Marxism and womens movement

The theory and practice of Marxism as it relates to womens liberation. In response to feminist criticism, many Marxists have been unnecessarily defensive. Marxism, feminism and the struggle for reform. The real Marxist tradition. The Russian Revolution.

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Mrxsm nd Wmn's mvmnt

(ssy)

Th purps f ths rtcl s t xmn th thry nd prctc f Mrxsm s t rlts t wmn's lbrtn. n rspns t fmnst crtcsm, mny Mrxsts hv bn unncssrly dfnsv. n rlty, th rvlutnry Mrxst trdtn hs prud rcrd. Ths s vry clr whn w cmpr th pltcs nd ctvts f th frst-wv burgs fmnst mvmnts f th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cntury wth ths f thr Mrxst cntmprrs. ndd, mny mdm fmnsts wuld gr wth t lst sm Mrxst crtcsm f burgs fmnsm. Hwvr, ny thry whch ss gndr rthr thn clss dvsns s fundmntl ultmtly nds up wth th sm lmttns nd wknsss.

Th mn currnts wthn mdrn fmnsm - burgs fmnsm s xmplfd by rgnstns lk th ustrln Wmn's lctrl Lbby, sclst fmnsm, rdcl fmnsm nd sprtsm - hv brdly smlr crtqu f Mrxst thry: tht Mrxsm, bcus t s sx-blnd Ths trm s usd fr xmpl by Hd Hrtmnn, n hr rtcl Th Unhppy Mrrg f Mrxsm nd fmnsm: Twrds Mr Prgrssv Unn, n Wmn nd Rvlutn: Dscussn f th Unhppy Mrrg f Mrxsm nd Fmnsm, Lyd Srgnt, d. Bstn, Suth nd Prss, 1981. Fr summry f fmnst crtqus f Mrxst thry, s ls Rsmry Tng, Fmnst Thught: Cmprhnsv ntrductn, Unwn Hymn, Lndn 1989, chptrs 2 nd 6. nd bsssd wth clss nd cnmc qustns, cnnt xpln th pprssn f wmn, r dl n ny stsfctry wy wth qustns f prsnl lf. vn sclst fmnsts, wh n vryng dgrs s clss s mprtnt, blv tht fmnst thry s ncssry bcus ptrrchy ccptnc f sm vrnt f ptrrchy thry s cmmn t nrly ll ths wh cll thmslvs fmnsts. vn ths sclst fmnsts wh r uncmfrtbl wth sm spcts f ptrrchy thry gnrlly mntn tht Mrxsm ds nt dqutly dl wth wmn's pprssn. Fr Mrxst crtqu f ptrrchy thry, s Lndsy Grmn, Thrs f Ptrrchy n ntrntnl Sclsm (hrftr SJ) scnd srs, n.12; Chrs Hrmn, Wmn's Lbrtn nd Rvlutnry Sclsm n SJ scnd srs n.23; Tny Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmn's Lbrtn: 1640 t th Prsnt Dy, Bkmrks, Lndn 1987; nd Lndsy Grmn, Sx, Clss nd Sclsm, Bkmrks, Lndn 1989. xsts lngsd but sprtly frm cptlsm (r ny thr frm f clss scty). n fct, thy rgu, clss struggl ftn cnflcts wth th nds f wmn, s wrkng clss mn llgdly bnft drctly frm th pprssn f wmn. Th dmnnc f fmnst thnkng n ths ssu s llustrtd by th dbt wthn th ntrntnl Sclst tndncy. S rtcls by Jhn Mlynux, Shl McGrgr nd Lndsy Grmn n SJ scnd srs, ns.25, 30 nd 32.

Th ndqucy f Mrxst thry, thy clm, s prvd by th hstrcl rcrd. Wmn n sclst cuntrs (r cuntrs tht untl rcntly clld thmslvs sclst) r bvusly nt lbrtd. ndd, thy ftn br burdn f pprssn grtr thn thr cuntrprts n th wst. Furthrmr, ml-dmntd Mrxst rgnstns, st nd wst, hv suppsdly nvr tkn th qustn f wmn srusly nugh.

cmmn sclst fmnst tttud s xprssd by Shl Rwbthm. Sh wrts f th Mrxst rthdxy f Stln's rul nd cmmnts:

My gnrtn nhrtd Mrxsm whch hd nly cntnud n th wstrn cptlst cuntrs s dfnsv bdy f rthdxy surrundd by prtctv wlls, ncrustd wth fr stff wth trrr, brttl wth bttrnss, chng wth dsllusnmnt. Shl Rwbthm, n hr ntrductn t Wmn's Cnscusnss, Mn's Wrld, Pngun, 1981, p.x.

Sclst ltrntv hs n qurrl wth th sttmnt tht wmn wr nd r pprssd n cuntrs lk th frmr Svt Unn. ndd, ur wn ltrtur hs rptdly drwn ttntn t th phnmnn, s n mprtnt prt f ur rgumnt tht ths scts cnnt n ny wy b rgrdd s sclst. S fr xmpl Chn Rsnbrg, Wmn nd Prstrk, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1989. Nr d w dsgr substntlly wth Rwbthm's dscrptn f th Stlnsd Cmmunst Prts f th Wst. Ths s nt th plc t g nt dtld rgumnt but th clss ntur f scts lk th Svt Unn. S Tny Clff, Stt Cptlsm n Russ, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1988; r fr brf summry f th rgumnt, Ptr Bnns, Tny Clff nd Chrs Hrmn, Russ: Frm Wrkrs' Stt t Stt Cptlsm, Bkmrks, Lndn 1987. n brf, ths r burucrtc stt cptlst clss scts, nd snc thy r nt sclst, thy d nt prv nythng but Mrxsm r sclsm. ftr th Stlnst cuntr-rvlutn f th lt 1920s, th Cmmunst Prts n th wst ncrsngly lst ny clm t b th brrs f rvlutnry Mrxsm nd lrgly bcm tls f Svt frgn plcy (lthugh thr wr mny cmmttd nd ddctd ppl n thr rnks wh t sm lvl rtnd th Mrxst vsn f humn lbrtn).

