The origins of the International Socialists

The first Marxist Workers Group meeting and the first SWAG conference. Some important achievements. Publishing the battler. Major problems. The Toma dispute. Regrupment discussions. Constitutional crisis. Foundation f the International Socialists.

23.06.2010
102,5 K

. ,

, , , , .

Bnth hs flng f bng flttrd, struggl ws gng n n th pltcl mk-up f Phl Grffths. H ws bgnnng t s th lgc f Lnnst pstn but, bcus f hs smwht vcfrus nt-Lnnsm f th pst, h ws fndng t dffcult t dmt tht h'd bn `wrng'. t ddn't tk lng. fw wks ltr Grffths, cmng frwrd wth sm prpsls, cmmntd lcnclly, `Wll, snc w'v dn ths stupd thng n lctng Pltcl Cmmtt, w my s wll us t.' nd md th lughtr vrybdy knw tht h rlly mnt Pltcl Cmmtt ws nt such bd thng ftr ll.

Sm mprtnt chvmnts

n th wks fllwng th cnfrnc, thr wr tw mprtnt dvlpmnts. Th frst ccurrd t Mnsh whr th RvCmms, SWG's Mnsh cmpus grup, hd bult Hrd Lns nt wdly rd nd rspctd brdsht. But th Mst Lbr Club hd rmnd th dmnnt pltcl grup lrgly bcus f ts rdcl trdtn frm th lt 60's. Th RvCmms numbrd nly 4 SWG mmbrs plus fw thr ccsnl ctv supprtrs. But th chllngng pstn tht Hrd Lns nw hd vs--vs th Msts (wh, dspt thr grtr sz nd dmnnc, prducd lss rgulr brdsht whch wsn't s wdly rd) cnvncd th RvCmms tht t ws tm t flx thr muscls. Thy chllngd th Msts t publc dbt n th qustn f `th rd t sclsm'. Prhps bcus thy wr flng thrtnd by th grwng ppulrty f Hrd Lns, th Msts ccptd th chllng. Th mtng ws wll ttndd, svrl hundrd cmpus mltnts turnng up. L ck, chf RvCmms spksprsn, rgud strngly gnst th `ntnlst' rd t sclsm, pntng ut hw ptrtsm ws wpn usd by th cptlst clss t c-pt th msss nd dlntng th mny hstrcl xmpls f th flur f `ppulr frnt' strtgs. Ths ntrntnlst pstn pprd t b wll rcvd n cntrst t th Msts' rdcl ntnlsm. Th RvCmms rprtd bck t SWG tht, gugng frm th rspns f th udnc, thy hd clrly wn `Th Grt Dbt'. Ths prvd t b n hllw clm. Frm ths tm nwrds, fr t lst th nxt tw yrs, th RvCmms wr th dmnnt pltcl grup t Mnsh, nt just bcus f Hrd Lns, but bcus f thr nttn nd ldrshp f ll subsqunt rdcl cmpgns n cmpus durng ths prd.

n md-1973, th qul py cmpgn n th nsurnc ndustry bgn t gt ff th grund wth th frmtn f th Mltnt nsurnc Clrks. vr th nxt fw mnths MC bgn pplyng cnsdrbl prssur n th SF ldrshp, qul py fr wmn n th wht cllr r ws th ffcl plcy f th Whtlm gvrnmnt nd th rbtrtn Cmmssn hd ctully grntd t fr wmn n th nsurnc ndustry. But th nsurnc cmpns wr qut dpt t wrkng thr wy rund th nw rqurmnt fr qul py. Thy bgn rclssfy jbs; thy wr ttmptng t clssfy ll ml clrks nt prtculr typs f jbs, nd ll fml clrks nt dffrnt typs f jbs. Th typs f Jbs n whch th mls wrkd wuld rcv hghr py thn th fml jbs, th ffcl rsn bng nt n f sxul dscrmntn but bcus f `grtr skll' r `hghr qulfctns' tc. Th SF xcutv knw tht th mplyrs wn rclssfyng jbs t vd qul py. Yt t ws dng lttl but t. nd t ws ths lck f ctvty n th prt f th unn ldrs whch MC fcussd n n ts gttn. MC's rvltns nd dmnds wr wll publcsd n Clrk nd Dggr. nd t sn bgn publshng ts wn brdsht clld MCcy Fnn. t ts bgnnngs n th mddl f th yr, MC hd but 3 r 4 nsurnc wrkrs nvlvd. By th nd f 1973, up t 20 wr ttndng ts mtngs. Grffths rmnd th sl SWG mmbr f MC, yt h ws ts undsputd ldr. t ws Grffths wh nt nly nttd mst f MC's ds nd tctcs, but wh ls prvdd th nrgy nd zst ndd t crry th grup frwrd. nd, f curs, th rsurcs f SWG wr prtculrly usful. Grffths prducd MCcy Fnn n SWG's duplctr.

rlr n th yr Grffths ws lctd t th Vctrn xcutv f th SF, Nw, wth th rnk nd fl bckng f MC, h ws bl t frc th xcutv nt ctn. Rvltns f undmcrtc prctcs by th xcutv (.g. cncllng mtngs wthut xplntn) hd prbbly md th ffcls snstv but rnk nd fl crtcsm. nd t bcm bvus tht MCcy Fnn ws bng wll rcvd n mny nsurnc ffcs. Unlk C&D, MC's brdsht ws dstrbutd pnly nsd ffcs. Bcus t ws dfndng ffcl unn plcy (whch ws n supprt f qul py) t wuld b dffcult fr mngmnt t vctms prtculr dstrbutrs f th brdsht - n ths stutn, th SF ffcls, lthugh thy ddn't lk MC's crtcsms f thr nctvty, wuld b frcd t dfnd thr mmbrs. Prtculrly snc MCcy Fnn ws rcvng cnsdrbl ppulr supprt. nd s MC ws bl t frc th xcutv t hld numbr f unn gnrl mtngs n th ssu f qul py whch, fr th frst tm n th unn's hstry, wr wll ttndd by th rnk nd fl - s mny s 100-200 wr turnng up. Prpsls fr ctn, cmng frm Grffths nd MC, culmntd n mss lunchtm rlly n rly Dcmbr, whch ws ttndd by vr 2000 nsurnc clrks. t th rlly, n th fc f ppstn frm th SF xcutv, MC mvd succssfully fr strk ctn gnst th mplyrs' ttmpts t rclssfy jbs. nd s vr 1000 nsurnc clrks dd nt g bck t wrk tht ftrnn. Th SF ws n strk fr th frst tm n ts hstry.

