Analysis and description of polynational options of English. Different the concepts "version" and "option" of English. Studying of the main problems of loans of a foreign-language element. consideration of a territorial variation of English in Australia.
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Ðàçìåùåíî íà http://www.allbest.ru/
Ðàçìåùåíî íà http://www.allbest.ru/
english polynational territorial
The choice of a subject of the thesis is predetermined by that attention which is paid to a problem of language variability now.
Insufficient study as intra structural variability and the variability connected with action of external factors and which is shown in variety of forms of existence of language, its social and territorial differentiation admits domestic and foreign linguists.
A number of works in native and foreign linguistics testifies to special relevance of a problem of the variability of language caused by social, functional and territorial factors (V.G. Gak, A.I. Domashney, V.M. Zhirmunsky, L.L. Nelyubin, G.A. Orlov, V.V. Oshchepkova, L.G. Popova, O.E. Semenets, N.N. Semenyuk, A.I. Smirnitsky, G.V. Stepanov, G.D. Tomakhin, A.I. Cherednichenko, A.D. Schweitzer, V.N. Yartseva, R. Bailey, D. Crystal, W. Labov, G. Turner). Interest in questions of variability of English is explained by complexity of its structure, features of its functioning in various language situations and territorial areas.
English is official language of many states, among which Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand. Tell such figures about exclusively wide circulation of English: about 1,6 billion people, i.e. nearly one third of the population of all globe speak English though English is the native language only for 380 million people. In this language the most part of books, magazines, newspapers is published. The American radio, television, especially blockbusters promote distribution not only the American culture, but also language. According to statistical data more than 80% of the maintenance of the Internet - in English though 44% of users speak other language. It is difficult to judge the positive or negative moments of globalization of English, but it is necessary to agree that in the history of mankind still any language wasn't so widespread and popular.
The native and foreign linguists working in the field of an English variations deal with such problems as emergence of similarities and distinctions between territorial options at various language levels, interference of options, features of a linguistic situation in the English-speaking countries.
Objective of this research:
1) consideration of a territorial variation of English in Australia, taking into account the social-linguistic and extralinguistic factors;
2) to specify features of the Australian options of English;
According to this purpose the main objectives of work are:
1) analysis and description of polynational options of English;
2) to make attempt to differentiate the concepts «version» and «option» of English;
3) studying of the main problems of loans of a foreign-language element;
The technique of research is defined by the purposes and problems of work.
For realization of the tasks set above in the thesis the complex method of research is used. It includes descriptive, historical and comparative and chronological methods, and also various receptions of the analysis depending on specific objectives of each part of work.
Results of research have theoretical and practical value. In the theoretical plan the degree makes a contribution to studying of territorial variability and typology of language states, supplements the data existing in linguistic literature concerning all-English and its distinctive lines, reveals regularities and tendencies of development of the Australian option of English.
The practical value of the degree consists in possibility of use of conclusions and the actual material of research in teaching a lexicology, regional geography, typology of languages, in special courses on language contacts and regional variability.
1. The history of Australian English
Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution, Australian English is Australia's de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population.
Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English.
Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, accent, pronunciation, register, grammar and spelling.
The earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation. The Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the colony created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them, and with it expressed peer solidarity. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech.
A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain. Many, if not most of the Irish convicts spoke either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands and Wales.
Records from the early 19th century show the distinct dialect that had surfaced in the colonies since first settlement in 1788, with Peter Miller Cunningham's 1827 book Two Years in New South Wales, describing the distinctive accent and vocabulary of the native born colonists, different from that of their parents and with a strong London influence. Anthony Burgess writes that «Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilized Cockney of the Dickensian era».
The first of the Australian gold rushes, in the 1850s, began a large wave of immigration, during which about two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom emigrated to the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. According to linguist Bruce Moore, «the major input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England».
The records of the beginning of the XIX century which remained to this day describe the dialects which arose in a colony since the first settlers: in Peter Miller Cunningham's book of 1827 of Two Years in New South Wales (Lane in New South Wales) describes the accent and a lexicon of natives of colonists differing from British who differ from the parents coming strong cultural influence of London.