Nthr th s-clld sclst cuntrs nr th wstrn Cmmunst Prts r usful gud t th Mrxst vw f wmn's lbrtn. t s rthr th cs tht rvlutnry Mrxsm hs bn bndnd, nd ths hs ld t th dwngrdng f th qustn f wmn's (nd ndd humn) lbrtn. Thr s drct rltnshp btwn dhrnc t gnunly rvlutnry Mrxst trdtn nd cmmtmnt t wmn's lbrtn.

Hwvr, bcus mst fmnsts (nd ndd mst ppl) ccpt wthut qustn th sclst crdntls f stt cptlst cuntrs nd th rgnstns whch supprt thm, t s ncssry t rvw th gnss nd dvlpmnt f Mrxst thry n wmn nd xmn hw t hs frd n th hnds f vrus currnts wthn th sclst mvmnt. Th strtng pnt s th wrk f Mrx nd ngls thmslvs, nd n prtculr, ngls' Th rgns f th Fmly, Prvt Prprty nd th Stt, whch prvds th thrtcl frmwrk. whl srs f qustns rltng t wmn's pprssn hv rsn snc ngls' tm_prtculrly n rltn t sxulty nd th blty t cntrl frtlty. But Mrxsts tdy cn stll us ngls' nlyss s bss t dl wth thm.

Mrx nd ngls n wmn

Mrx nd ngls wr nfluncd by th utpn sclsts wh prcdd thm. Thy ftn qutd Chrls Furr's thss lnkng scl prgrss wth dvncs n th cndtn f wmn, Th dvlpmnt f gvn hstrcl pch s bst f ll dfnd by th rltn btwn th prgrss f wmn nd frdm th dgr f fmnn mncptn s nturl msur f th gnrl mncptn. Furr s ctd by Mrx, qutd n Btrc Frnswrth, Blshvsm, Th Wmn Qustn nd lksndr Kllnt೔ n Sclst Wmn: urpn Sclst Fmnsm n th 19th nd rly 20th Cnturs. Mrlyn J. Bxr nd Jn H. Qutrt ds. lsvr, Nw Yrk, 1978. nd wr fmlr wth th wrk f Rbrt wn nd Hnr d Snt-Smn n th qustns f wmn's rghts nd sxul frdm. Fr summry, s Bnn S. ndrsn nd Judth P. Znssr, Hstry f Thr wn: Wmn n urp frm Prhstry t th Prsnt, Vl. , Pngun, Lndn. 1988, pp.375-381. n Th Cndtn f th Wrkng Clss n nglnd, ngls spnt lt f tm xmnng th ppllng xprnc f wrkng clss wmn nd th mpct f ndustrl cptlsm n thr hlth, th fmly nd th rltns btwn th sxs. H dd nt s ths s trvl ssus.

Frm hs bsrvtns, h drw cnclusns whch wr dvlpd mr fully n ltr wrks. mng th mst mprtnt f ths ws tht th wrkng clss fmly ws n th prcss f dsslutn. Ths turnd ut t b mstkn, but t ws nt n unrsnbl prdctn t th tm. H dd nt frs th cmng tgthr f tw fctrs whch wuld ld t th rcrtn f th wrkng clss fmly: th cptlst clss's lrm t th prspct f kllng ff th prltrt, nd ts cncrn t nsur stdy supply f rsnbly hlthy nd pprprtly sclsd wrkrs; nd th dsr f th wrkng clss tslf fr th fmly s rfug frm th msry f ndustrlstn. Nnthlss, ngls' bsrvtns f th prltrn fmly wr xtrmly mprtnt n th ltr dvlpmnt f hs ds.

ngls furthr cncludd tht, dspt ll th hrrrs nvlvd, th mss ntry f wmn nt th wrkfrc ws hstrclly prgrssv nd ld th bss fr qulty btwn th sxs. Ths ws ltr splld ut mr fully by Mrx:

Hwvr trrbl nd dsgustng th dsslutn, undr th cptlst systm, f th ld fmly ts my ppr, nvrthlss, mdrn ndustry, by ssgnng s t ds n mprtnt prt n th prcss f prductn, utsd th dmstc sphr, t wmn, t yung prsns, nd t chldrn f bth sxs, crts nw cnmc fundtn fr hghr frm f th fmly nd f th rltns btwn th sxs. Krl Mrx, Cptl Vl. , ntrntnl Publshrs, Nw Yrk 1967, pp.489-490.

s prt f th wrkfrc, wmn hv scl pwr thy d nt pssss s wvs nd mthrs, nd cn tk n ctv prt n thr wn lbrtn nd tht f thr clss - th tw g tgthr. Ths fcus n wmn s wrkrs, wth pwr, rthr thn s pssv vctms, s n f th ky dffrncs btwn th Mrxst nd th fmnst pprch, nd undrls ny gnunly rvlutnry pprch t th struggl fr lbrtn.

n Th Cmmunst Mnfst, Mrx nd ngls usd th phrs bltn f th fmly. Krl Mrx nd Frdrch ngls, Th Cmmunst Mnfst, Prgrss Publshrs, Mscw, 197 1, p.55ff. Thy rgud tht th fmly nly xstd n ts cmpltly dvlpd frm mng th burgs. blshng th fmly ws prt nd prcl f blshng prvt prprty, nd prcndtn fr ndng th sttus f wmn s mr nstrumnts f prductn. Thy lkd frwrd t th dstructn f cptlsm brngng wth t th bltn f th cmmunty f wmn sprngng frm tht systm, .. f prsttutn bth publc nd prvt. Thy dvctd th bltn f ll rghts t nhrtnc (n rlr vrsn tlkd f qul rght f nhrtnc fr lgtmt nd llgtmt chldrn); Frdrch ngls, Prncpls f Cmmunsm, ppndx t Th Cmmunst Mnfst, p.90. th qul lblty f ll t lbur nd th fr ductn f chldrn n publc schls.

n Prncpls f Cmmunsm, ngls psd th qustn Wht nflunc wll th cmmunst rdr f scty hv n th fmly nd nswrd t s fllws:

t wll mk th rltn btwn th sxs purly prvt rltn whch cncrns nly th prsns nvlvd, nd n whch scty hs n cll t ntrfr. t s bl t d ths bcus t blshs prvt prprty nd ducts chldrn cmmunlly, thus dstryng th twn fundtn f hthrt xstng mrrg - th dpndnc f th wf upn th husbnd nd f th chldrn upn th prnts. bd, pp.93-94.

