The speech act of gratitude in dialogic discourse

Act of gratitude and its peculiarities. Specific features of dialogic discourse. The concept and features of dialogic speech, its rationale and linguistic meaning. The specifics and the role of the study and reflection of gratitude in dialogue speech.

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Compound thanking is also found in the CED but is very rare and is far from

Aijmer's 12.8 per cent of thanking expressions. Examples below are the only instances of compound thanking in the CED, where a friend of the speaker has stated that he is `ready to obey',

I thank you of your good will

may be interpreted as expressing appreciation of the addressee, like:

I thank you hartely, I am much obliged to you

An expression of emotion compounded with thanking is illustrated in the following example, where a servant is freed by his master:

O sweetly spoken, thanks my good maister

The expressions that's lovely and that's nice of you, which, according to Aijmer, are common in Modern English, do not occur in the CED [36].

Another issue concerning the act of thanking is its continuation in the dialogue discourse. A gratitude expression can be followed by a `responder'. The responders may be seen as speaker-strategies, motivated by what the speaker wants to achieve. Modern English thanking responders are for instance that's okay (minimising the favour), great pleasure (expressing pleasure) and you're welcome (expressing appreciation of the addressee).

Thanking responders also differ somewhat between the Early Modern period and the present day.

Come, Landlord, this is to your health, and to thank you for your good company.

Sir, I am your most humble servant.

L's answer to C's thanks is best interpreted as expressing appreciation of the addressee, but it also contains an expression of deference (humble servant), as:

First give me leave to thank you for my Tickets.

O! your servant, Madam. Madam, I give you a thousand thanks for your favors, and shall be all my life your most affectionate servant.

Sir, I am your most humble Servant.

The frequencies of the gratitude expressions in the different text types is potentially problematic: comedy and language teaching texts, where most examples of thank you/thanks are found, are both fictional. Both may raise concerns as sources, for different reasons. In comedies, the play with conventions of thanking may be part of the humour. In language teaching texts, the artificiality of the dialogues is inherent to the genre.

Below we discuss thanking in the context of politeness, discourse-marking and pragmatics; that is, how the gratitude expressions were used to achieve politeness (or impoliteness), if the gratitude expressions functioned according to their sequential position in a discourse structure, and the situational parameters linked to the use of gratitude expressions.

Positive politeness is associated with intimacy between speakers. One might assume that, in order to achieve positive politeness with thanking according to this model, neutral intensifiers, not expressing appreciation of addressee, act, etc, would be used. For instance, thank you very much, thank you so much, if any at all, would be expected (likewise, one would expect the omission of thanking responders, especially those expressing deference).

Negative politeness, less intimacy might involve intensifiers such as I humbly thank you or most hearty thanks and responders such as I am your most humble servant.

In Modern English, the gratitude expressions thank you and thanks are becoming formal markers of certain segments of interaction between speakers.

The actual attached `gratitude' is, in some cases, only residual such as in service encounters (a ticket sold on a train etc). Aijmer looked at thanking as a closing-signal and in proposal-acceptance sequences in both adjacency pairs and larger units. The results yielded by Aijmer's material showed great complexity where the function of the gratitude expressions was due to their sequential position in the discourse structure.

Nevertheless, the complexity observed in Modern English regarding thank you and thanks in closing sequences, compliment-thanking, well-wish-thanking and proposal-acceptance is not found in the CED. The Early Modern English thank you and thanks in my data seem to retain their main function of expressing gratitude, thus not yet having developed the function of marking the segments of interactions.

The reason for the elaborate patterns in Modern English can probably be explained by discourse type and sociolinguistic factors, such as the relationship between speakers, but their absence in the CED is difficult to account for. The only explanation at hand is the possible difference in politeness culture, discussed above.

In Modern English, social distance between speakers creates more elaborate patterns, or, in other words, creates negative politeness. This fits with the idea that the trend during the Early Modern period was from a positive politeness culture from the late 16th and early 17th centuries towards a more negative culture in later centuries.

Gratitude, a positive emotional response to benevolence, is a moral emotion that represents a key element of the human moral apparatus. Most often, gratitude stems from the perception that one has benefited due to the actions of another person. There is an acknowledgement that one has received a gift and an appreciation of and recognition of the value of that gift. The gift is something of value given to one unearned and undeserved by one moral agent at some cost to that agent and for the benefit of the recipient. Thus, a grateful state usually requires a relationship, and insomuch as actions between human beings are legitimate moral concerns, gratitude is relevant to the moral life.