Unnstn n th nsurnc ndustry ws nt, f curs, prtculrly hgh - prbbly but 50% f ffc wrkrs n th ndustry wr mmbrs f th unn. nd nt ll f ths wnt n strk. Nnthlss, th fct tht vr 1000 nsurnc clrks dd g n strk fr th frst tm n thr lvs, rflctd th wdsprd cncrn mngst th rnk nd fl f th ndustry vr th mplyrs* ttmpts t rclssfy jbs, nd th unn's lck f ffrt n ttmptng t stp t. Yt th cmpgn ws nt C succd. Th ntl strk hd bn fr th hlf dy nly. n-dy strk whch th mss rlly hd clld fr th fllwng wk ws cnclld t shrt ntc by th SF xcutv. Th rsns th ffcls gv fr ths ws tht th nsurnc cmpns hd grd t dscuss th dmnds. Yt t ltr mrgd tht ths dscussns hd chvd lttl nd th mplyrs cntnud jb rclssfctn. But by nw t ws t lt fr MC t mbls th rnk nd fl nc gn. Fr t ws rght n Chrstms nd th ndustry ws clsng dwn fr th Chrstms-Nw Yr brk. Th struggl ws dssptd. ftr th summr brk, Grffths ws unbl t rus ntrst n cntnung th cmpgn. vn MC csd t functn; Grffths' clsst ctvst-cmrds n th ndustry wr nw unntrstd.

Thr wr tw mprtnt lssns f th 1973 qul py cmpgn n th nsurnc ndustry. Frstly, t dmnstrtd wht smll grup f mltnts culd chv prvdd thy wr wll rgnsd, hd cncpt f wht t d, nd pckd th crrct ssu n whch thy culd mbls th rnk nd fl. Fr SWG mmbrs t smd vrfctn f th rnk nd fl strtgy - .. ttmptng t buld cmpgns thrugh th frmtn f xplct rnk nd fl grups - plus n ndrsmnt f th cncpt f mltnt, dmcrtc nd sclly-cnscus unnsm. But th flur f th cmpgn ls llustrtd hw quckly mltnt struggl culd bcm dssptd. t smd tht Chrstms brk ws lmst nvtbly rcp fr dsstr. Th lssn pprd t b tht th ht f struggl must b mntnd, nd Chrstms ws n tm t d tht. f curs furthr lssn ws vrfctn f hw wllngly unn ffcls wll sll ut struggls undr th gus f pprng t d smthng (dscussns wth th mplyrs whch dn't munt t nythng). Grffths blvs tht th SF ldrshp purpsly dssptd th struggl n th v f Chrstms, knwng tht t wuld b dffcult t rvv n th Nw Yr ftr th brk. Thr mtvs fr dng ths wuld b tht thy flt thrtnd by th rnk nd fl tkng mttrs nt thr wn hnds. Gvn th prvus rcrd f SF ffcls n ttmptng t dscurg rnk nd fl nttv nd prtcptn, ths s cnvncng rgumnt.

t ws n lt 1973 tht SWG frst dptd pstn n th Russn Qustn. mtng ws hld whr ths ws th mn tpc n th gnd. 'Lncln rgud fr th dptn f th SUS pstn vz. tht th `sclst' cuntrs wr nthr sclst nr cptlst, but nw xplttv systm clld `burucrtc cllctvsm' whr th burucrcy ws nw rulng clss. Ndl hd dprtd n n vrss trp f 5 mnths nd s th grup dd nt hv th plsur f hs vws n th dbt. Th nly ppstn cm frm Rss McKnz, th frmr mmbr f SGB, wh put th Brtsh pstn tht th `Sclst' cuntrs wr `stt cptlst'. 'Lncln rcvd supprt frm Stn nd L ck, nd th rst f th mmbrshp ddn't ppr t knw vry much but th ssu, ncludng Grffths wh ws n ctvst rthr thn thrtcn. Th burucrtc cllctvst pstn ws dptd wth nly n vt gnst, but th 5 r 6 vts n fvur wr quld by but th sm numbr f bstntns. Ths hgh numbr f bstntns rflctd th lw lvl f cnfdnc SWG mmbrs hd n mkng dcsns n th mr cmplctd thrtcl qustns. t ws clr frm th dbt, hwvr, tht ll mmbrs subscrbd t th vw tht th Stlnst cuntrs wr scts ch wth nw xplttv mnrty rulng clss. Th ctul dsgntn f whthr th systm ws `burucrtc cllctvst' r `stt cptlst' ws th mr cmplx dcsn whch mny mmbrs flt unbl t mk. Th gnrl grmnt tht Stlnst burucrcs n pwr wr mnrty rulng clsss dd rflct tht th thrtcl bss f SWG ws wthn th S `cmp' rthr thn th rth-Trtskyst n whch nlyzd ths rgms s `dgnrtd wrkrs' stts'. n ssnc, ths mnt tht th S tndncy wthn SWG (.. ths wh hd md up th Rd nc fctn) hd bn succssful, thrugh thr nflunc n th grup, n stblshng th lgtmcy f S ds. f curs, th Rnk nd Fl strtgy hd lng bn ccptd n prctc. nd nw th thrtcl bss f S pltcs ws ccptd, n gnrl trms, s wll. lthugh fw mmbrs rlzd t xplctly t ths tm, SWG ws nw bcmng, n lt 1973-rly 1974, n S grup.

Th yr 1974 pnd wth th frms f SWG ctvsm bng prmrly n th studnt rn. Th RvCmms wr nw th dmnnt pltcl grup t Mnsh. nd n th lttr hlf f l973, SWG hd rcrutd 2 studnts frm Ltrb Unvrsty. t th utst f th cdmc yr n 1974, th Ltrb studnts nw bgn ttmptng t buld grup smlr t th Mnsh RvCmms. ff-cmpus ctvts wr dmnshd by th fldng f th qul py cmpgn n nsurnc nd th cllps f th RFL nd MC (f curs th lttr dmnshd th lvl f ctvsm fr Grffths prsnlly rthr thn SWG s whl). Th cupl f tchr mmbrs mntnd sm ctvty n Tchr ctn. Th mn ff-cmpus ctvty durng rly 1974 ws Clrk nd Dggr whch mntnd rgulr publctn cycl f but 3 wks Mst mmbrs wr nvlvd wth thr th prductn r dstrbutn f C&D.

ctn dvlpd quckly t Ltrb. Ths ws cmpus dmntd by Msts cllng thmslvs th Rdcl Studnt Mvmnt (RSM), nd n f th mn ssus n whch thy rn cmpgns ws th dmnd fr rfrm n th prsn systm. t th bgnnng f th cdmc yr, th Studnts' Rprsnttv Cuncl (SRC) undr RSM nflunc, nnuncd gnrl studnt mtng t dscuss prpsl tht Ltrb b dclrd hvn fr prsn scps. Th d ws prmrly t drw publcty t th spcfc dmnds fr pnl rfrm. numbr f studnts wr, hwvr, qustnng th cnsquncs f n scp wr ctully t b hrbrd n cmpus. Fr xmpl, wht f n scp n cmpus rpd wmn? (nd t bcm knwn t sm ppl tht th RSM hd lrdy hrbrd n scp n cmpus nd wuld d s gn f t hd th pprtunty.) n n ffrt t cuntr ths bjctns th Mst frnt, th Prsnrs' ctn Grup put ut lflt syng tht f n scp rpd smn n cmpus, thn ths wuld b th `fult f th cptlst systm'. Th Ltrb SWG mmbrs, ls cllng thmslvs th Rvlutnry Cmmunsts (RvCmms) bgn publshng brdsht clld Rd nk n whch thy rgud tht th Mst dsrgrd fr th sfty f wmn n cmpus ws sxst. Thy ls pntd ut hw ll th PG prpgnd hd bn drctd t xpsng th nhumn cndtns nly t ml prsns, ttlly gnrng Frl wmns' prsn. Th RvCmms ls rgud tht mnngful prsn rfrm culd nly b chvd by drct bng tkn by trd unns; nly th rgnzd wrkng clss hs strngth t frc cncssns frm th gvrnmnt. Whl th RSM-PG hd rcvd ndrsmnt f thr cmpgn frm fw Mst trd unn ffcls thy hd nt ttmptd, th RvCmms rgud, t mblz rnk nd fl wrkrs n supprt f prsnrs' dmnds.