Some elements from languages of the Australian natives were adapted by the Australian English - generally it is various names of places, florae and faunae (a koala, a dingo) and local culture (a yova). Many of them are localized and aren't part of the general lexicon, and others - a kangaroo, a boomerang, vallab etc. began to be used and in other languages. Many cities and suburbs of Australia are called under influence or with use of words of natives. The most known example is the capital of Australia Canberra called by the word from local language meaning «a place of meetings».
Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English - mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example dingo) and local culture. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, boomerang, budgerigar, wallaby and so on have become international. Other examples are cooee and hard yakka. The former is used as a high-pitched call, for attracting attention, (pronounced /k??.i?/) which travels long distances. Cooee is also a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region.
Also from there is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English (and ultimately from the Sydney Aboriginal language), meaning «dead», with some extension to «broken» or «useless». Many towns or suburbs of Australia have also been influenced or named after Aboriginal words. The most well known example is the capital, Canberra, named after a local language word meaning «meeting place».
Among the changes starting in the 19th century was the introduction of words, spellings, terms and usages from North American English. The words imported included some later considered to be typically Australian, such as bushwhacker and squatter.
This American influence continued with the popularity of American films, and with the influx of American military personnel in World War II; seen in the enduring persistence of such terms as okay, you guys and gee.
1.1 Development of Phonology and Pronunciation
The primary way in which Australian English is distinctive from other varieties of English is through its unique pronunciation. It shares most similarity with other Southern Hemisphere accents, in particular New Zealand English. Like most dialects of English it is distinguished primarily by its vowel phonology.
The main remarks concerning an origin of the Australian pronunciation were made by the Australian linguists Mitchell and which did considerable researches in the field of the Australian pronunciation. They postulate the following:
1) the Australian option of English on the origin is so-called «city» language as the first immigrants - native speakers were generally from the cities;
2) it, first of all, language of working class, language in the most of uneducated and poor people;
3) the Australian option of English includes features of language of many parts of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
Authors draw a conclusion that all these forms of language were brought to Australia, and the Australian option it that other, as generalization and leveling of all language features of the brought dialects.
Comparing the Australian and British options of English, researchers unanimously note that the greatest divergences are shown in not codified easy oral speech of daily household communication and in the field of a phonetic system and dictionary structure of two options of English. Grammatical divergences aren't numerous.
According to data of researches in the field of a pronunciation, the Australian option of English differs in comparative uniformity. Many researchers believe that in Australia there are no local dialects. Distinctions in a pronunciation depend on a sex, age and the social status of native speakers, than on the geographical region of Australia rather.
In the Australian option of English it is possible to allocate three variations of a pronunciation today: general, cultivated and broad. These variations of a pronunciation have no certain geographical localization, they have no accurately allocated cultural restrictions between segments of the population, these variations in a pronunciation can be observed within one city or even one family. The most characteristic variation for Australia is general, on it tells more than a half of the population, including members of parliament, and teachers of schools and other educational institutions, there is three version of pronunciation: GAu, BrAu and CAu.
1. In a diphthong [ei] the first sound is cut down almost to the neutral public.
2. Glyde [and] in [ai] is slightly wider, than in the British option.
3. There is a phoneme [àå] which is absent in the British option. It replaces sometimes public in a shock position.
4. [ai] and [ei] almost don't differ and smyslorazlichitelny function don't carry out.
5. [a] also wider is also a little more pushed forward.
6. Public No. 10 and [a] - almost don't differ in all dialects.
7. The neutral public replaces [i] at the end of the words «arches», «horses» etc. [i] almost doesn't meet in pure form in one of dialects: in GAu it most often diftongoized [And], in BrAu - in combination with neutral, as well as in SAI. So «feel» is heard in the speech of the BrAu carrier as [f3il]. And the aligning diphthong [i3] turns into a triphthong [3i3] - «beer» [Z1z]. The Australian option of English is very diverse, and bears in itself lines of both the American, and British options. Besides, the problem is complicated by existence of three various equal types of a pronunciation. Though in most cases this differentiation doesn't lead to complication of communicative process, and is only criterion for definition of the social status.
