The speech act of gratitude in dialogic discourse
Act of gratitude and its peculiarities. Specific features of dialogic discourse. The concept and features of dialogic speech, its rationale and linguistic meaning. The specifics and the role of the study and reflection of gratitude in dialogue speech.
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«Thank you!» said Thorin. 
86. «Welcome to the valley!» he said.
«Thank you!» said Thorin a bit gruffly; but Gandalf was already off his horse and among the elves, talking merrily with them. 
87. «I brought him, and I don't bring things that are of no use. Either you help me to look for him, or I go and leave you here to get out of the mess as best you can yourselves. If we can only find him again, you will thank me before all is over. Whatever did you want to go and drop him for, Dori?»
«You would have dropped him,» said Dori, «if a goblin had suddenly grabbed your leg from behind in the dark, tripped up your feet, and kicked you in the back!"
88. «Can't help it,» said Gandalf, «unless you like to go back and ask the goblins nicely to let you have your pony back and your luggage.»
«No thank you!» said Bilbo.
«Very well then, we must just tighten our belts and trudge on - or we shall be made into supper, and that will be much worse than having none ourselves.» 
89. «They would shoot at us with their great bows of yew,» he said, «for they would think we were after their sheep. And at other times they would be right. No! we are glad to cheat the goblins of their sport, and glad to repay our thanks to you, but we will not risk ourselves for dwarves in the southward plains.»
«Very well,» said Gandalf. «Take us where and as far as you will! We are already deeply obliged to you. But in the meantime we are famished with hunger. "
The above-mentioned examples illustrate the sign of respect and appreciation.
90. «Thorin Oakenshield, at your service! Dori at your service!» said the two dwarves bowing again.
«I don't need your service, thank you,» said Beorn, «but I expect you need mine. I am not over fond of dwarves; but if it is true you are Thorin (son of Thrain, son of Thror, I believe), and that your companion is respectable, and that you are enemies of goblins and are not up to any mischief in my lands-what are you up to, by the way?"
91. «Hullo!» said Beorn. «You came pretty quick-where were you hiding? Come on my jack-in-the-boxes!»
«Nori at your service, Ori at…» they began; but Beorn interrupted them.
«Thank you! When I want your help I will ask for it. Sit down, and let's get on with this tale, or it will be supper-time before it is ended.» 
92. «A very good tale!» said he. «The best I have heard for a long while. If all beggars could tell such a good one, they might find me kinder. You may be making it all up, of course, but you deserve a supper for the story all the same. Let's have something to eat!»
«Yes, please!» they all said together. «Thank you very much!"
93. «Well! Here we are!» said Thorin. «And I suppose we ought to thank our stars and Mr. Baggins. I am sure he has a right to expect it, though I wish he could have arranged a more comfortable journey. Still-all very much at your service once more, Mr. Baggins. No doubt we shall feel properly grateful, when we are fed and recovered. In the meanwhile what next?"
Here we come across the regular use of gratitude expression in the contextual situation.
94. «No thank you, O Smaug the. Tremendous!» he replied. «I did not come for presents. I only wished to have a look at you and see if you were truly as great as tales say. I did not believe them.»
«Do you now?» said the dragon somewhat flattered, even though he did not believe a word of it. 
95. «Our thanks, R (ac Carc's son. You and your people shall not be forgotten. But none of our gold shall thieves take or the violent carry off while we are alive. If you would earn our thanks still more, bring us news of any that draw near. Also I would beg of you, if any of you are still young and strong of wing, that you would send messengers to our kin in the mountains of the North, both west from here and east, and tell them of our plight. But go specially to my cousin Dain in the Iron Hills, for he has many people well-armed, and dwells nearest to this place. Bid him hasten!» 
96. «Bilbo Baggins!» he said. «You are more worthy to wear the armour of elf-princes than many that have looked more comely in it. But I wonder if Thorin Oakenshield will see it so. I have more knowledge of dwarves in general than you have perhaps. I advise you to remain with us, and here you shall be honoured and thrice welcome.»