Classical writers focused on the good life emphasized the cultivation and expression of gratitude for the health and vitality of both citizenery and society. Across cultures and time spans, experiences and expressions of gratitude have been treated as both basic and desirable aspects of human personality and social life. One contemporary philosopher recently remarked that gratitude is the most pleasant of virtues and the most virtuous of pleasures. Similarly, across time, ingratitude has been treated as a seriousvice. It would not be an overstatement to maintain that few emotions hold gratitude's magnetic appeal. This emotion's attraction arises from several sources: its linkage to other positive emotions (e.g. contentment, happiness, and hope); its power to evoke a focus by the recipient on the benevolence of others, thereby ensuring a perception that kindness has been offered; and its beneficial consequences which frequently are the motive to respond favorably toward another.

But gratitude is more than a feeling. It requires a willingnessto recognize (a) that one has been the beneficiary of someone's kindness, (b) that the benefactor has intentionally provided a benefit, often incurring some personal cost, and (c) that the benefit has value in the eyes of the beneficiary. In gratitude we recognize the other's moral agency-that they could have done otherwise but chose to intentionally provide a benefit, hence they were concerned with our well-being, and that they had correctly grasped the character of our moral situation (that we were in need of the benefit).

Gratitude implies humility-a recognition that we could not be who we are or where we are in life without the contributions of others. Gratitude also implies a recognition that it is possible for other forces to act towards us with beneficial, selfless motives. In gratitude we remember the contributions that others have made for the sake of our well-being. On the recipient side, we acknowledge having received a benefit and we realize that the giveracted intentionally in order to benefit us.

By experiencing gratitude, a person is motivated to carry out prosocial behavior, energized to sustain moral behaviors, and is inhibited from committing destructive interpersonal behaviors. Because of its specialized functions in the moral domain, gratitude is similar in some respects to empathy, sympathy, guilt, and shame. Whereas empathy and sympathy operate when people have the opportunity to respond to the plight of another person, and guilt and shame operate when people have failed to meet moral standards or obligations, gratitude operates typically when people acknowledge that they are the recipients of prosocial behavior. Gratitude serves as a moral barometer, providing individuals with an affective readout that accompanies the perception that another person has treated them prosocially. Gratitude serves as a moral motive, stimulating people to behave prosocially after they have been the beneficiaries of other people's prosocial behavior. The focus of this talk is to evaluate evidence that one function of gratitude is to stimulate moral, especially prosocial action, and in so doing, make a strong case for the role of gratitude in living a moral, constructive life.

But gratitude is not the only emotional reaction to receiving a benefit. Individuals may react with feelings of indebtedness, an unpleasant emotional state that motivates people to repay not out of generosity, but out of a desire to reduce inequity. Similarly, receiving a benefit might trigger the norm of reciprocity, which states that people should help those who have helped them, and should not injure those who have helped them.

Despite its status as a virtue, research has not yet unequivocally differentiated the effect of these three reactions to benevolence on subsequent prosocial behavior.

Feeling grateful is not the same as being a grateful person. A grateful person is one who is prone to feeling gratitude frequently across a range of situations. The grateful person is one who affirmsthe goodness in his or her life and recognizes that the sources of this goodness lie at least partially outside of themselves. The grateful disposition is a generalized tendency to recognize and respond with positive emotions to the role of other moral agents' benevolence in the positive experiences and outcomes that one obtains.

Recent research has shown that individuals who report habitually experiencing gratitude engage more frequently in prosocial behaviors than do individuals who experience gratitude less often Individual differences in gratitude are related to individual differences in personality factors that have typically been linked to prosocial emotions and behavior, namely, high agreeableness, empathy, and forgiveness, as well as low narcissism and envy.

Furthermore, data are not limited to what grateful people report about their own experience. The informants of people with strong dispositions toward gratitude report that these grateful friends engaged in more prosocial behaviors (e.g., loaning money, providing compassion, sympathy, and emotional support) than did the informants of less grateful individuals. Grateful individuals are also rated by their informants as engaging in such supportive behaviors more frequently in general than do the informants of less grateful individuals. There is also some evidence that gratitude serves to inhibit of destructive interpersonal behavior, again suggesting its place in the moral realm.

