

6)to be carrying something, for example in a pocket or bag: Can you pay, I don't seem to have any money on me.

7) (just) not on (british: Informal) used for saying that something cannot be allowed or that it is impossible: His son has been given preferential treatment.

8)on and on

continuing for a long time: The opera seemed to go on and on for hours.

9)on someone's face

used for saying that someone's face has a particular expression: There was a look of horror on her face.

10)on someone's left/right

at or to the left/right side of someone or something: Johnny was sitting on my left.

11)what is someone on? (spoken)

used when you cannot understand why someone has done or said something: He expects us to finish this in two days? What is he on?

12)what is someone on about? (british spoken)

used when you do not understand what someone is talking about: What's he on about now?

you're on (spoken) you're

used for saying `yes' when someone has invited you to compete or do something difficult or dangerous: I bet I can sell more tickets than you.' `OK, you're on.'

Examples from “The White Monkey” (by John Galsworthy): “on”

On the ground floor once more, he had the most intense desire to sing.(p.298)

Когда он опять спустился в нижний этаж, им овладело сильнейшее желание запеть.

His brain, his heart, ranging for relief, lighted on the strangest relief which could possibly have come to him.(p.292)

Его мозг, его сердце в поисках облегчения вдруг напали на странную мысль.

On reaching the Poultry, he decided to go to Green Street and see Winifred-queerly and suddenly homesick for the proximity of Park Lane, for the old secure days, the efflorescent privacy of his youth under the wings of James and Emily.(p.288)

Выйдя снова в Полтри, он решил идти на Грин-стрит и повидать Уинфрид - странно и неожиданно он почувствовал тоску по Парк-Лейн, по прежним спокойным дням, по своему замкнутому и благополучному детству под крылышком Джемса и Эмили.

What a tale of trust deeds executed, leases renewed, houses sold, investments decided on-in that back room up there; what a mint of quiet satisfaction in estates well managed!(p.287)

Сколько было подписано доверенностей, возобновлено договоров, продано домов, распределено вкладов там, в его кабинете; какое удовлетворение он испытывал от правильного управления имуществом!

Not so with the speech which followed. It came from a shareholder on the right, with reddish hair, light eyelashes, a clipped moustache, and a scraped colour.(p.280)

Последовавшая затем речь была совсем иного рода. Произнес ее пайщик справа, рыжеволосый, со светлыми ресницами, подстриженными усами и нечистым цветом лица.

“It is all very well,” the polished shareholder went on, “when any thing of this sort happens, to blame a directorate, but, speaking as a director myself, I should be glad to know whom one is to trust, if not one's manager.(p.279)

Очень легко, - продолжал вылощенный джентльмен, - когда случается такая история, бранить правление, но я сам состою директором и хотел бы знать, кому можно доверять, как не своему директору-распорядителю?

I should be interested to know how you would have handled such a situation if you had been on the Board. It is extremely easy to condemn other people!(p.279)

Мне любопытно было бы узнать, как бы вы сами стали действовать на месте нашего правления.

The gentleman on your extreme left-Mr. Forsyte, I think-spoke of an accidental incident.(p.276)

Джентльмен крайний слева, - кажется, мистер Форсайт, - говорил о "случайном инциденте".

“Six weeks ago, however,” he heard Soames intone, “an accidental incident seems to have warned your late manager that Sir Lawrence and I still entertained suspicions, for I received a letter from him practically admitting that he had taken this secret commission on the German business, and asking me to inform the Board that he had gone abroad and left no property behind him.(p.275)

Однако шесть недель назад, - продолжал Сомс, повысив голос, - из случайного инцидента ваш бывший директор-распорядитель, очевидно, понял, что сэр Лоренс и я еще не отказались от наших подозрений, ибо я получил от него письмо, в котором он фактически признает, что брал втайне комиссионные за эти германские страховки, и просит меня уведомить правление, что он уехал за границу, не оставив никакого имущества.

He saw none, and it was suddenly borne in on him why they wore moustaches: They could not trust their mouths!(p.274)

Но он ничего не увидел и вдруг понял, зачем они носят усы: они не доверяют своим ртам.

And in front of him was clearly the new manager, on whose left Michael observed his own father.(p.273)

Дальше сидел, очевидно, новый директор-распорядитель, возле которого Майкл увидел своего отца.

He lay down on the sofa at the foot of the bed, whence, without sound, he could raise himself and see her.(p.269)

Он прилег на диван, недалеко от кровати, откуда он мог бесшумно привстать и смотреть на нее.

On the night of the Monday following, after Fleur had gone to bed, Michael and Soames sat listening to the mutter of London coming through the windows of the Chinese room opened to the brooding heat.(p.266)

Вечером в следующий понедельник, когда Флер легла спать, Майкл и Сомс сидели в китайской комнате; в открытые окна вливался лондонский шум и томительная жара.

On that first day of the Eton and Harrow match all the forfeited heat of a chilly summer had gathered and shimmered over Michael, on the top of his Bank `bus; shimmered over straw hats, and pale, perspiring faces, over endless other `buses, business men, policemen, shopmen at their doors, sellers of newspapers, laces, jumping toys, endless carts and cabs, letterings and wires, all the confusion of the greatest conglomeration in the world-adjusted almost to a hair's-breadth, by an unseen instinct.(p.259)

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