Many researchers believe that three types of the Australian pronunciation are caused by the functional and stylistic reasons, and that at least 30% of native speakers own all three types and can change, depending on a communication situation, pronunciation type.
Despite the distinctions existing between three variations of the Australian speech they form the uniform system differing in general from the British pronounced standard. Most sharply Broad differs, is closest to it - Cultivated. On the basis of it and considering features of development of English in Australia, some researchers made a hypothesis that a form of a pronunciation, primary for Australia, is colloquial form - result of merge and evolution of prostorechiya, dialects and slang on which the first white settlers of Australia about what it was told above spoke. Broad and especially Cultivated arose as more «prestigious» forms by smoothing of features of popular speech and rapprochement with RP.
1.2 Description of Vowels and ConsonantsAustralian English
The vowels of Australian English can be divided according to length. The long vowels, which include monophthongs and diphthongs, mostly correspond to the tense vowels used in analyses of Received Pronunciation (RP) as well as its centring diphthongs. The short vowels, consisting only of monophthongs, correspond to the RP lax vowels. There exist pairs of long and short vowels with overlapping vowel quality giving Australian English phonemic length distinction, which is unusual amongst the various dialects of English, though not unknown elsewhere, such as in regional south-eastern dialects of the UK and eastern seaboard dialects in the US.
foot, hood, chook
kit, bid, hid,
dress, led, head
comma, about, winter
trap, lad, had
strut, bud, hud
lot, cloth, hot
goose, boo, who'd
fleece, bead, heat
square, bared, haired
nurse, bird, heard
bag, tan, bad
start, palm, bath
thought, north, force
cure, lure, tour
near, beard, hear
mouth, bowed, how'd
goat, bode, hoed
face, bait, hade
price, bite, hide
choice, boy, oil
As with General American and New Zealand English, the weak-vowel merger is complete in Australian English: unstressed /?/ (sometimes written as /?/ or /?/) is merged into /?/ (schwa), unless it is followed by a velar consonant.
There is little variation with respect to the sets of consonants used in various English dialects. There are, however, variations in how these consonants are used. Australian English is no exception.
Consonant phonemes of Australian English
Australian English is non-rhotic; in other words, the /r/ sound does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant. However, a linking /r/ can occur when a word that has a final <r> in the spelling comes before another word that starts with a vowel. An intrusive /r/ may similarly be inserted before a vowel in words that do not have <r> in the spelling in certain environments, namely after the long vowel /o?/ and after word final /?/.
There is some degree of allophonic variation in the alveolar stops. As with North American English, Intervocalic alveolar flapping is a feature of Australian English: prevocalic /t/ and /d/ surface as the alveolar tap [?] after sonorants other than /?/, /m/as well as at the end of a word or morpheme before any vowel in the same breath group. For many speakers, /t/ and /d/ in the combinations /tr/-/tw/ and /dr/-/dw/ are also palatalised, thus /t?r/-/t?w/ and /d?r/-/d?w/, as Australian /r/ is only very slightly retroflex, the tip remaining below the level of the bottom teeth in the same position as for /w/; it is also somewhat rounded («to say 'r' the way Australians do you need to say 'w' at the same time»), where older English /wr/ and /r/ have fallen together as /?r/. The wine-whine merger is complete in Australian English.
Yod-dropping occurs after /r/, /l/, /s/, /z/, /è/, /t?/, /d?/, /j/ and /?/. Other cases of /sj/ and /zj/, along with /tj/ and /dj/, have coalesced to /?/, /?/, /t?/ and /d?/ respectively for many speakers. /j/ is generally retained in other consonant clusters.
In common with American English and Scottish English, the phoneme /l/ is pronounced as a «dark» (velarised) L in all positions, unlike other dialects such as English English and Hiberno (Irish) English, where a light (palatised) L is used in many positions.
1.3 Cultural and regional variations
Academic research has shown that the most notable variation within Australian English is largely sociocultural. This is mostly evident in phonology, which is divided into three sociocultural varieties: broad, general and cultivated.