t th nsung gnrl mtng - wll ttndd, wth vr 600 studnts prsnt - th RvCmms wr bl, n th bss f th sxst ntur f th Mst cmpgn, t dft th mtn dclrng Ltrb s prsn scp hvn. Th vt ws vry cls - dvsn hd t b clld - nd t ws gnrlly cknwldgd tht t ws th RvCmms' ntrvntn whch swung th vt, fw wmn's lbrtnsts swngng t th `n' sd ftr hrng th RvCmms' rgumnts n th sxst ntur f th cmpgn. S, t ts vry frst ntrvntn t Ltrb, SWG chvd substntl vctry. n rtrspct, hwvr, th RvCmms' ntrvntn cn b sn s smwht unprncpld. Thy hd supprtd th Msts' ssntl dmnds fr rfrm (whch ncludd frdm f spch fr prsnrs, th rght t jn trd unns, much mprvd lvng cndtns, uncnsrd ml, tc), thr crtcsms - crtnly mprtnt nd mnngful ns - bng drctd gnst th wy th cmpgn ws run, rthr thn th ms f th cmpgn. n ths stutn, th crrct thng fr sclsts t d wuld b t gv crtcl supprt t th cmpgn by mvng mndmnts n ppstn t ts sxst nd `grndstndng' fturs, whl supprtng th bsc dmnds fr rfrm. ndd, t ppr s srus, th RvCmms shuld hv frmlly mvd ltrntv prpsls fr ctn. Thr flur t d ths rsultd n splt n th Lft nd dft nt just fr th `prsn hvn* mtn, but mpld dft fr th pnl rfrm dmnds s wll. Such unprncpld ntrvntns dd nt, hwvr, prv t b th nrml prctc f SWG r th RvCmms.

Th ntl `succss* f th Ltrb RvCmms ws nt t b rptd n th sns tht thy nvr gn rcvd mjrty supprt t studnt gnrl mtng. But Rd nk, lk ts Mnsh cusn Hrd Lns, dd bcm th mst rgulr nd wdly rd brdsht n cmpus. Twrds th nd f th yr, 2 mr Ltrb studnts wr rcrutd by th RvCmms t SWG.

Th RvCmms t Mnsh ls strtd th yr 1974 wth cnsdrbl succss. Bgnnng wth 4 mmbrs thy quckly rcrutd ffth nd hld srs f Mrxst ductn clsss whch wr ttndd by 15 t 20 studnts. Wth ths nuclus f cntcts nd sympthzrs thy wr t grdully buld n xtnsv cmpgn dmndng rfrms n mthds f ductnl ssssmnt wthn th unvrsty. t tk lt f ffrt nd sld grundwrk vr th rly mnths f 1974 t buld th cmpgn.

Mnwhl, thngs wr hppnng n SWG, Bth Ndl nd L ck hd bn vrss fr 4-5 mnths vr th summr prd nd durng thr trvls thy hd cnsdrbl cntct wth th S grups n Brtn nd th US. Ndl rturnd much mprssd by th wrk f Brtsh S, nd cm frwrd wth cupl f mprtnt prpsls fr SWG. n ws tht th grup shuld hv ts wn ffc, r cntr. Ths ws ssntl, sd Ndl, f th grup's ctvts wr t b prprly c-rdntd. Untl ths tm, SWG hd n fcl pnt f ts wn. Mtngs n th rly dys f th MWG hd bn hld n th rsdntl sctn f th `Prm Fctry', wll knwn thtr n Mlburn whr n MWG mmbr lvd, nd thn subsquntly n th Unn Buldng t Mlburn Unvrsty. SWG's duplctng mchn, usd t prduc mst f ts brdshts, ws kpt t th hm f n f th mmbrs. lthugh th grup ws n n fnncl pstn t rnt prpr ffc, Ndl's prpsl ws mplmntd by 3 SWG mmbrs mvng nt n ld hus n Ftzry n whch n rm ws st sd s SWG ffc, th grup pyng rntl fr th rm nly.

Sn ftr th nw SWG `cntr' ws stblshd, n-dy SWG cnfrnc ws hld t whch th mst mprtnt dscussn ws rltd t Ndl's scnd prpsl. Ths ws tht th grup shuld mk plns t bgn publshng ts wn nwsppr, rthr thn nly rstrctng tslf t brdshts spcfclly rntd t prtculr ndustrs nd cmpuss. Th nwsppr, lk Th Bttlr f lt 1972, wuld nt rplc th grup's brdshts but rthr wuld b cmplmntry t thm by ctng s c-rdntng muthpc fr th vrus struggls th grup ws nvlvd n. nd, f curs, t wuld b bl t prsnt th grup's pltcs n ll mprtnt, currnt wrkng clss nd rdcl struggls nd tpcl vnts.

Bcus f th grup's mgr fnncl rsurcs thr ws nturlly sm pprhnsn vr Ndl's prpsl, spclly fr ths wh culd rmmbr th frcd drppng f Th Bttlr 15 mnths bfr. nd thr ws stll sm dubt s t whthr SWG hd th pltcl xprts nd xprnc ncssry t prduc gd rgulr nwsppr. Ndl's prpsl ws nt, hwvr, tht th grup shuld bgn publshng nthr nwsppr mmdtly. Rthr, h rgud tht t shuld st trgt dt fr ltr n th yr, gvng SWG th chnc t mk dqut prprtns fr ths mjr stp. nd t ws gnrlly rcgnsd tht th grup dd hv grtr pltcl chsn thn t hd yr prvusly. S Ndl's prpsl fr nwsppr ws ccptd, wth trgt dt fr smtm n th Sprng f 1974. s n ntrmdry stp, t ws dcdd tht th grup shuld bgn publshng rgulr duplctd jurnl n whch SWG's pltcs culd b furthr dvlpd thrugh nlytcl (rthr thn gttnl) rtcls. Dspt th fct tht jurnls hv ncssrly thrtcl mphss (yu cn't ntrvn n struggls wth thm), t ws hpd tht prductn f jurnl wuld prvd th grup wth sm vlubl xprnc fr prducng th ltr gttnl nwsppr.