An increasing number of studies have begun to test the moral motive hypothesis. Research on reactions to aid and reciprocity-which seem relevant to the motivational value of gratitude-has been dominated by the assumption that the key motive for moral behavior in reciprocity situations is inequity or indebtedness. Yet new studies provide strong initial evidence that gratitude shapes prosocial responding by increasing the likelihood that one will engage in effortful helping behavior. Moreover, these studies have been able to differentiate the unique effects of gratitude as a moral motive from the general effects of positive mood on helping behavior. Gratitude and indebtedness have distinct patterns of thought-action tendencies. Grateful responses are more strongly associated with inclination for future altruism than indebtedness and feelings of obligation. One particularly informative set of studies examined gratitude experimentally by employing interpersonal emotion inductions and requests for assistance. Gratitude increased efforts to assist a benefactor even when such efforts were costly, as opposed to simple awareness of reciprocity norms, or general positive affect, and it is gratitude that drove helping behavior. This link has now been established experimentally as well as through earlier correlational findings.

The available evidence to date largely supports the moral motive hypothesis. The review of the literature suggests that gratitude is a psychologically substantive experience that is relevant to how people negotiate their moral and interpersonal lives. Gratitude is a moral affect orienting us to an acknowledged dependence out of which flows a profound sense of being gifted. As a consequence, when truly grateful, we are led to experience and interpret life situations in ways that call forth from us an openness to and engagement with the world through purposeful actions in order to share and increase the very good we have received. It is gratitude that enables us to receive and it is gratitude that motivates us to repay by returning the goodness that we have been given. In short, it is gratitude that enables us to be fully human. This being the case, a final question of interest relates to the ways that society and its agents might foster gratitude. Without doubt, it is fundamentally important to society that large numbers of citizens develop a proneness toward gratitude, but how might parents, mentors, schools, churches, and communities do so more effectively and reliably?

2.2 Examples of gratitude expressions in dialogic discourse

1. Thank you for warning me, Countess [18]

2. ''Would you like a leg, Gabriel? - Yes, mummy. Thank you!'' [18]

In these two examples we have thanks in the form of appreciation for something.

3. Do you want a drink before we go? - Jake asked. - No, thanks [17]

This example demonstrates the combination of the negative response and act of gratitude.

4. ''You look incredible! - Really? Really incredible is exactly the word. Believe me. I know words. I'm an English teacher. Incredible, hard to believe, amazing. You really do. Her smile just beam. Thanks!'' [17]

5. ''How's your young mother? She's very well, thank you. She gave me some eggs to give you.''. [17]

6. ''Well, happy birthday! - Thank you!'' [19]

7. ''I was sorry to hear about your mother and father, '' - Innes said. - Thank you''[17]

In these examples we have the most frequent form of appreciation expressed by thank you combination, showing the appreciation emotion for something.

8. ''Good luck with the writing, '' - she says. I'll keep my fingers crossed for you.'' I'd appreciate it'' [18]

Here we have another form of expressing gratitude by with the word appreciate. It is used as the synonym to thank you.

9. ''Hello, Fanny! - said Maria offering a large hand which I shook. Wellcome to the club!'' I was so touched. All I managed to say was: Thank you!'' [41]

10. For a split second Jake looked as though he was about to refuse the blue cufflinks but apparently changed his mind. Thanks, - he said taking them from her. [41]

11. Thank you, Alec! William breathed deeply, and even though he knew it was his turn for supper he checked the note for his papa. [41]

In these examples we have two standard forms of gratitude expression.

12. ''Hey, what happened to your face?'' What do you mean?'' - Agnes put her hands to her face, searching for hitherto unnoticed deformities. Your mouth is missing, '' - he badly replied. Agnes glared at him speechless. Thanks a lot!'' - she burst out finally. Thanks a bloody lot. I'm just not wearing any make-up, okay?'' [41]

13. ''Let's talk about your school, Timmy! - No, thank you very much!'' [41]

14. ''Alec, help me to move this box to the corner. - Sure!'' - Thanks a lot. [41]

15. ''Nurse Barrow? Would you be a dear and ask Mrs Capes to come to my office? I'd like her to do one of her famous guided tours. Thank you very much!''. [41]

The above-given examples contain the expressions of the high degree of appreciation and thankfulness. The expressions are strengthened with additional words.