By estimates of linguists, about a third of the population of Australia speaks on a «wide», pronounced dialect (Broad Australian), a little more than a half of the population uses «standard, standard» Australian (General Australian), and approximately the tenth part speaks on «educated, graceful» Australian (Cultivated Australian), and among girls and women there is a tendency to adhere to two last options.
A limited range of word choices is strongly regional in nature. Consequently, the geographical background of individuals can be inferred, if they use words that are peculiar to particular Australian states or territories and, in some cases, even smaller regions.
In addition, some Australians speak creole languages derived from Australian English, such as Australian Kriol, Torres Strait Creole and Norfuk.
Regional distinctions in the Australian English are expressed poorly; the variation in this option is caused by a factor of a social status; the simplest manifestation - division into language of the city and language of rural areas.
Among changes, since gold-rushes of the XIX century, introduction of words, their writing, rules and use of terms which came from North American option of English started being allocated. Loan words are included by what became characteristic for the Australian English subsequently, such as bonzer is («good» or «excellent»). It proceeded with flow of the American military personnel during World War II: also, as well as in movies, expressions of «okay», «by you, guys» and «gee» were used there. The American influence through the movie led to local adoption of such terms, as bronco («mustang») instead of the settled brumby (English) meaning «a wild horse», and cowboy instead of the settled drover and stockman used for designation of the shepherd for sheep and cattle though such words are still perceived as «Americanisms».
We will consider features of spelling of the Australian option of English. Writing in the Australian English almost completely corresponds to spelling of the British English; writing options with - re (center), - our (harbor), - ll - (traveling), - ise/ize (recognise/recognize) are used, but the form - ise is more widespread, with a ratio - ise to - ize 3:1,
It is available different violations in comparison with the British standard option. This, for example, wrong creation of the offer 1. In this question there is no auxiliary verb of can. It is obvious that the word knife is used here both as semantic, and as an auxiliary verb. And the noun of a samich is the Australian option of an English noun of a sandwich. Besides, words not of the British origin, but Australian - gechawun, by attlebee, aitninee are used. Respectively, deviations from the British norm will be traced and at a pronunciation of these words and all dialogue in general.
More than semicentennial existence of the Australian dominion which is torn off from the mother country by several thousand miles, and also weak cultural communication with the mother country, on the one hand, and the growing feeling of national consciousness and national independence with another, definitely couldn't but be reflected in dictionary structure, a pronunciation and also the English grammar in Australia. Distinctions with dictionary structure of literary English now even grow as progressive Australian writers widely introduce so-called «australianisms» in the literary language, and deep studying of history of Australia at schools, as well as the publication of popular scientific works on history of Australia revive obsolete words of that period when Australia was a place of the link and endured rough years of a gold-rush. However these distinctions aren't so big that it was possible to speak about the Australian language. It is the Australian option of English.
To explain why GAus carriers speak slowly and less emotionally, than RP carriers the set of theories was offered. Supporters of one of such theories make the assumption that languages of the Australian natives had impact on intonation and tempo of speech of GAus carriers. As opposed to this theory moves forward that fact that the cultural level of the Australian natives was too low considerably to affect culture and language of white settlers. Besides, owing to rather short history of the relations between settlers and natives, language of the last couldn't have noticeable impact on the speech of settlers. The role in division of languages of natives and settlers was also played by the segregation policy pursued by white settlers from the moment of colonization.
The following theory raises the question of influence of climatic conditions on tempo of speech and intonation of the speaking. There is an assumption that climatic conditions can have impact on the native speaker's articulation. For example, the people living in a frigid climate are inclined to more intensive articulation unlike the people living in warm or hot climate. This theory explains distinctions at speed and intonation of the speech between GAus carriers and RP carriers warm climate of Australia. Opponents of this theory claim that such influence doesn't take place as, for example, the Canadians living in the north tell a lot of things much more slowly, than living in the south.
In arrangement of accents in the offer too there are distinctions. GAus carriers avoid a large number of unaccented syllables in an interval between two percussions. There is a secondary accent or unaccented in the RP word becomes shock in GAus. As a result the number of shock syllables in is offered in GAus as a rule more, than in RP.