Ths wr xtrmly dvncd ds. Undrlyng thm ws vw f th fmly s scl nsttutn whch prptutd th pprssn f wmn nd rjctn f th ntn tht wmn's mn rl shuld b tht f wf nd mthr. Cupld wth ths ws th undrstndng tht th mncptn f wmn dpndd n thr bng nvlvd n scl prductn.

Wthn th sclst nd wrkrs' mvmnts, Mrx nd ngls' ds wr cntrvrsl. Fllwrs f Prudhn n Frnc nd Lssll n Grmny n Prudhn, s Mrlyn J. Bxr, Sclsm Fcs Fmnsm: Th Flur f Synthss n Frnc, 1879-1914 n Bxr nd Qutrt, p.77; n Lssll, s Wrnr Thnssn, Th mncptn f Wmn: Th Rs nd Dcln f th Wmn's Mvmnt n Grmn Scl Dmcrcy 1863-1933, Plut Prss, Glsgw 1976, pp.16-17. blvd tht wmn shuld nt b nvlvd n scl prductn, whr thy cmptd gnst mn, but shuld rmn n thr nturl sphr, th hm. Mrx nd ngls frquntly nggd n htd dbt n ths qustn. Thy rgud fr wmn t b rgnsd nd brught nt th wrkrs' mvmnt. t ws Mrx wh nsstd tht n nglsh schltchr, Hrrt Lw, b ppntd t th Gnrl Cuncl f th Frst ntrntnl. ndrsn nd Znssr, p.373. H ls prmtd th frmtn f wrkng wmn's brnchs f th ntrntnl n rs whr thr wr hgh cncntrtns f wmn wrkrs. Mrlyn. J. Bxr nd Jn H. Qutrt, n thr ntrductn t Sclst Wmn: urpn Sclst Fmnsm n th Nntnth nd rly Twntth Cnturs, p.9.

Th rgn f th fmly

Th publctn f ngls' Th rgn f th Fmly, Prvt Prprty nd th Stt, whch md xtnsv us f Mrx's nts, ws lndmrk. Hr fr th frst tm ws thrugh mtrlst nlyss f wmn's pprssn. ngls rgud tht t ws nt nturl r nvtbl phnmnn, but ws ssctd wth th dvlpmnt f clss scty. Th fmly (nd hnc rltns btwn th sxs) s nt nturl, unchngng nsttutn. Fmly frms hv vrd nrmusly thrughut hstry. Furthr, thr s lnk btwn fmly frms nd th wy prductn s rgnsd n dffrnt clss scts: chngs n prductn ld t chngs n th frm f th fmly.

ngls lctd th rgn f th pprssv fmly wth th bgnnngs f prvt prprty nd th dvsn f scty nt clsss. n pr-clss scts, thr hd bn sxul dvsn f lbur, but ths hd nt ld t th systmtc pprssn f wmn. Th bsnc f surplus nd th nd t survv mpsd crtn gltrnsm n ths scts, usully dscrbd s prmtv cmmunsm. Hwvr, nc wnrshp nd nhrtnc f prprty bcm n ssu, th prvusly xstng mthr rght (th trcng f dscnt thrugh th mthr rthr thn th fthr) hd t b, nd ws, vrthrwn. ngls clld ths th wrld hstrcl dft f th fml sx, whn th mn tk cmmnd n th hm ls; th wmn ws dgrdd nd rducd t srvtud; sh bcm th slv f hs lust nd mr nstrumnt fr th prductn f hs chldrn. Frdrch ngls, Th rgns f th Fmly, Prvt Prprty nd th Stt, ntrntnl Publshrs, Nw Yrk, 1975, pp.120-121.

Wth th rs f th fmly cm ls chng n th ntur f dmstc lbur. t ws n lngr scl functn, but prvt srvc, wth th wmn s dmstc slv, xcludd frm scl prductn, cnmclly dpndnt n th mn, nd cndmnd t mngmy. ngls wnt s fr s t sy tht, wthn th fmly, th mn rprsntd th burgs nd th wmn th prltrt. Ths ws n unfrtunt frmultn, mplyng tht mn wr th nmy. But th mn pnt ngls wnt n t mk ws tht th frst cndtn fr th lbrtn f th wf s t brng th whl fml sx bck nt publc ndustry, nd ths n turn dmnds tht th chrctrstc f th mngmus fmly s th cnmc unt f scty b blshd. ngls, rgns, p.137-138.

ngls rgud tht th cmng scl rvlutn wuld dstry th cnmc fundtns f mngmy nd ts cmplmnt, prsttutn. Wth th sngl fmly n lngr th cnmc unt f scty, huswrk nd chldcr wuld b sclsd. Ths n turn wuld ld t sxul lbrtn fr wmn. ngls ws nt cmpltly fr f th prjudcs f hs tms; nr culd h frs th mpct f chp, sf cntrcptn nd brtn, stll lss th dvlpmnt f tchnqus such s n vtr frtlstn whch pn up th prspct f th cmplt sprtn f sx nd rprductn. H blvd tht sclsm wuld ld t th dvlpmnt f hghr frm f mngmy. But h ls md t clr tht ths culd nt b dfntly prdctd r prscrbd:

Wht w cn nw cnjctur but th wy n whch sxul rltns wll b rdrd ftr th mpndng vrthrw f cptlst prductn s mnly f ngtv chrctr, lmtd fr th mst prt t wht wll dsppr. But wht wll thr b nw? Tht wll b nswrd whn nw gnrtn hs grwn up: gnrtn f mn wh hv nvr knwn wht t s t buy wmn's surrndr wth mny r ny thr scl nstrumnt f pwr; gnrtn f wmn wh hv nvr knwn wht t s t gv thmslvs t mn frm ny thr cnsdrtns thn rl lv r t rfus t gv thmslvs t thr lvr frm fr f th cnmc cnsquncs. Whn ths ppl r n th wrld, thy wll cr prcus lttl wht nybdy tdy thnks thy ught t d; thy wll mk thr wn prctc ndtht wll b th nd f t. ngls, rgns, p.145.