16. ''Sorry about last night, Tommy, '' - father said quietly. I've brought you this box of fifty Players.'' - Thanks, Dad. I don't know where you get them from with this cigarette shortageThey are like gold!'' [42]

17. ''Thank you for the purchase. Come again!''. [42]

18. ''I like your outfit. - Thank you, I do try.'' (the same speaker to a hostess speaking in a whisper): '' I felt delighted she was looking so ugly. - Thanks for coming, '' - she said solemnly. [41]

These examples contain the part of response to some advice and thanksgiving for that.

19. Here, - said the driver. I brought you a piece of toast.'' - That's kind of you, but I don't think I can eat anything''. [19]

20. Look ye, Sancho, said Don Quixote, there is a great difference between what is done out of love and what is done out of gratitude. [41]

21. I'm a little shocked by his chivalry. Okay, more than a little. A lot. I can't even remember the last time I ran into a man for whom such a show of manners didn't have another purpose behind it. But then who's to say this man is any different? I'll be fine. Really.

You sure?

Yes, thanks. I notice his blue eyes then, the dark lashes fringing them. Despite his in-a-hurry demeanor, there's compassion there, as if it's a part of himself he has no control over. I think of the times I've stared at myself in the mirror lately, only to glance away from what I no longer see there. A woman once driven by empathy for families who had suffered what my own had suffered. [42]

22. A beeper sounds, and the man pulls the blinking rectangle from the side of his jeans, glancing at the number. I've got to take this, he says.

Oh, sure, I say, waving him on. I'm fine, really. Thanks for stopping. "[41]

These examples demonstrate the same situations as we have previously analyzed with the response situations.

23. How about some coffee? Gabe asks, pointing at the pot in one corner of the lobby.

I could use some. I glance at my watch, surprised to see it's now after nine o'clock and suddenly remembering my car. Oh, no.

What is it?

I forgot to call the garage.

They'll be closed now. When we're done here, I'll take you wherever you need to go.

Thanks. [41]

24. Really? My voice comes out as a high-pitched squeak I barely recognize. Hardly the voice of a prosecuting attorney used to addressing stern-faced judges.

Really, he says.

I throw my arms around his neck, kiss the side of his face. Thank you, Gabe. Thank you. "[41]

25. They keeping you busy out at the Colby Ranch? Sally Locke asked idly, shading her hazel eyes against the afternoon sun.

Gil smiled. Let's just say I've got a lot on my plate.

Well, I hear you're the best hand Belle Colby has, so we'll work out something.

Thank you, ma'am, Gil said, turning his head as a little car puttered up to the end of the drive. Sally, too, looked in that direction and lifted a hand in greeting as the driver parked the coupe next to another battered compact. Gil blinked as the church secretary got out and started toward them. [41]

26. Already? Sally barked, obviously displeased. It's only been a week.

She's ready.

Sally huffed, but then she nodded. All right. Thank you, Gil.

My pleasure, ma'am. She's a sweet-natured little filly and will serve well. [41]

27. Nodding, Gil said, She wanted her son and grandchildren to have a chance for something better, and they got that.

Thank God!

Yes. Grandpa Oscar often said the same thing.

He was a believer, then. [42]

28. Cissy, I'm sorry, Gil apologized immediately. I told myself I wouldn't do that. I know you're going away, but -

Good night, Gil! she interrupted brightly, yanking on the door handle. And, uh, thank you. "[42]

29. That's it. Gil wiped his hands on a sturdy blue cloth. I've done all I can without completely rebuilding the engine, which I don't recommend because it would cost more than the car is worth. "[42]

These examples demonstrate the feeling of politeness which can be observed in the dialogue.

I understand, Cissy said. I cannot thank you enough for all you've done. She patted the rusty fender of the old car. It is enough that God has provided transportation. It doesn't have to be more than basic. "[42]

30. Snapping his fingers, Jeb grinned. A convoy. Why didn't I think of that? I'll go call Belle Colby. He rushed from the crowded storage room, leaving Gil alone with Cissy.