As features of articulation base of the Australian English call rather weak work of lips that leads to weaker labialization of the Australian sounds in comparison with corresponding British, and also more frequent use of the nasal resonator when pronouncing vowels (twang).
All peculiar lines of the Australian English are most consistently shown in a colloquial form of a pronunciation, being combined with numerous reductions.
The broad, general and cultivated accents form a continuum that reflects minute variations in the Australian accent. They can reflect the social class, education and urban or rural background of speakers, though such indicators are not always reliable. According to linguists, the general Australian variant emerged some time before 1900. Recent generations have seen a comparatively smaller proportion of the population speaking with the broad variant, along with the near extinction of the cultivated Australian accent. The growth and dominance of general Australian accents perhaps reflects its prominence on radio and television during the late 20th century.
Australian Aboriginal English is made up of a range of forms which developed differently in different parts of Australia, and are said to vary along a continuum, from forms close to Standard Australian English to more non-standard forms. There are distinctive features of accent, grammar, words and meanings, as well as language use.
The ethnocultural dialects are diverse accents in Australian English that are spoken by the minority groups, which are of non-English speaking background. A massive immigration from Asia has made a large increase in diversity and the will for people to show their cultural identity within the Australian context. These ethnocultural varieties contain features of General Australian English as adopted by the children of immigrants blended with some non-English language features, such as the Afro-Asiatic and Asian languages.
Although Australian English is relatively homogeneous, some regional variations are notable. The dialects of English spoken in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland and the Torres Strait Islands differ slightly from each other. Differences exist both in terms of vocabulary and phonology.
Most regional differences come down to word usage. For example, swimming clothes are known as cossies or swimmers in New South Wales, togs in Queensland, and bathers in Victoria, Western Australia and South Australia; what is referred to as a stroller in most of Australia is called a pusher in Victoria and usually a pram in Western Australia. Preference for synonymous words also differs between states. For example, garbage (i.e. garbage bin, garbage truck) dominates over rubbish in New South Wales and Queensland, while rubbish is more popular in Victoria, Western Australia and South Australia. The word footy generally refers to the most popular football code in the particular state or territory; that is, rugby league in New South Wales and Queensland, and Australian rules football elsewhere. Beer glasses are also named differently in different states. Distinctive grammatical patterns exist such as the use of the interrogative eh (also spelled ay or aye), which is particularly associated with Queensland.
There are some notable regional variations in the pronunciations of certain words. The extent to which the trap-bath split has taken hold is one example. This phonological development is more advanced in South Australia, which had a different settlement chronology and type than other parts of the country, which resulted in a prolonged British English influence that outlasted that of the other colonies. Words such as dance, advance, plant, graph, example and answer are pronounced far more frequently with the older /æ/ (as in mad) outside of South Australia, but with /a?/ (as in father) within South Australia. L-vocalisation is also more common in South Australia than other states. In Western Australian and Queensland English, the vowels in near and square are typically realised as centring diphthongs («nee-ya»), whereas in the other states they may also be realised as monophthongs. A feature common in Victorian English is salary-celery merger, whereby a Victorian pronunciation of Ellen may sound like Alan to speakers from other states. There is also regional variation in /u?/ before /l/ (as in school and pool), typically pronounced as /i?u/ in Queensland and New South Wales but /u?/ in South Australia and Western Australia.
Regional distinctions in lexical structure of the Australian option of English language concern the most widespread manifestations of culture: names of dishes, establishments, etc., as to different states of Australia there arrived immigrants from the different states: Poland, Germany, Russia, Belgium. For example, the boiled and smoked pork sausage called by «fritz» in staff South Australia is called as «devon» - in the State of New South Wales, «Belgium sausage» - on the island of Tasmania, «Empire sausage» - to Newcastle, «polony» - in staff Western Australia, «Windsor sausage» - in the State of Queensland, and «German sausage» or «Strasburg» - in staff Victoria. These examples testify that at the nomination of products (in this case, sausages) are used or new words - fritz, devon, polony of a non English origin, or English in combination with the definitions indicating belonging of new residents of the country to their homeland. Obviously, natives of Germany will call «fritz» or «German sausage» sausage, and Belgians of «Belgium sausage».