«Thank you very much I am sure,» said Bilbo with a bow. «But I don't think I ought to leave my friends like this, after all we have gone through together. And I promised to wake old Bombur at midnight, too! Really I must be going, and quickly.»
97. «Well, Merry People!» said Bilbo looking out. «What time by the moon is this? Your lullaby would waken a drunken goblin! Yet I thank you. "
98. «And your snores would waken a stone dragon - yet we thank you,» they answered with laughter. «It is drawing towards dawn, and you have slept now since the night's beginning. Tomorrow, perhaps, you will be cured of weariness.»
«A little sleep does a great cure in the house of Elrond,» said he; «but I will take all the cure I can get. A second good night, fair friends!» And with that he went back to bed and slept till late morning. 
99. «Thank-you, Ruf. Thank-you for believing me.»
Rufus beamed. He said, «Yo bes' eat sum dis grub. It call' Rufus Stew.» 
100. «Thank you so much for bringing our brother home. I only hope we can keep him alive. I don't know much about doctoring or helping the sick…» She looked around the barren kitchen. «We don't have much for medical supplies either… Our mother died before the war started. Father was killed in a logging accident and our brothers joined the armies. Until you brought Davy back to us, it has been Amy and I here alone.» She sounded apologetic. 
Repetition of the «thank you» expression, its strengthening with some additional marks gives additional positive meaning which intensifies the act of gratitude in every specific situation.
The examples which are given above in this chapter perfectly illustrate how gratitude functions in the dialogic discourse.
It should be stressed that the most often form for expressing gratitude is using the form «thank you» in all possible variations such as «thanking», «thanks», etc. Less often we have met gratitude experession in the form of «appreciate», «appreciation». Though it has some additional meaning, nevertheless, it is considered to be the form of gratitude expression.
Merriam-Webster Online dictionary gives the following definition to the word «appreciate»:
Definition of APPRECIATION
1. a: judgment, evaluation; especially: a favorable critical estimate
b: sensitive awareness; especially: recognition of aesthetic values
c: an expression of admiration, approval, or gratitude
2. : increase in value
Thus, the practical part of our paper has perfectly demonstrated the specific features of gratitude functioning in the dialogic discourse.
In the course of our paper writing we have thoroughly analyzed main aspects of gratitude category in the English language.
We have investigated specific features of dialogue and dialogue discourse in the theoretical part of our paper. The practical part of our paper reflects peculiarities of gratitude functioning in the English language materials. Examples had been chosen from pieces of modern English literature.
Thus, we have come to the following conclusions.
Gratitude is a very special quality in humans, a quality that can be said to border on the spiritual. Some have even suggested that gratitude is a new form of goodness it the world. If we look around us we can see that individuals with a «soft nature» have a natural way of expressing their gratitude. A person who shows gratitude is in essence recognizing the goodness and rightness of the flow of events in his life; perhaps even subtly recognizing a Divine hand in things. Gratitude is a quality that moves an individual from strife and bitterness to a higher emotion that borders on love of life.
We have noticed that those who are capable of gratitude normally lead a pleasant, smooth, and generally trouble-free life. Those whose sense of gratitude is weak or dull find all kinds of problems arising in their lives. Our conclusion then is that a very effective and powerful way to overcome a serious problem is to change our negative feelings toward the problem to corresponding positive feelings of gratitude to the people and circumstance related to the problem. See the goodness and benefit of the people and circumstance in your past and make your feelings positive with a sense of gratitude. This approach can solve a serious problem very quickly.
I think it's important to stress that gratitude is really a choice. It doesn't depend upon circumstances or genetic wiring or something that we don't have control over. It really becomes an attitude that we can choose that makes life better for ourselves and for other people. I think about it as the best approach to life and I gave a talk this past summer where the title was, «Gratitude Is the Best Approach To Life.» At the time that it seemed a little presumptuous, but the more I think about it, I really think the title is true. When things go well gratitude enables us to savor things going well. When things go poorly gratitude enables us to get over those situations and to realize they are temporary.
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