ngls' crtcs crrctly pnt ut tht sm f th nthrplgcl vdnc h usd hs bn rfutd by mr rcnt nvstgtn, but thy g n t rgu tht ths cmpltly dscrdts hs cnclusns. Th htd dbt vr nthrplgcl qustns Fr summry f th dbt, s Chrs Hrmn's lngthy nt 1 t hs rtcl Wmn's Lbrtn nd Rvlutnry Sclsm n SJ, scnd srs, n.23, pp.37-40, nd lnr Burk Lcck's ntrductn t ngls' Th rgns f th Fmly, ntrntnl Publshrs, Nw Yrk 1975, pp.7-66. hs bscurd n mprtnt pnt: tht t ws Mrxst wh md th frst srus ttmpt t ffr scntfc xplntn f wmn's pprssn, nd tht ll subsqunt ffrts t rgu n ltrntv hv t tk ccunt f ths smnl wrk. Th mprtnc f ngls' bk s tht t lcts wmn's pprssn n mtrl cndtns - n clss scty, rthr thn n nturl lws, humn ntur r th ds n mn's hds - nd thrfr shws hw t gt rd f t. By chngng th mtrl cndtns, by gttng rd f clss dvsns nd xplttn, by dstryng th nsttutn f th fmly, wmn cn b lbrtd frm th pprssn f pst gs. nd cruclly, t gvs wmn thmslvs, s wrkrs, ldng rl n thr wn mncptn. t s nt smply mttr f wtng fr rvlutn t cm lng nd lbrt thm, thy r thmslvs n ntgrl prt f th struggl. vry smll vctry n th clss struggl s stp twrds lbrtn. Th struggl gnst pprssn nd xplttn r nsprbly bund up.

Bbl

Sm f ngls' ds frmd th bss fr bk by ugust Bbl f th Grmn SPD (Scl Dmcrtc Prty), Wmn Undr Sclsm. ugust Bbl, D Fru und dr Szlsmus, trnsltd by Dnl d Ln nd publshd n nglsh s Wmn Undr Sclsm, Schckn, Nw Yrk, 1971. t ws rgnlly publshd s Wmn n th Pst, Prsnt nd Futur n 1878, bfr th publctn f ngls' rgns, but ws subsquntly rvsd t nclud sm f ngls' mtrl nd rgumnts. Ths ws th sngl mst ppulr publctn f th SPD, gng thrugh hundrds f dtns, nd bng wdly trnsltd. t ws nstrumntl n cnvrtng whl lyr f wmn t sclsm nd brngng thm nt pltcl lf. ccrdng t hstrn f th prd, Hld Ln: Fr th prltrn wmn wh ws ntllctully lv, Bbl ws lmst lwys th wy t Mrx. Qutd n Thnnssn, p.37. vn tdy, t s sy t undrstnd hw nsprng wmn n th nntnth cntury wuld hv fund pssgs lk ths:

Th wmn f th futur scty s sclly nd cnmclly ndpndnt; sh s n lngr subjct t vn vstg f dmnn nd xplttn; sh s fr, th pr f mn, mstrss f hr lt. Hr ductn s th sm s tht f mn, wth such xcptns s th dffrnc f sx nd sxul functn dmnd Sh chss hr ccuptn n such flds s crrspnd wth hr wshs, nclntns nd nturl blts, nd sh wrks undr cndtns dntcl wth mn's. vn f nggd s prctcl wrkng wmn n sm fld r thr, t thr tms f th dy sh my b ductr, tchr r nurs, t yt thrs sh my xrcs hrslf n rt r cultvt sm brnch f scnc, nd t yt thrs my b fllng sm dmnstrtv functn. Sh jns n studs, njymnts r scl ntrcurs wth thr hr sstrs r wth mn - s sh my pls r ccsn my srv.

n th chc f lv, sh s, lk mn, fr nd unhmprd. Sh ws r s wd, nd chss th bnd frm n cnsdrtns thr thn hr wn nclntns. Ths bnd s prvt cntrct, clbrtd wthut th ntrvntn f ny functnry Th stsfctn f th sxul nstnct s s much prvt cncrn s th stsfctn f ny thr nturl nstnct. Nn s thrfr ccuntbl t thrs, nd n unslctd judg my ntrfr ll bshful prudry nd ffcttn f scrcy rgrdng nturl mttrs wll hv vnshd ll th crcumstncs nd cndtns whch untl thn cndmnd lrg numbrs f wmn t clbcy nd t prsttutn wll hv vnshd Bbl, p.343-344.

Frm tdy's stndpnt, w cn crtcs crtn frmultns usd by bth Bbl nd ngls, nd thr tttud t sm qustns f sxulty. Fr xmpl, bth dspprvd prsnlly f sm sx rltns - thugh thy wr ppsd t lgl snctns gnst hmsxulty. (Th Grmn SPD ws n fct th frst prty t cmpgn pnly fr th lglstn f ml hmsxulty, wth spch by Bbl n th Rchstg n 1898). Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmn's Lbrtn. p.250. Bth tndd t dls htrsxul mngmy - thugh wthut th dubl stndrd f n rul fr mn nd nthr fr wmn. But th sxul prjudcs f thr tm dd nt prvnt thm frm crtng thrtcl frmwrk n whch futur Mrxsts such s lxndr Kllnt culd buld.

nd vn wth thr lmttns by tdy's stndrds, th ds put frwrd by Bbl nd ngls wr lght yrs n dvnc f nythng ls t th tm. Th frst-wv fmnsts f th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cntury by nd lrg dd nt dvct sxul frdm fr wmn, dd nt rgu th xstnc f fml sxulty qul t mn's, dd nt chmpn hmsxul rghts nd dd nt cll fr th bltn f th fmly s cndtn f wmn's lbrtn. ndd, n f thr mn crtcsms f Mrxsts ws tht thy dvctd fr lv!