Th jurnl ws clld Frnt Ln. nly thr ssus f t pprd n 1974, th frst n My. t crrd nlyss such s th ntur f th LP (prt f th `clbrtd' McCr Dcumnt), th rprssn f wmn n th Svt Unn, nd survys f tpcl vnts lk th 1974 fdrl lctns nd Wtrgt. ts crcultn ws nvr lrg, prbbly but 50 cps pr ssu. n prtculr rtcl, n Frnt Ln n. 3, ws t rcv cnsdrbl cclm utsd th mmdt wmn's nd lft-wng mvmnts. Ths ws n nlyss by Jny Stn f th pltcs f rdcl fmnsm. Ths prtculr vrty f fmnsm nlyss scty n sxul rthr thn cnmc bss. Fr rdcl fmnsts th `rulng clss' s ll mls n scty, whl wmn r th xpltd clss. Ths mns thy s wlthy nd wrkng clss wmn s hvng ssntlly th sm ntrsts, gnrng th fct tht wlthy wmn lv ff th xplttn f fml nd ml wrkrs lk. Ths vw f sng th sxs s th prmry clsss f scty, lds rdcl fmnsts t s ll scl lls (grd, wr, rprssn, xplttn) s purly th rsult f ml dmnnc. nd th crllry f ths s tht nly wmn r truly cpbl f bsc scl `gds' such s lv, undrstndng, sympthy, ffctn. Stn llustrtd hw ths vw lds rdcl fmnsts t cclm th trdtnl, sctlly-mpsd pursuts f wmn - th nn-vlnt chld-rrng, huskpng, swng, tc. - s bng th rst wrthy scl pursuts, whch `nly wmn culd d', whch mnt tht wmn wr suprr t mn. n fct, sd Stn, rdcl fmnst ltrtur ws nw rnfrcng th vry ds whch wr th nstrumnts f wmn's pprssn; tht wmn shuld b rlgtd t subrdnt dmstc ctvts whl th prmry scl functns f wrk n ndustry nd pltcs wr lft s th dmn f mn. Stn's crtqu f rdcl fmnsm rcvd prs frm mny qurtrs ncludng lzbth Rd, wh ws, t th tm Wmn's dvsr t Prm Mnstr Whtlm. t hs snc bn rprntd mr thn nc, mst rcntly s prt f th cllctn Prspctvs fr Wmn's Lbrtn.

Th ltrntv prspctv fr wmn's lbrtn, s hld by Stn nd SWG, s tht th mvmnt shuld rnt tslf prmrly t wrkng wmn. T b sur, wlthy wmn r pprssd s wmn. But wrkng wmn r pprssd bth s wmn nd s wrkrs. Clss dvsns n scty r cnmc, nt sxul. Th sxul xplttn f wmn hs crtnly bn nsttutnlsd by cptlsm nd mnpultd t th systm's dvntg. Cmplt lbrtn f wmn wll nly b chvd whn prmry cnmc xplttn hs bn blshd, nd tht mns sclsm. Th mn fght t nd wmn's pprssn s, thrfr, n cnmc n. Snc nly untd nd rgnsd wrkng clss cn vrthrw cptlsm, t s up t ll wrkrs -mn nd wmn - t fght tgthr t nd ll frms f xplttn: cnmc, scl nd sxul. t's prtculrly mprtnt fr rdcls t rls tht th bsss ttmpt t us th sxul pprssn f wmn t dvd n sctn f th wrkng clss (wmn) frm nthr (mn) by, fr xmpl, hvng unqul py lvls nd/r rtrnchng wmn hd f mn. SWG rcgnsd tht thr ws nd t fght hr nd nw, rthr thn wtng fr sclsm, gnst th nt-wmn sxst tttuds hrbrd by mn, bsss nd wrkrs lk. nd t d ths, wmn ndd thr wn ndpndnt lbrtn mvmnt. But whl th Wmn's Lbrtn Mvmnt nggs n ths ncssry nt-sxst struggl, t shuld rnt tslf prmrly t wrkng wmn. By prmtng struggls f wmn n th wrkplc, wmn wuld gn cnfdnc s rgnzd wrkrs. nd n th prcss, thy culd cnvnc ml wrkrs tht t ws n th ntrsts f th whl wrkng clss t shd sxst tttuds nd fght tgthr t vrthrw th bsss nd cptlsm.

Whn SWG bgn publctn f Frnt Ln nd dptd plns fr publctn f rgulr nwsppr ltr n 1974, rsrvtns vr th grup's cpcty t mbrk n ths smwht mbtus prjct, wr dmnshd by th rcgntn tht thr ws grtr pltcl dvlpmnt nd chsn wthn th mmbrshp thn yr rlr. Ths `ntrnl' grwth hd bn ld by th Rd nc fctn. mnfsttn f ths grtr pltcl unty ws rflctd n th fct tht, ftr th Lnnsm dbt t th frst SWG Cnfrnc n 1973, Rd nc blvd tht ts prmry jb `ws dn', nd dsbndd tslf s frml fctn. lthugh ths cnfrnc dptd nly th bscs f Lnnsm, rthr thn th whl gmut f S pltcs, t ws bvus th grup ws dvlpng grtr pltcl chrnc wth n `S-typ' drctn. Ths ws furthr rflctd wth th dptn - lbt, smwht tnuusly - f th `burucrtc cllctvst' nlyss f Russ n lt 1973. nd n rly 1974, tw ustrln-brn SWG ldrs, Ndl nd L ck, rturnd frm vrss much mprssd wth th pltcs nd prctc f thr S grups, prtculrly n Brtn. Bth SWG s whl nd mst ndvdul mmbrs, nw bgn t cnscusly nd publcly dntfy thmslvs s prt f th S tndncy. lthugh SWG nvr frmlly dclrd tslf s n S grup. n ths rly prd f 1974 t ffctvly bcm n.

ftr th n-dy SWG Cnfrnc (smtms rfrrd t s `mn' r `mdtrm' cnfrnc, bcus t ws hlf-wy n btwn th nw xpctd nnul Cnfrncs t b hld n ugust) n Mrch 1974, th grup's ctvts cntnud mnly n th studnt nd wht-cllr rs. Rd nk hd stblshd tslf s th rst rgulr nd wdly-rd brdsht t Ltrb, th Mnsh mmbrs wr buldng vry cncrtd cmpgn fr ductnl/ssssmnt rfrm, nd Clrk nd Dggr ws cntnung t crt rgulr str n mny Mlburn ffcs. Frnt Ln ws bng prducd n n ttmptd mnthly bss. n ths prd th grup rcrutd thr mr wht-cllr wrkrs, brngng th mmbrshp n md-1974 t but 16, lthugh tw f ths wr t dprt but ths tm n xtndd vrss; trps, rducng th ffctv mmbrshp t 14.

s th Mnsh RvCmms wr gng frm succss t succss n buldng n ncrsngly grwng ssssmnt ctn grup, SWG hld ts scnd nnul Cnfrnc n ugust. Tw dstnctv dvlpmnts n th grup n th frst hlf f th yr - bcmng n S grup nd plns t bgn rgulr nwsppr - prvd t b th mst ntbl fturs f ths Cnfrnc. Th frst f ths ws rflctd n th fct tht fr th frst tm, SWG gthrng ws ttndd by ntrntnl `rprsnttvs'. n ws mmbr f Brtsh S, th thr hd bn ctv fr mny yrs wth Frnch sclst grup publshng ppr clld Lutt uvrr. Th lttr ws nt n S grup, but SGB hd bn cnductng `frtrnl' rltns wth t fr sm tm. Nthr f ths ntrntnl `rps' wr ffcl dlgts t th SWG Cnfrnc (bth wr ustrlns wh, hvng lft ustrl sm yrs bfr, wr pyng tmprry vsts t s fmly rltns), but thr prsnc ws sn by ll s cncrt xprssn f SWG's plc wthn n ntrntnl mvmnt.