Thank you, she said, pitching her voice low. I was afraid I wouldn't see you again.

I was afraid of that, too, he admitted, ridiculously happy in that moment. Maybe, somehow She might not stay in Mexico forever. He could always visit. One thing was certain, though, and he said it aloud. I've missed you. "[42]

31. Thank you so much for helping, Jonathan.

You're welcome. I was so excited that I couldn't sleep, so I got up and dressed. When I came in here, Destiny was awake, so I got her up.

I'm sorry I didn't get up earlier, Carmen said. [42]

32. Seor Medena looked at Alex. This is a fine meal, do you think?

Very nice, Alex agreed without looking up. Thank you for inviting us.

We have the finest chef in Texas, Seor Medena added, still watching Alex. [41]

33. She smiled up at him sweetly. For a minute there, I was ready to do just that.

He chuckled softly. You look stunning.

Thank you for the necklace and earrings. They're beautiful. [41]

34. This came in by currier a few minutes ago, sir.

Thank you, Alex said, accepting the envelope. He quickly opened it and pulled out the contents. Smiling, he shoved them back in the envelope and handed it to Carmen.

What's this? she said, frowning as she took the envelope. The return address was the Doctor's office in Chicago. Pulling the contents out, she stared at the ultra sound. Marked on it in bold letters were the words Baby A and Baby B. Carmen sucked in her breath and looked up at Alex. [41]

35. I'm sorry we're late, Carmen said. We didn't mean to keep all of you waiting. She helped Destiny into her chair and smiled thanks to Alex as he held hers.

You are not late. Seor Medena said. We are all early. [42]

These sentences demonstrate the expression of thanks for different acts, performed by other people.

36. I think you're the most perfect person I've ever met.

He chuckled softly. Not hardly, but thanks anyway. [18]

The example contain the gratitude expression with the politeness.

37. Alex nodded. Thanks, I know we can count on you, Katie, but I think she'll be more comfortable staying at our house. His attention shifted to Destiny, who was still sleeping. How is she this morning? [41]

38. He sighed. I'm sorry, sweetheart. You must be exhausted.

You must be too. You sound terrible.

Well thanks, he said, and went into a coughing fit.

Alex, she said quickly. Are you alright?

I'm alright, he said after he regained control of his voice. I'd better not come up there, though. I'm sorry. [42]

39. His solemn gaze met hers. Thanks for last night. It was a delightful surprise.

My pleasure, she responded with equal sincerity. [42]

40. She leaned her head back and looked up at him, wiping the tears from her cheeks.

Thank you so much!

His gaze was warm, his eyes misty. Thank you. [41]

41. The man stood and smiled as she approached. Happy Birthday.

Thank you. She leaned her back against a pillar and looked up at him. You look familiar. Have I met you before?

Possibly. The name is Scott Muldrow. He offered a hand. I work at the real estate office downstairs from your suite. I've seen you in the elevator a few times. [42]

42. Here. The woman held out her hand for the list. I'll get it all for you.

Megan handed her the list. Thank you. [41]

43. Is there a phone booth around here?

Clara pointed to a phone on the wall. Over there.

Thanks. Megan dug some coins and her calling card from her purse. She hated to call Dad from the store. How much of what she said would be repeated? Maybe she was too private. She dialed the number and waited while the phone rang. A soft voice answered.

O'Hara Incorporated. May I help you? [42]

44. Thanks for the offer, but I think I'll go to bed early tonight. I want to start on this grass early tomorrow morning while it's cool.

He nodded. Yeah, it's going to be another scorcher tomorrow, I'm afraid. [41]

45. He smiled. I hate to tell you this, but you probably got the chiggers while you were cutting the grass. I should have warned you to wear some kind of repellent.

Gee, thanks, she said sarcastically. [41]

46. Well, thanks for the ride and the swim was refreshing. I feel much better now.

That's good. I'm glad to see you got something out of it besides a cut hand and the scare of your life. [41]

These examples contain thanking for something, i.e. not a simple politeness but the real appreciation for something done.

47. Clara smiled. I'll draw you a map while you make your phone call.

Thanks. Megan lifted the receiver and dropped change into the slot. The telephone rang twice before a familiar voice answered.