n fmnst hstrn cmmnts tht th suffrgsts tndd t b Vctrn pruds wh wuld hv bn scndlsd by th currnt dmnds fr sxul lbrtn. Crl Bcch, Frst-wv fmnsm: hstry's judgmnt n ustrln Wmn: Fmnst Prspctvs, Nrm Grv nd Ptrc Grmshw ds. xfrd Unvrsty Prss, Mlburn 1981, p.156. n survy f hstrns' tttuds t th frst-wv fmnsts, Bcch dscusss th rvsnsts wh crtcs th suffrgsts fr th shllwnss f thr vsn nd th wy n whch thy llwd rc nd clss ntrsts t ntrfr wth thr ssssmnt f wmn's prblms nd th nw rvsnsts wh dfnd th suffrgsts wth th clm tht t s ncssry t undrstnd th wmn wthn th cntxt f thr tm nd tht t s unfr t judg thm by tdy's stndrds. Th tlrnc f th lttr grup s nt, hwvr, usully xtndd t Mrxsts. prtl xcptn ws th rdcl wng f th Grmn fmnst mvmnt, whch ws cls t th SPD. Th Lgu fr th Prtctn f Mthrhd nd Sxul Rfrms, ls knwn s th Nw Mrlsts, cmpgnd fr th sprd f cntrcptvs nd th rpl f brtn lws. But ths xpnnts f fr lv nd f cntrcptn wr gnrlly strcsd by th fmnst mvmnt n nglnd nd mrc. Rchrd vns, Th Fmnst Mvmnt n Grmny 1894-1944, qutd n Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmn's Lbrtn p.73. Thy ls mt ppstn frm th cnsrvtv Lgu f Grmn Wmn's ssctns, whch cmpgnd fr th vt, but fught gnst brtn nd cntrcptn. Mnstrm fmnsts usully dvctd clbcy fr sngl wmn nd bstnnc fr mrrd wmn wh wshd t vd prgnncy. Sxul rdcls wr mnrty n ths prd, but mr f thm wr t b fund n th rnks f th sclst mvmnt thn n fmnst mvmnts.

Nr wr th frst-wv fmnsts cncrnd wth mprvng th cnmc pstn f th vst mjrty f wmn, s s t mk thm cnmclly ndpndnt nd ncrs th pssblty f scl ndpndnc. Fr th mst prt, thy cnfnd thmslvs t gttn fr th vt nd wth vrus frms f lgl qulty, such s dvrc lw nd prprty nhrtnc. Whl sclsts supprt such rfrms, w d nt cnfus wnnng dmcrtc rghts wth lbrtn. Th mjr bnfcrs f ths rfrms wr th mddl clss wmn wh md up th bulk f th fmnst mvmnts. Ths s nt surprsng: th phlsphcl undrpnnng f frst-wv fmnsm ws nntnth cntury lbrlsm. Unlk Mrxsm, t md n clm t b thry f humn lbrtn. But vn n th lmtd r f dmcrtc rfrms ffctng wmn, t s ntrstng nd nlghtnng t cmpr th pstns tkn by th sclst mvmnt nd th burgs fmnsts.

Mrxsm, fmnsm nd th struggl fr rfrm

Th mjr qustn fr th burgs fmnst mvmnts n urp nd mrc ws fml suffrg. Mrxsts supprtd th rght f ll dult wmn t vt s strghtfrwrd dmcrtc dmnd - thugh wthut ny llusns tht th vt culd fundmntlly chng th pstn f wmn. Ths ws vry dffrnt strtng pnt frm tht f th burgs wmn's mvmnts, wh wntd vts fr wmn lng clss lns n th sm bss s mn (prprty qulfctns wr usully nvlvd). Clss ntrsts wr ftn usd s n rgumnt fr th rght f mddl nd uppr clss wmn t vt. hstrn f th suffrg mvmnt cmmnts n th mvmnt n th US n th 1890s:

Scl cndtns wr n flux n mrc. Th rpd ncrs n frgn mmgrtn nd th prtsts f th lbur mvmnts struck fr nt th hrts f th ngl-Sxn, Prtstnt mddl clsss. Th `rc sucd' scr, whch suggstd tht th lwr rdrs wr utbrdng thm, ddd t thr prn.

s mmbrs f ths grup, th suffrgsts shrd ths flngs f nscurty Thy n lngr dmndd bllt n th grunds f justc, but pntd ut tht nfrnchsd ngl-Sxn mddl clss wmn culd utvt th pupr nd th frgnr. Crl Bcch, Frst-wv fmnsm: hstry's judgmnt', p.157.

Th Brtsh suffrgtts f th Wmn's Scl nd Pltcl Unn suspndd thr cmpgn n 1914 nd thrw thr cnsdrbl nrgs nt supprtng th mprlst wr ffrt. Th rght t vt ws t b thr rwrd fr thr lylty t clss nd mpr. n bth th US nd ustrl, th Wmn's Chrstn Tmprnc Unns frmd sgnfcnt cmpnnt f th suffrg mvmnts. Thy dvctd vts fr wmn s scl rfrm fr th prtctn f Hm, nd fr Purty. Ctd n Dryn Krus nd Chrls Swrwn, Fmnsm nd Pcfsm: `Wmn's Sphr' n Pc nd Wr, n ustrln Wmn: Nw Fmnst Prspctvs, Nrm Grv nd ls Burns ds, xfrd Unvrsty Prss, Mlburn, 1986, p.47. Krus nd Swrwn nt tht th US WCTU hd 200,000 mmbrs by 1883, whn t frmlly ndrsd wmn's suffrg. By 1892, th Vctrn WCTU hd 4,000 mmbrs n nrly 60 brnchs.