Th mn dbt t th cnfrnc ws whthr r nt t prcd wth plns fr publshng rgulr nwsppr. n ldng SWG mmbr nw cm ut frmly ppsd t th nwsppr prpsl. Ths ws Grffths, wh rgud tht th grup dd nt hv th cpcty, n thr fnncl r pltcl trms, t prduc ppr. lthugh Grffths' ppstn rcvd sm sympthy frm cupl f th nwr wht-cllr mmbrs, nd 'Lncln nd Stn ls xprssd sm ntl rsrvtns, prpsl t bgn publshng nwsppr n ctbr ws vrwhlmngly crrd, 'Lncln nd Stn vtng wth th mjrty. Thr ws tuch f rny n Grffths' ppstn t th ppr. yr bfr, h hd bn th sl ppnnt f th frml dntfctn wth Lnnsm nd th cnsqunt frmtn f Pltcl Cmmtt. Yt wthn shrt prd, h bcm n rdnt dvct f mplmntng ths prpsls. Nw t, h ws ut n lmb n hs ppstn t th ppr, nly t quckly rvrs hs ntl vw by sn bcmng ts ctv ndustrl dtr. Ltr h ws t bcm lng-srvng nd succssful gnrl dtr.

Th nm f th ppr, chsn t SWG mtng sn ftr th scnd cnfrnc, ws th sm s th rlr shrt-lvd SWG ppr, Th Bttlr. n SWG ldr, L ck, ntlly ppsd th nm n th grunds tht t hd ngtv sund but t - tht t mpld n ws lwys `bttlng' but nvr wnnng. But Ndl, wh ws th drvng frc n cnvncng th grup tht t must bgn publshng ppr, succssfully rgud tht t ws pstv dntfctn wth ustrln wrkrs. Th cncpt f `bttlr' ws, h sd, n ustrln cllqulsm whch mnt n `undrdg' (bng rprssd, lk wrkr) but nt `lsr'. Bcus Ndl ws th nly mmbr wth n xplct cncpt fr th pltcl cntnt nd prsnttn f Th Bttlr, t ws gnrlly ccptd tht h wuld b ts frst dtr. L ck ws cnsdrd, hwvr, t b bttr prctcl rgnsr, nd ws gvn th dtrshp fr th frst cupl f ssus n rdr t stblsh prctcl prcdurs whch Ndl's pltcl xprts culd thn tk vr.

Sn ftr SWG's scnd nnul cnfrnc, th ssssmnt/ductnl struggl t Mnsh xpldd. Th cmpgn hd bn gthrng mmntum snc md-yr. Thrugh th nttv f th RvCmms, n ssssmnt ctn () grup ws frmd whch bgn dvlpng n nlyss f th rl f trtry ductn n cptlst scty. Th ssu f th mds f ssssmnt wthn th unvrsty prvd t b mttr f cncrn fr mny Mnsh studnts, ws sn ttrctng s mny s 30 nd mr studnts t ts mtngs. Th 5 RvCmms wr th cr pltcl unt f , nd L ck ws ts utstndng ldr - ndd, sh hd bn th mst wdly rspctd lft-wng pltcl ctvst n cmpus vr snc th `Grt Dbt' nrly 12 mnths rlr. Thrugh srs f publc frums nd studnt gnrl mtngs, bgn t mbls studnt pnn n th nd fr ductn rfrm. Th fct tht s mny publc mtngs f n frm r nthr culd b hld n th ssu - thr wr but dzn wthn th spc f thr mnths - rflctd th lvl f studnt ntrst n th ssu. vr 100 studnts ttndd th frst ffcl Mnsh ssctn f Studnts mtng dvtd t ssssmnt n 26 Jun, nd ths grw t svrl hundrd t subsqunt gnrl mtngs s th cmpgn gnd mmntum.

Bgnnng wth th nlyss tht unvrsts srv th cptlst systm, th RvCmms nd rgud tht ductnl ssssmnt undr cptlsm s ssntlly mthd f dscplnng studnts nt ccptng th vlus nd uthrty f th systm. Mds f ssssmnt nd curs-cntnt/structur r hndd dwn frm bv - studnts hv n sy n thm whtsvr. Ths mns unvrsty ssssmnt s dsgnd t slct ths wh wll bst srv cptlsm s tchncrts, mngrs, tchrs, nd `wd ut' ths wh wll nt b cmpltly subsrvnt t th systm. nd th cmpttvnss f cptlsm ws nstlld n ts ductn systm thrugh th plcy f grdng mrks nd flng st quts f studnts. Ths frcd studnts t cmpt gnst ch thr fr th cvtd hnurs, nd vn fr pss. ls pntd ut th clss bs n ductn: vry fw wrkng clss kds vr mk t t unvrsty - thy r `wdd ut' lng bfr thy rch trtry lvl ductn. Th nt-ssssmnt ctvsts wr ttmptng t llustrt th scl rl f ssssmnt n cptlst scty nd prps sm ltrntvs.

Th dmnds dbtd nd dptd t succssv MS mtngs durng th cmpgn wr mny nd vrd. ssntlly thy cn b summrsd s fllws:

ptnl ssssmnt! ndvdul studnts shuld hv th rght t chs th mthd f thr ssssmnt (ptn f xms, ssys, prjcts, rls), ncludng th rght nt t b ssssd t ll.

n grdng f mrks, n flurs. n nd t cmpttv ssssmnt, rplcd by dgnstc ssssmnt: whr studnt's wrk hs dfcncs, t shuld b rdn n cnsulttn wth stff. Cmpltn f curs wrk shuld b ll tht's ncssry fr pss.

curs cntnt nd structur shuld b dcdd by studnt-stff cnsnsus.

pn dmssns: ll wh wsh t ttnd trtry nsttutns shuld b bl t d s wthut pr-rqust qulfctns. f quts hd t b mpsd, rndm bllt shuld slct ths wh ttnd. s ths ws plcy f Vctrn Scndry Tchrs' ssctn, supprt f VST plcy.

rpd xpnsn f fclts t nbl th bltn f quts.

n ssssmnt rcrds t b suppld t mplyrs r hld by unvrsty.

n th prsnt scl cntxt, th dmnds cn ppr s unwnnbl nd utpn. Th cntrl d ws, hwvr, t buld struggl whch pntd twrds th dl ductn systm, nd hw ths ws nt pssbl undr cptlsm. Fr xmpl, th rght t chs nt t b ssssd llustrtd tht ductn shuld ssntlly b lrnng prcss (th studnt dvlpng hs/hr ntrsts) rthr thn ncssrly bng n f btnng qulfctns. Th dmnd fr n flurs ws mnt t llustrt tht ll ndvduls r gftd n smthng, nd Cht th mpstn f judgmnts bsd n nflxbl bstrct crtr wrkd gnst th dvlpmnt f ndvdul sklls. Dgnstc ssssmnt wuld vrcm ths. Mst rdcl struggls wthn cptlsm tht hv rvlutnry cntnt d cntn dmnds whch r nt mmdtly wnnbl. Th crucl lmnt s th struggl tslf. n brdsht put ths succnctly!