Mom? It's Megan. [41]

48. Thank you. I think I can figure it out.

It isn't as difficult as it looks. Just keep to your right on the main road and you'll get to the highway just fine. Clara cocked her head to one side. Did Mr. Keaton come calling yet? [41]

49. That would be a shame, he responded.

She blushed again. Thanks. [41]

Here we have examples which illustrate polite response.

50. No thanks. With one stroke he lopped the wood in half. I'll get something at the store before I go home. [41]

This examples has some negative aspect in the contextual situation.

51. It's late and I'm tired. Thank you for a nice evening. It's been a long time since I had that much fun.

Then you'd consider going out with me again? [42]

52. Justin! Thank God. I thought you were some kind of wild animal. [42]

53. Thanks for asking me, Jenkins, I am hungry. That sounds like a good idea. [42]

54. Right, that's where we're staying, thanks to some creep trying to burn down our house. So, how's it going with Mr. Oblivious over there?

Kevin? I could walk through the studio naked and he wouldn't notice. [42]

55. I didn't win it alone, Jenkins, Kevin said, and then grinned, beginning to relax. Why, he didn't know. You were there at the ceremony. Remember when I thanked all the little people who helped?"[42]

56. I do. And, as one of the little people, I now thank you. And I still say that if they pick any of our producers to go to Atlanta, it should be you. You've paid your dues here in Jersey. [42]

57. Thank you, Sarah, he said, gazing across the booth and looking deeply into her eyes. [42]

58. Thank you, she eventually said. You'll never know how much I appreciate you trying to help, but

I'm not just trying, he said. If you'd let me in, we can ride this out together. I'm hurting, too. "[42]

59. But you don't have to be. Haven't you heard a word I've said? I'm here for you.

No, she said, walking away from him again, this time in the direction of her car. Thanks, but definitely, no. "[41]

60. Thanks, she said above her son's pitiful cry. We're okay. She paused. What are you doing here?

I'm here to see youto help you

I don't need help. [41]

61. Not in the boxes we've been through. Maybe - She looked down to see Wesley sucking the top corner of the angel's box. Aha! Found it.

Thanks, bud. Chance took the box from the baby, replacing it with the teething ring he had been contentedly gumming. How about you do the honors? he suggested, handing the golden angel to her. [41]

62. Thank you, she said, licking her lips, by habit going to push at her long hair that was no longer there.

You're welcome. As if he'd sensed the awareness between them, too, they both fell into awkward step, bustling to clean the wreckage of tissue paper and boxes. [42]

63. I'll be fine, Jenny said as she briefly hugged Deena. Thanks for coming over. I appreciate it. "[42]

64. Let's just say I've got a lot on my plate.

Well, I hear you're the best hand Belle Colby has, so we'll work out something.

Thank you, ma'am, [41]

65. All right. Thank you, Gil.

My pleasure, ma'am. She's a sweet-natured little filly and will serve well. [42]

Examples, given above illustrate the act of gratitude which is the response for the committed act.

66. Thank God!

Yes. Grandpa Oscar often said the same thing.

He was a believer, then. [18]

67. Thanks. I'm surprised you're here on a Friday evening.

There's a meeting about the church providing regular financial support for the orphanage.

I see. [41]

68. `For the gifts that you have given me I thank you, ' he said, 'O Lady of Lurien of whom were sprung Celebrnan and Arwen Evenstar.

What praise could I say more? '[41]

69. `Maybe, ' said Gimli; `and I thank you for your words. [42]

70. 'I thank you for your fair words, ' said Aragorn, 'and my heart desires to come with you; but I cannot desert my friends while hope remains.'

'Hope does not remain, ' said Eomer. 'You will not find your friends on the North-borders.'[42]

71. 'I thank you indeed, ' said Gimli greatly pleased. 'I will gladly go with you, if Legolas, my comrade, may ride beside us.'

'It shall be so, ' said Eomer. 'Legolas upon my left, and Aragorn upon my right, and none will dare to stand before us!'

'Where is Shadowfax?' said Gandalf. [42]

72. 'I thank you, Theoden King, ' said Gandalf. Then suddenly he threw back his grey cloak, and cast aside his hat, and leaped to horseback. He wore no helm nor mail. His snowy hair flew free in the wind, his white robes shone dazzling in the sun.

'Behold the White Rider!' cried Aragorn, and all took up the words.