Wthn th sclst mvmnt, Mrxsts wr th mst cnsstnt supprtrs f wmn's vtng rghts. Fr xmpl, th Grmn sclst mvmnt Frdnnd Lssll's Gnrl Grmn Wrkrs' Unn mrgd wth Bbl nd Wlhlm Lbkncht's Scl Dmcrtc Wrkrs' Prty n 1875 t frm th Sclst Wrkrs' Prty f Grmny. t ws bnnd undr th nt-sclst lws f 1878 fr twlv yrs, r-mrgng s th Scl Dmcrtc Prty f Grmny (SPD) n 1890. ntlly ppsd vts fr wmn bcus f th dmnnc f th Lssllns, but th ffrts f Mrxsts lk Wlhlm Lbkncht nd Bbl vntully crrctd th pstn, nd n 1894, th SPD ntrducd bll fr wmn's suffrg nt th Rchstg.

n 1906, th rfrmst ustrn SDP - dspt th fct tht prty plcy clld fr fml suffrg - rn cmpgn t xtnd suffrg nly t ll dult mls. Ths ld t mjr dbt t th frst ntrntnl sclst wmn's cnfrnc, rgnsd by th Grmn Mrxst Clr Ztkn n Stuttgrt n 1907. Th ustrns wr bckd by dlgts frm Blgum, Brtn nd Frnc, wh rgud tht th dmnd fr rstrctd suffrg ws mr rlstc. Th ttck n thm ws ld by th rvlutnry Mrxsts, Ztkn nd lxndr Kllnt (Ths ws th cnfrnc tht stblshd Mrch 8 s ntrntnl Wmn's Dy, gn n Ztkn's nttv.)

Prtctv lgsltn fr wmn wrkrs ws cntrvrsl ssu, nd n n whch sclsts nd fmnsts dffrd shrply. t ws ppsd by th burgs fmnst mvmnt fr clr clss rsns. Usng clssc lbrl rgumnts, thy sd tht prtctv lgsltn ntrfr[d] wth wmn's frdm nd hr qul rghts wth th ml. Thnssn, p.50. ntrstngly, prtctv lgsltn ws ls ntlly ppsd by Ztkn, wh ws n gnrl rslut ppnnt f th burgs fmnsts. n ths ssu, t sms sh ws t sm xtnt nfluncd by thr ds, thugh frm dffrnt clss prspctv. Sh chngd hr pstn s t bcm clr tht t uphld n bstrct, frml qulty mnt n prctc th supr-xplttn f wmn. Fr Ztkn's tttud t th fmnsts, s Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmn's Lbrtn pp.72-74; nd Jn H. Qutrt, Unqul Prtnrs n n Unsy llnc: Wmn nd th Wrkng Clss n mprl Grmny n Bxr nd Qutrt, p.116. Fr n ccunt f th dbt wthn th SPD, s Thnssn, pp.39-42. t s tru tht prtctv lgsltn cn t tms dsdvntg wmn. But th Mrxsts n th SPD rgud tht ths clld fr th xtnsn f prtctv lws t mn rthr thn dnyng thm t wmn.

brtn nd cntrcptn r rltvly strghtfrwrd qustns tdy. Th d f th rght t chs hs rl mnng whn cntrcptn nd brtn r rltvly chp nd rdly vlbl, n th dvncd cuntrs t lst. f curs, struggls t dfnd nd xtnd rprductv rghts r stll ncssry, but th cncpt f wmn's rght t cntrl hr bdy nd frtlty s nt s prblmtc s t ws n prvus tms, bcus th mtrl mns xst. n th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cnturs, hwvr, th d f brth cntrl ws ftn ssctd wth rctnry currnts such s Mlthusnsm nd ugncsm (th psud-scntfc prpsl t cnstruct suprr rc thrugh slctv brdng). t thrfr cqurd n xtrmly rcst nd nt-wrkng clss cntnt.

n thr dsr t strngthn th rc, th Mlthusns dvctd brth cntrl fr th wrkng clss nd ppsd t fr th mddl clss.

Thr ws strng supprt mng mny mddl clss rdcls nd burgs fmnsts fr ths ds, prtculrly fr lmtng th numbrs f th wrkng clss. Thr supprt hd nthng t d wth th rght f wmn t chs (snc f th Mlthusns hd thr wy, wrkrs wuldn't gt ny chc). t hd fr mr t d wth thr tttud t th wrkng clss, whch ws thr n f hstlty nd fr; r ptrnsng tttud tht gnrnt wrkrs hd t b gudd nd lkd ftr by thr nturl suprrs. Mr Stps, fr xmpl, st up th frst brth cntrl clnc n Brtn n 1921. Sh rgud tht such clncs wr ndd n cts bcus W hv bn brdng rvlutnrs. Qutd n Jul Wtrsn, Th Pltcs f brtn, n Sclst Wrkr Rvw, n.105, Jnury 1988, p.16. t s hrdly surprsng tht th wrkrs' mvmnt ws suspcus f ths wh dvctd brth cntrl.

Mrxsts such s Ztkn nd Lnn cndmnd lws gnst brtn nd cntrcptn, whch thy sw s dmcrtc rghts. Such lws, wrt Lnn, r nthng but th hypcrsy f th rulng clss. Ths lws d nt hl th ulcrs f cptlsm, thy mrly turn thm nt mlgnnt ulcrs tht r spclly pnful fr th pprssd msss. V.. Lnn, Th Wrkng Clss nd Nmlthusnsm n Prvd, n.137, Jun 16, 1913. Qutd n Lnn, n th mncptn f Wmn, Prgrss Publshrs, Mscw 1977, p.32. But thy ttckd th Mlthusns nd ths n th lft wh sw brth cntrl s wy t rduc pvrty r ncrs th brgnng pwr f th wrkng clss by lmtng ts numbrs (r vn, n bzrr dbt wthn th SPD, s wy f dnyng th Ksr mltry frcs!) Thy rgud tht clss struggl, nd ultmtly rvlutn, ws th wy t rs lvng stndrds.