Th clss bs n ductn, smthng tht's bn rund s lng s cptlsm, wn't b lmntd undr cptlsm, but ts smthng w shuld fght gnst s wll s tlk but!

Hrd Lns dvlpd ths furthr:

fundmntl chng n th scl rl nd functn f ssssmnt mns crrspndng fundmntl chng n scty. But w dn't hv t wt fr rvlutn t d smthng. Nt nly cn w wn mprtnt rfrms nw, but succssful nt-ssssmnt struggl culd b stp twrds th fundmntl scl chngs w nd

nd struggl sur ws mblsd. ftr mnths f rcvng lttl sympthy frm th unvrsty dmnstrtn nd hghr chlns f cdmc stff, substntl mjrty f studnts t gnrl mtng, ttndd by svrl hundrd, vtd t ccupy th dmnstrtn ffcs.

Th ccuptn bgn n 18 Sptmbr 1974 nd lstd fr wk. t ws th frst ccuptn t Mnsh fr svrl yrs, nd th lngst vr t tht cmpus - nt vn n th hy-dy f studnt rdclsm n th lt 1960's hd n ccuptn t Mnsh lstd s lng s wk. Th numbr wh ntlly ccupd ws but 150-200, nd t fluctutd gd dl thrughut th wk. Th lwst numbrs wr vrnght whn thy drppd t btwn 70 nd 100. Studnts tk thr slpng bgs t slp n, rgnsd fd nd cff, ntrtnd thmslvs wth crd gms, gutrs, nd sngng. cmmunl sprt dvlpd, nd gnrl mtngs f ccuprs wr hld ch dy t rgns ctvts. Nt ll th tm ws spnt n ntrtnmnt. Mny lflts wr prducd n th ccuptn, xplnng th dmnds nd ctn tkn, whch wr dstrbutd n cmpus ch dy, urgng thr studnts t jn th struggl. Mny wrkshps wr hld, dvlpng furthr th studnts' ds nd dmnds fr ductnl rfrm. Th ccuptn fnlly cm t n nd whn, ftr studnts frcd ntry nt th unvrsty's cuncl chmbrs, th dmnstrtn clld n th plc nd 77 studnts wr rrstd, bng chrgd wth `bsttng buldng'. Fcd wth th prspct f much lrgr ccuptn prtstng th rrsts ( studnt gnrl mtng f 1800 vtd vrwhlmngly fr furthr ccuptn, but dlyd tkng ctn). Vc Chncllr Mthsn clvrly dffusd th struggl by drppng th chrgs n cndtn tht thr ws n furthr ccuptn.

n trms f ts ms, th ccuptn dd nt chv grt dl, lthugh n sm curss stff grd t cnsult gnrl mtngs f studnts dng th curs n currculum nd curs structur. But fr SWG, th struggl ws mssv succss. Th RvCmms hd bn th nttrs f th cmpgn nd wr n th ldrshp thrughut. Ths gv SWG much crdblty, prtculrly wth th mr pltclly wr ctvsts. SWG's rgulr wkly mtng ws hld, n th wk f th ccuptn, n Mnsh's dmnstrtv buldng mngst th ccuprs. numbr f ctvsts ttndd, nd thy cntnud t cm t subsqunt SWG mtngs. Nt lng ftr, but tn ppl jnd SWG, ll wthn th spc f but 3 wks. Fr th ldr mmbrs f th grup, ths ws lmst unblvbl. ftr ttndng mtng ftr mtng nd sng th sm ld fcs, wth th ccsnl cmng nd gng f th dd n r tw, thy nw ttndd succssv mtngs wth nw mmbrs jnng t ch n. Thr ws n lmst uphrc tmsphr t SWG mtngs durng ths prd, rund lt ctbr nd rly Nvmbr 1974, th lvl f whch hs snc prbbly nvr bn rptd n th grup's hstry. nd th grup hd suddnly grwn frm 14 t 24 mmbrs, th lrgst t hd bn snc th rly dys f th MWG, prd whch nly but 7 mmbrs culd rmmbr.

Th nw rcruts wr mstly Mnsh studnts, but tw studnts frm Ltrb ls jnd t ths tm, lrgly bcus thy wr mprssd by SWG's rl n th Mnsh ccuptn. Ths lttr tw hd cm nt cntct wth th grup thrugh th Ltrb RvCmms wh hd ttmptd t mbls smlr nt-ssssmnt struggl t thr cmpus. Th nly sgnfcnt ctn t ccur t Ltrb ws whn, durng th Mnsh ccuptn, st-n by but 50 studnts ws hld n th Unvrsty's Cuncl Rm n supprt f th Mnsh struggl nd ts dmnds. t lstd but tw hurs, nd ws ddrssd by n f th ccuprs frm Mnsh, brught ut by th RvCmms. Bth th RvCmms nd th RSM hd bn nfluntl n mblsng th st-n. Th n rsult f th st-n ws th frmtn f th ductn ctn grup, n whch th RvCmms plyd ldng rl. t ntlly ttrctd but 20 studnts t ts mtngs, but fzzld ut vr th summr.

Th nwly wn cnfdnc f SWG ws nt du slly t th Mnsh ccuptn. cupl f thr dvlpmnts hppnd but ths tm. Just prr t th utbrk f th ccuptn, th grup hd mvd nt nw ffcs n Blck Plc, n th hrt f Mlburn's busnss dstrct. Th ld ffc n Ftzry hd bn dscntnud cupl f mnths bfr whn th thr SWG mmbrs lvng thr hd dcdd thy wr sck f th dlpdtd prmss, nd mvd ut t fnd bttr ccmmdtn. Th nw ffc ws th frst rl cntr fr th grup, ccupyng th tp flr f smll buldng. t cnsstd f thr rms, ncludng rsnbly lrg n n whch mtngs wr frquntly hld. Th nw ffc ws btnd t th rmrkbly chp rntl, gvn ts lctn n th hrt f th cty, f $80 pr mnth. But fr tny grup such s SWG, t ws stll lt f mny t rs. Th cqustn f th Blck Plc cntr ddd t th cnfdnc f SWG; t bstd th slf-mprtnc f such lttl grup t hv ts wn ffc. Ths dvlpmnt ws sn dwrfd by nthr, th lttr bng th mn rsn fr th cqustn f th nw ffc. Ths ws th rpublctn, ftr nrly tw yrs n bync, f Th Bttlr.