'Our King and the White Rider!' they shouted. 'Forth Eorlingas!'[42]

73. 'I thank you, Gimli son of Gloin!' he said. 'I did not know that you were with us in the sortie. But oft the unbidden guest proves the best company. How came you there?' [42]

74. 'Thank you!' said Merry. 'But it is a greater honour to dangle at your tail, Gandalf. For one thing, in that position one has a chance of putting a question a second time. Are we riding far tonight?'[41]

75. 'Nay! Not Elves, ' said the fourth, the tallest, and as it appeared the chief among them. 'Elves do not walk in Ithilien in these days. And Elves are wondrous fair to look upon, or so 'tis said.'

'Meaning we're not, I take you, ' said Sam. 'Thank you kindly. And when you've finished discussing us, perhaps you'll say who you are, and why you can't let two tired travellers rest.'[41]

The examples given above illustrate the regular use of the gratitude expression for the sake of politeness.

76. 'No, ' said Frodo, feeling strangely rustic and untutored. 'But if we are guests, we bow to our host, and after we have eaten we rise and thank him.'

'That we do also, ' said Faramir. [42]

77. 'Ah!' said Shagrat. 'Like old times.'

'Yes, ' said Gorbag. 'But don't count on it. I'm not easy in my mind. As I said, the Big Bosses, ay, ' his voice sank almost to a whisper, 'ay, even the Biggest, can make mistakes. Something nearly slipped you say. I say, something has slipped. And we've got to look out. Always the poor Uruks to put slips right, and small thanks. But don't forget: the enemies don't love us any more than they love Him, and if they get topsides on Him, we're done too. But see here: when were you ordered out?'[41]

78. Good morning! he said at last. We don't want any adventures here, thank you! You might try over The Hill or across The Water. By this he meant that the conversation was at an end.

What a lot of things you do use Good morning for! said Gandalf. Now you mean that you want to get rid of me, and that it won't be good till I move off. "[42]

79. Yes, you have! Twice now. My pardon. I give it you. In fact I will go so far as to send you on this adventure. Very amusing for me, very good for you and profitable too, very likely, if you ever get over it.

Sorry! I don't want any adventures, thank you. Not today. Good morning! But please come to tea - any time you like! Why not tomorrow? Come tomorrow! Good-bye! [42]

80. I see they have begun to arrive already, he said when he caught sight of Dwalin's green hood hanging up. He hung his red one next to it, and Balin at your service! he said with his hand on his breast.

Thank you! said Bilbo with a gasp. [42]

These examples demonstrate the appreciation for something what has been done within the contextual situation, described in the sentence.

81. I hope there is something left for the late-comers to eat and drink! What's that? Tea!

No thank you! A little red wine, I think, for me. And for me, said Thorin. And raspberry jam and apple-tart, said Bifur. And mince-pies and cheese, said Bofur. [42]

This example is a sign of politeness.

82. That's right, said Gandalf. Let's have no more argument. I have chosen Mr. Baggins and that ought to! 6te enough for all of you. If I say he is a Burglar, a Burglar he is, or will be when the time comes. There is a lot more in him than you guess, and a deal more than he has any idea of himself. You may (possibly) all live to thank me yet. Now Bilbo, my boy, fetch the lamp, and let's have little light on this!"[42]

83. True, true, said Thorin.

Well, your father gave me this to give to you; and if I have chosen my own time and way of handing it over, you can hardly blame me, considering the trouble I had to find you. Your father could not remember his own name when he gave me the paper, and he never told me yours; so on the whole I think I ought to be praised and thanked. Here it is, said he handing the map to Thorin.

I don't understand, said Thorin, and Bilbo felt he would have liked to say the same. [41]

84. William choked. Shut yer mouth! he said as soon as he could. Yer can't expect folk to stop here for ever just to be et by you and Bert. You've et a village and a half between yer, since we come down from the mountains. How much more d'yer want? And time's been up our way, when yer'd have said 'thank yer Bill' for a nice bit o' fat valley mutton like what this is. He took a big bite off a sheep's leg he was toasting, and wiped his lips on his sleeve. [41]

85. I immediately had a feeling that I was wanted back. Looking behind I saw a fire in the distance and made for it. So now you know. Please be more careful, next time, or we shall never get anywhere!

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