Mddl nd uppr clss rdcls st up clubs nd cmmtts t dscuss ssus such s sxul rltns nd brth cntrl. n xmpl ws th Lndn Mn nd Wmn's Club, fundd n 1885 by Krl Prsn, sclst nd ugncst. numbr f prmnnt burgs fmnsts wr mmbrs, ncludng lv Schrnr nd nn Bsnt. lthugh th purps f th club ws t dscuss th rltnshps btwn th sxs frm th hstrcl nd scntfc s dstngushd frm th thlgcl stndpnt, lnr Mrx ws rfusd ntry bcus sh ws lvng n fr unn wth dwrd vlng. Th grup ws untd rund ssus such s dvrc lw rfrm nd ppstn t th sxst tttuds fcd by mddl clss wmn n th prfssns. But thy wr unbl t gr n pstn n brth cntrl. Sm wmn rgud tht t vulgrsd th mtns nd ld t mmrlty. Mst grd tht brth cntrl llwd mn mr cntrl vr wmn's bds, bcus mn wr nturlly bsts f pry. Th mnrty wh rgud tht sx culd b mutully plsurbl wr ccusd f supprtng prsttutn!

By th rly 1920s, nws ws cmng thrugh but th dvncs n wmn's sttus n Russ, nd ths crtd nw cntxt fr th dbt.

Cmmunst Prts supprtd th rght t brth cntrl s smpl dmcrtc rght. Hwvr, ugncst ds wr stll vry prvlnt. n Brtn, Stll Brwn trd t mrry th ds f Mrx, Mlthus nd fmnsm. (Sh ws smultnusly mmbr f th Mlthusn Lgu nd th Cmmunst Prty n th rly 1920s.) s n rdnt cmpgnr fr wmn's rght t chs, sh rgud:

brtn must b th ky t nw wrld fr wmn, nt bulwrk fr thngs s thy r, cnmclly nr blgclly. brtn shuld nt b thr prqust f th lgl wf nly, nr mrly lst rmdy gnst llgtmcy. t shuld b vlbl fr ny wmn, wthut nslnt nqustns, nr runus fnncl chrgs, nr tngls f rd tp. Fr ur bds r ur wn. F.W. Stll Brwn, Th Rght t brtn rprntd n Shl Rwbthm, Nw Wrld fr Wmn, p.114.

Sh rgud fr ccss t cntrcptn n th sm bss, nd ls chmpnd fml sxulty n trms smlr t ths f lxndr Kllnt. Hwvr, Brwn ccptd lt f th ds ssctd wth ugncs, mntnng tht lck f mltncy mng ll rcs ws du t nt-ntl crcumstncs Sh wntd slctv brth cntrl t `prduc nd buld up rc fttd t crry ut Cmmunst nd Fmnst dls'. Rwbthm, Nw Wrld fr Wmn, p.28. Hr cntnud dhrnc t Mlthusn rgnstns nd ugncst ds n dubt plyd rl n dscrdtng hr thrws prgrssv ds n brth cntrl nd fml sxulty. Dspt th Cmmunst Prty's supprt fr brth cntrl, sh lft t n 1923. Sh ltr jnd th Lbur Prty, whch rfusd t tk pstn n cntrcptn nd brtn, nd spnt th rst f hr crr s sngl-ssu cmpgnr fr brtn lw rfrm. Th rgnstn sh st up n 1936, th brtn Lw Rfrm ssctn, dd nt s brtn s clss ssu, nd thrfr dd nt cmpgn fr fr brtn n dmnd. Rthr, th fcus ws n crss-clss llnc f ll wmn t wn rghts whch n rlty r nly dnd t wrkng clss wmn, snc brtn s nrly lwys vlbl t ths wh cn py nugh. Brwn's cncssns t fmnsm ctully ld hr wy frm th fght fr th knd f rvlutnry chng ncssry t lbrt wmn.

S n ths mjr ssus ffctng wmn, lt ln qustns such s qul py, Mrxsts hd cnsstntly bttr rcrd thn fmnsts. s Bxr nd Qutrt nt, t ws th sclst mvmnt tht ffrd th strngst nd lngst-sustnd ssstnc t wmn skng rdrss f pst njurs nd frdm fr futur dvlpmnt. Bxr nd Qutrt, ntrductn t Sclst Wmn, p.2. Ultmtly, th burgs fmnsts wr ntrstd n frml, lgl qulty wth mn f thr wn clss nd rmvng th rstrctns n thr wn dvncmnt. Ths ncssrly mnt gnrng r ctvly ppsng th rghts nd nds f th mjrty f wmn, ths f th wrkng clss. Th lbrtn f wrkng clss wmn wuld nvlv dstryng th clss systm whch th burgs fmnsts wntd t b prt f. Crl Bcch's cmmnts n th US suffrgsts r gnrlly pplcbl t th frst-wv fmnsts:

Pltclly thy lgnd thmslvs wth th Prgrssv mvmnt, whch supprtd tmprnc, scl purty, chld wlfr, fctry lgsltn, muncpl nd ductnl rfrm, dsgnd t llvt th mst prssng prblms ccmpnyng ndustrlstn nd urbnstn nd n tht wy t prsrv scl pc nd th ssnc f th sttus qu. fw frgd n llnc wth wrkng clss wmn, but th vst mjrty sw n cmmn ntrst wth ths grup. Crl Bcch, Frst-wv fmnsm: hstry's judgmnt, pp.157-158.

Th rl Mrxst trdtn

Fmnst crtcsm f th Mrxst trdtn s msplcd n nthr sns. Wthn th sclst mvmnt, t hs bn th rvlutnry Mrxsts (ftn n mnrty n th mvmnt s whl) wh hv hd th bst pstns nd bn th mst cnsstnt fghtrs fr wmn's rghts. Th hghpnts f th fght fr wmn's lbrtn by sclst mvmnts wr th struggls f Grmn Scl Dmcrcy n th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cnturs nd th Russn Rvlutn f 1917. Mny f th dvncs md by nd fr wmn wr subsquntly dstryd, by rfrmsm nd Stlnsm rspctvly.

s utlnd rlr, n th rly dys f Grmn Scl Dmcrcy, bttr thrtcl struggls tk plc btwn supprtrs f Mrx nd Lssll vr fml lbur nd suffrg. Ths struggls wr vntully wn by th Mrxsts, nd th SPD's pstn n wmn ws nfluncd prmrly by Bbl nd ngls. Th SPD dvlpd cdr f tlntd nd rtcult wmn ldrs (ntbly Clr Ztkn, Rs Luxmburg nd Lus Ztz), wh wr mstly ssctd wth th lft-wng f th prty. Th SPD publshd grt dl f ltrtur n nd fr wmn, rgnsd wmn wrkrs nt unns wth phnmnl succss, cmpgnd succssfully gnst lws rstrctng thr pltcl ctvty, Th Cmbntn Lws, whch frbd wmn frm jnng pltcl rgnstns, wr blshd n 1908. Thnssn, p.49. rn Mrxst study grups fr thm nd s n.