Publshng Th Bttlr

Th dust hdn't sttld n th Mnsh ccuptn bfr th grup ws fvrshly nvlvd n th prprtn f th frst ssu f th nw Bttlr. S mny thngs wr hppnng t nc, t hrdly smd th sm grup s fw wks bfr. ll f suddn SWG ws publshng ts wn nwsppr frm ts vry wn cty ffc wth lmst dubl th mmbrshp, ftr hvng ld hstry mkng ccuptn t Mnsh. Fr th ldr mmbrs f th grup t ws lmst t gd t blv. Yt th vry hypr-ctvty f ll ths -vnts lft lttl tm t blv r thnk nythng bynd mmdt tsks.

Mny mmbrs wr nvlvd n th prductn f Th Bttlr. Fclts wr mgr but suffcnt. fw mnths rlr, th grup hd btnd ts wn lctrc typwrtr. lyut tbl ws rpdly bult nd n f th cntr's rms ws st sd fr Bttlr prductn. ll lyut ws dn by SWG nd rsnbly chp prntr ws fund t run t ff th prss. Th ssu chsn fr th ld rtcl f th nw Bttlr n. 1, ws th Whtlm gvrnmnt's `blng ut' f Brtsh Lylnd, th cr mnufcturr whch hd bn scrmng `cllps' unlss t rcvd gvrnmnt ssstnc. Th gvrnmnt rgus, sd Th Bttlr, tht f t hdn't

spnt $25 mlln buyng th fctry st nd 782 Lylnd crs thn Lylnd wuld hv hd t cls cmpltly nd th 9000-plus wrkrs nvlvd n mkng buss nd ssmblng mn's wuld hv lst thr jbs s wll.

Th rtcl wnt n t pnt ut Lylnd ws nly n `trubl' bcus f tw unprftbl mdls, rthr thn ll th cmpny's prtns, nd th gvrnmnt ws dng nthng fr ths wrkrs wh wr gttng th sck nywy:

Grbg! Buss nd Mn's r prftbl. P76's nd Mrn's wrn't. Bsds, ndrby's prpsls d nthng fr th 3,000 nd mr wrkrs wh r gng t ls thr jbs t Lylnd, nt t mntn th mny thr wrkrs n ndustrs supplyng cmpnnt prts t Lylnd.

nd whr cmpns r rlly fcng bnkruptcy, rthr thn bng bught by th gvrnmnt, thy ught t b `ntnlsd - wthut cmpnstn - undr wrkrs' cntrl.' nd ths mns, cncludd Th Bttlr, th unns must b prprd t fght:

W must b rgnsd t mk sur thy dn't mk prsnts f ur futur nxt tm cmpny fls.

thr rprts n th frst Bttlr rprtd n mrcn wrkng wmn rgnsng t fght sxsm n th unns, cvrg f gnrl strk n Wstrn ustrl gnst nwly ntrducd svr nt-wrkng clss lgsltn, nd n nlyss f th cuss f nfltn. n prtculrly mprtnt rtcl ws th cvrg f th tkvr f th frgn wnd buldng grup. Mnln, by ustrln wnd buldng grup, . . Wtts. Mst buldng unn ldr Nrm Gllghr, fllwng hs `rdcl' ntnlst pltcs, hd supprtd th tkvr nd ws nvlvd n th dl. Yt, sd Th Bttlr, . . Wtts ws n f th fw cmpns tht wuldn't py crn drvrs nd dgmn btwn jbs.

Fr Gllghr, t's ntnlty tht's mprtnt. But fr ny unn, th frst cncrn shuld surly b wth th ntrsts f ts wn mmbrs.

Th bss's ntnl bckgrund s rrlvnt - ll mplyrs r n th busnss t mk s bg prft s thy cn, nd tht mns httng wrkrs' wgs nd cndtns f thy cn.

nd Th Bttlr wnt n t pnt ut tht Gllghr `rlly hs nthng t sy but th prblms n th buldng ndustry, nd n strtgy t prtct jbs'. Th rtcl cncludd by sttng:

Th BL's must strngthn thr rgnztn, bth n th jb nd n th unn, s tht Gllghr cnnt gt wy wth mkng dls wth th kngr-cptlsts t lmnt th hrd wn rght t fght th bsss, ll bsss nw tht th unns r cmng undr gnrl ttck.

Ths ws nvkng th rnk nd fl strtgy f SWG: rnk nd fl wrkrs ndd t mbls t fght bth th bsss nd th sll-uts f thr unn ldrs. Ths hs rmnd cnstnt thm f Th Bttlr.

Ths frst dtn f th nw Bttlr ws ght pgs n lngth, nd ws t rmn ths sz untl t wnt t twlv pgs yr ltr, n ctbr 1975. t bgn publctn s mnthly. n thusnd cps wr run ff, cstng but $320. but 700 cps wr sld, t tn cnts, cpy. Ths mnt th grup ws hvly subsdsng th cst f prductn. t ws, f curs, lk ll lft-wng pprs, sld t dmnstrtns. But rght frm th bgnnng, SWG plcd n mphss n sllng t fctrs, whch fw lft-wng grups d. SWG mmbrs wuld stnd utsd fctry gts, ftn vry rly n th mrnng, sllng t th wrkrs s thy cm t wrk (r, smtms, s thy knckd ff). Th numbr f sls pr fctry n ths rly prd vrgd but 5 t 10 cps. Nt nfrquntly, dmrlsng sls f nly 2 r 3 cps ccurrd. ccsnlly gd sls f 20 r mr cps wr chvd. Thr wr numbr f crtr fr slctng fctrs t b sld t. Gnrlly spkng ths wr plnts wth knwn trdtnl mltncy, rcnt ndustrl ctn t th plnt, r th fw fctrs whr SWG hd cntcts n th nsd. n mphss n sllng t plnts n th ngnrng nd mtls ndustry ws md fr tw rsns. Frstly, t ws n f th mst trdtnlly mltnt rs f th wrkfrc, nd ws prtculrly mprtnt snc, spclly t ths tm, th nnul Mtl Trds Clm ws usully cnsdrd by th rbtrtn Cmmssn s th `tst' cs n Ntnl Wg hrngs. f th mtl trds wn wg ncrs, t usully flwd n t thr ndustrs. nd scndly, th fw mltnt wrkrs wth whch SWG ws n cntct t ths tm, wr mstly n th mtls ndustry. n fctry t whch Bttlr N. 1 ws sld rmns rgulr sllng pnt t ths dy, n 1978. Ths s Jhns nd Wygd, n ngnrng plnt n Clytn, whr sls hv rchd s hgh us 50 t 60 cps pr ssu, nd hv rgulrly bn gd 20 t 30 cps ch dtn.

Th frst Bttlr ws ls sld n shppng cntrs n wrkng clss rs - nd wthn n ssu r tw, SWG mbrkd upn n dvnturus stp. t ws dcdd t sll Th Bttlr by knckng dr-t-dr n Husng Cmmssn stts, th prst f wrkng clss rs. lthugh sllng utsd fctrs by thr sclst grups n ustrl s rr, t s nt unknwn. But n lft-wng grups hd vr (wth th pssbl xcptn f th CP bck n ts rlr yrs) sld thr nwspprs n dr-t-dr bss. `Hwkrs' f nythng t ll, r gnrlly ll rcvd by hushldrs. Hw wuld thy rct t yung rdcls `hwkng' cmmunst nwsppr? f thr lft-wng grups hd trd t, thy crtnly hdn't prsstd. t ws drng stp fr SWG t tk. s t turnd ut, husng cmmssn sls wnt rsnbly wll. lthugh Bttlr sllrs ccsnlly ncuntrd cmmnts lk `G bck t Russ' r `Wht r yu lt, cmm bstrds?' (cmmnts lk ths r ls ncuntrd n fctry sls), mr ftn th rspns ws frm but plt `n'. nd th numbrs sld by husng-cmmssn Bttlr sllr n th usul tw-hur sllng rund vrgd 20 t 30 cps. Buldng up rgulr sllng runds, SWG mmbrs stblshd rgulr `custmrs' nd dd nt rturn t huss t whch thy hd bn rfusd.

Ths prctc f mkng rgulr dr-t-dr sls n th husng cmmssn rs f Mlburn cntnud untl but md-1976. lthugh th ctul numbr f `cmmssn' sls wr rsnbl, ths ctvty ws nvr vry usful n ttmptng t nflunc struggls n prtculr ndustrs s wr sls t fctrs nd strk/stp-wrk mtngs. t ws prbbly fr ths rsn tht dr-t-dr sls wr vntully cnsdrd lw prrty nd, gvn th vry lmtd rsurcs f th smll grup, thrfr dscntnud.

n lt 1974, n tp f ctvts t Mnsh, Ltrb, nd prductn f Th Bttlr, SWG cntnud ts thr rgulr ctvts. Clrk nd Dggr pprd n rgulr frtnghtly bss, tchr mmbrs (nd ccsnlly th studnt mmbrs wh wr trnng t b tchrs) wr nvlvd n Tchr ctn, nd sm mmbrs wr sprdclly nvlvd n th LP. Th lttr ctvty must b mphssd s bng sprdc. SWG's strtgy fr wrkng n th LP ws cnstntly dscussd t th grup's wkly mtngs nd sm mmbrs, prtculrly Ndl, cntnully rgud fr grtr ffrt n ts mplmnttn. But ths xhrttns wr usully n vn. Rrly ws srus ffrt put nt LP wrk. Ths ws prtly bcus th SL ws dsntgrtng. ts mtngs wr s fw nd fr btwn by ths tm, tht t hd vrtully csd t xst. But thr ws ls cnstnt lck f cmmtmnt t SWG's LP strtgy by mst f th grup's mmbrshp. lthugh mst thught t ws gd d n thry, fw mmbrs culd b nthusd but puttng th strtgy nt prctc. ntrsm n th Lbr Prty ws t rmn th bn f th SWG's ctvst prspctvs.

Thr ws ls shrt rvvl f th Mltnt nsurnc Clrks n lt 1974. Fllwng th rtrnchmnt f 250 clrks t th Cmmrcl Unn nsurnc Grup (25% f ts wrkfrc), MC ttmptd t mbls struggl t wn bck th jbs. fw ssus f MCcy Fnn r-pprd t ths tm, nd MC rgnsd cupl f smll dmnstrtns utsd th Cmmrcl Unn ffcs. But nthng much cm f th struggl.

nthr ccsnl ctvty fr wmn mmbrs f th grup ws wrk n th Wmn's Lbrtn Mvmnt. Stn ws prbbly th nly SWG mmbr t mntn rgulr prsnc n th WLM, but thr SWG wmn wr sprdclly nvlvd. Thr wrk n WLM ws usully frly lw-ky, ttmptng thrugh dbt t rnt th mvmnt twrds wrkng wmn nd t vw wmn's lbrtn s clss ssu, rthr thn bng hghly ntrvntnst.

S, ll-n-ll, SWG ws vry busy lttl grup. t ws nvlvd n but 8 dffrnt `rns' f wrk nd/r publctns: Th Bttlr, Clrk nd Dggr, Mnsh, Ltrb, tchrs' unn, wmn's mvmnt, nsurnc ndustry, nd th Lbr Prty. Mmbrs wr usully cncurrntly nvlvd n svrl rns. Lf f th typcl SWG mmbr ws n f frntc ctvty: wrtng/duplctng/dstrbutng vrus brdshts, ttndng dmnstrtns, prducng/sllng Th Bttlr, nd ttndng lmst cnstnt mtngs f n frm r nthr, mny f whch wuld g nt ll hurs f th nght. Whtvr th dfcncs f SWG mmbrs durng ths rly dys, lck f ddctn ws nt usully n f thm. But ll ths hypr-ctvty dd mn tht mmbrs ftn bcm `burnt ut' nd cnsquntly lss ffctv n thr wrk. n mr rcnt yrs, th lvl f ctvty pr mmbr hs prbbly dcrsd, but thy r ls prbbly mr ffctv n wht thy d.


  • The Socialist Workers Party (the International Socialists) has grown into an organization capable of small but significant interventions in the class struggle, and with a real possibility of laying the foundations for a revolutionary party in Britain.

    [88,8 K], 23.06.2010

  • The Labor Party has lwys bn an enigma for socialists. The Maritime Strike of 1890. The Labor Party takes shape. "White Australia", socialists and the Labor Party. The majority of Labor supporters. Thus the Labor Party is "capitalist workers" party.

    [114,9 K], 13.06.2010

  • Classical and modern theories of the international trade. Concept and laws of development of the international trade. Structure and the basic commodity streams of the international trade at the present stage of development. Foreign trade of the Russia.

    [15,8 K], 25.02.2009

  • The Great Dress Rehearsal. Lenin and Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and Liberals in 1905. The Soviet as the central organ of the workers. The war faced socialists with new problems. The February Revolution, rearming the Party, all Power to the Soviets.

    [70,8 K], 23.06.2010

  • History of motion is in Australia, based on book Susanna Short' included his father. Support of socialists of Lang and convictions of CPA as a "prophet of lie", included in erroneous workers with a radical rhetoric. Party of Workers and his role.

    [128,2 K], 23.06.2010

  • The World Tourism Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations, is the leading international organization in the field of tourism. International tourism is the world's largest export earner in the balance of payments of most nations.

    [15,3 K], 18.07.2009

  • Examination of arguments used by Russia to accuse Ukraine of the catastrophe of the Malaysian Boeing 777. Establishing a worldwide tribunal for investigating crimes perpetrated by the aircraft. Qualification of the tragedy in terms of international law.

    [34,6 K], 19.09.2017

  • English is more and more necessary for international business, but less and less sufficient. Companies should invest more in foreign-language skills. Many people are facing the problem of how to keep a balance between their business and private life.

    [49,5 K], 25.01.2010

  • Business Lunch. Business travel. Conference Venue. The organize business lunches, conferences and meetings. E-mail. Globalisation. International English. Shopping, Shops takes a great part of our life. BBC Company (The British Broadcasting Corporation).

    [17,9 K], 28.12.2008

  • Support of business entities on the part of specialized agencies of the state on world markets. Interconnection of economic diplomacy of Ukraine in international cooperation with influence on the results of foreign economic activity of the country.

    [30,1 K], 19.09.2017

, , ..
PPT, PPTX PDF- .
.