But dspt th rlr dft f th Lssllns, undrlyng tnsns rmnd, nd ths ws t hv prfund mpct n th SPD's plcs n wmn. f ll th sclst prts n th Scnd ntrntnl, th Grmn SPD ws cnsdrd t b th bst xmpl f rthdx Mrxsm. Mrx nd ngls thmslvs hd bn mr clsly ssctd wth t thn wth ny thr ntnl rgnstn, thugh thr tttud hd ftn bn crtcl. S fr xmpl Mrx's 1875 Crtqu f th Gth Prgrmm, n ttck n th rsdul Lsslln ds n th SPD. Mrxsts - ncludng Lnn bfr 1914 - gnrlly lkd t th SPD s th mdl f Mrxst prty, nd ts thrtcl ldr, Krl Kutsky, ws rvrd s th Pp f Mrxsm. Hwvr, whl th prty frmlly dhrd t rvlutnry Mrxsm, ts prctc bcm ncrsngly rfrmst. Th rfurt Prgrmm f 1891, wrttn by Kutsky, ttmptd t synthss th tw. But n rlty, t cmntd dvsn btwn th prty's mxmum prgrmm (whch tlkd but th ultmt gl f sclsm nd rvlutn) nd ts mnmum prgrmm (whch dlt wth th dy-t-dy rfrms tht prccupd th prty.)

Fr tm, th rfurt synthss hld. But th lt 1890s sw th mrgnc f nw rfrmst currnt rund durd Brnstn. S Crl Schrsk, Grmn Scl Dmcrcy, 1905-1917: Th Dvlpmnt f th Grt Schsm, Hrvrd Unvrsty Prss, Cmbrdg (Mss.), 1983, chptr 1. S n prtculr pp.16-20 fr summry f Brnstn's rvsnsm. H clld fr n ccmmdtn t prgrssv burgs lmnts, ncludng ths n th burgs wmn's mvmnt. Th lft's fght gnst rvsnsm wthn th prty - ld by Rs Luxmburg n hr pmphlt Rfrm r Rvlutn - ws nxtrcbly bund up wth fght t hld th ln n ssus ffctng wmn.

Snc 1891, Ztkn hd dtd D Glchht (qulty), n SPD mgzn md t dvncd wmn wrkrs, prty cdr nd Vrtrunsprsnn (spksprsns). Th systm f Vrtrunsprsnn ws mns by whch th SPD crcumvntd t sm xtnt th Cmbntn Lws. lthugh wmn culd nt jn pltcl rgnstns, ndvduls wr nt bnnd frm pltcl ctvty. Th ntwrk f wmn Vrtrunsprsnn plyd lrg rl n th ductn nd rgnstn f wmn. Thnssn, pp.48-49. t cntnd mx f thrtcl rtcls nd mr prctcl nfrmtn ntndd t nfrm nd trn wmn ldrs n th wrkng clss nd th prty. vn bfr Brnstn's ffnsv, thr wr rptd ttmpts, rsstd by Ztkn, t mk th mgzn mr ppulr. Ztkn mntnd tht th jb f D Glchht ws nt t wn vr th msss, but rthr t prvd n ductnl nd prmtnl nflunc wthn th mvmnt. Thnssn, p.49.

Hwvr, s th rfrmsts bcm mr dmnnt, D Glchht grdully chngd. Frm 1905, supplmnts wr ddd fr huswvs, mthrs nd chldrn; th pltcl lvl ws lwrd nd dlutd; nd Ztkn ws frcd t nclud hushld tps nd rtcls but ckng nd fshn.

nthr sgnfcnt bttl nvlvd Ztkn nd Lly Brun. Brun's rvlt gnst hr rstcrtc bckgrund ntlly prplld hr nt th burgs fmnst mvmnt. Sh brk wth thm n 1896 t jn th SPD, nd n 1898 bcm n f Brnstn's strngst supprtrs. Lk hm, sh dvctd n llnc wth burgs fmnst wmn. Hr 1901 pmphlt, Fml Lbur nd C-prtv Lvng, dvctd th stblshmnt f hushld c_prtvs. Ztkn vgrusly ppsd th prpsl, dscrbng t n lttr t Kutsky s th ltst blssmng f utpnsm n ts mst dngrus, pprtunstc frm. Qutrt, Unqul Prtnrs, p. 130. n Ztkn's vw, ths ws burgs rfrm whch culd nly bnft mddl clss wmn wth scur ncms. Undrlyng Brun's prpsl ws th d tht sclsm culd b grdully rlsd wthn th cptlst systm. Ztkn furthr rgud tht mst wrkrs (ncludng wmn) przd th sngl-fmly stblshmnt, nd tht nly thrugh clss struggl, nd ultmtly wth rvlutnry chng, wuld thy bgn t chng thr ld thughts, hbts nd blfs. n th mntm, t ws wrng t mps wht w wuld tdy cll pr-fgurtv frms Tht s, rgnstns r nsttutns whch pr-fgur sclsm, th d tht w cn crt smll slnds f sclsm wthn cptlst wrld. Ths ws n f th mjr ds n ppulr fmnst ttck n Mrxsm nd Mrxst rgnstns n th lt 1970s, Bynd th Frgmnts by Shl Rwbthm, Lynn Sgl nd Hlry Wnwrght, Plut Prss, Lndn, 1979. f lvng n thm.


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