2. Word stock in Australian English
Australian English has many words and idioms which are unique to the dialect and have been written on extensively, with the Macquarie Dictionary, widely regarded as the national standard, incorporating numerous Australian terms.
Internationally well-known examples of Australian terminology include outback, meaning a remote, sparsely populated area, the bush, meaning either a native forest or a country area in general, and g'day, a greeting. Dinkum, or fair dinkum means «true», or «is that true?», among other things, depending on context and inflection. The derivative dinky-di means «true» or devoted: a «dinky-di Aussie» is a «true Australian».
Regional distinctions in lexical structure of the Australian option of English
language concern the most widespread manifestations of culture: names of dishes, establishments, etc., as to different states of Australia there arrived immigrants from the different states: Poland, Germany, Russia, Belgium. For example, the boiled and smoked pork sausage called by «fritz» in staff South Australia is called as «devon» - in the State of New South Wales, «Belgium sausage» - on the island of Tasmania, «Empire sausage» - to Newcastle, «polony» - in staff Western Australia, «Windsor sausage» - in the State of Queensland, and «German sausage» or «Strasburg» - in staff Victoria. These examples testify that at the nomination of products (in this case, sausages) are used or new words - fritz, devon, polony of a non English origin, or English in combination with the definitions indicating belonging of new residents of the country to their homeland. Obviously, natives of Germany will call «fritz» or «German sausage» sausage, and Belgians of «Belgium sausage».
The preparatory class at school is called as «kindergarten» in the State of New South Wales, «prep class» («a preparatory class») in staff Victoria and on the island of Tasmania and «reception class» («a reception class») in staff South Australia. The mansion from two apartments («a semidetached house») is called as maisonnette (fr. a lodge) in staff South Australia. The common word «forest» («wood») is practically not used in relation to the woods of Australia as they represent the light eucalyptus woods and bushes. The woody district in Australia is called «a bush» from English «the bush». A widespread greeting is «g'day» (gdaD is said), reduction from «good day» Good afternoon. Even more widespread address to each other - «mate» («friend»), is said / by maDt/.
In the Australian English there are own idioms (for example, «below under the equator» (English Down Under) - the countries of Australia and New Zealand), and separate words («sheila» - the woman from Ireland so are called. «Sheila» - a widespread female name in Ireland, «bloke» - the man). Expression of «fair dinkum» («something real, original; originally Australian») it has something in common with the same expression existing earlier in a Lincolnshire dialect, from where and conducts the origin.
Australian poetry, such as «The Man from Snowy River» as well as folk songs such as «Waltzing Matilda», contain many historical Australian words and phrases that are understood by Australians even though some are not in common usage today.
Australian English, in common with several British English dialects (for example, Cockney, Scouse, Glaswegian and Geordie), uses the word mate. Many words used by Australians were at one time used in England but have since fallen out of usage or changed in meaning there.
For example, creek in Australia, as in North America, means a stream or small river, whereas in the UK it means a small watercourse flowing into the sea; paddock in Australia means field, whereas in the UK it means a small enclosure for livestock; bush or scrub in Australia, as in North America, means a wooded area, whereas in England they are commonly used only in proper names (such as Shepherd's Bush and Wormwood Scrubs).
Litotes, such as «not bad», «not much» and «you're not wrong», are also used, as are diminutives, which are commonly used and are often used to indicate familiarity. Some common examples are arvo (afternoon), barbie (barbecue), smoko (cigarette break), Aussie (Australian) and pressie (present/gift). This may also be done with people's names to create nicknames (other English speaking countries create similar diminutives). For example, «Gazza» from Gary, or «Smitt» from John Smith. The use of the suffix - o originates in Irish Gaelic (Irish ó), which is both a postclitic and a suffix with much the same meaning as in Australian English.
In informal speech, incomplete comparisons are sometimes used, such as «sweet as» (as in «That car is sweet as.»). «Full», «fully» or «heaps» may precede a word to act as an intensifier (as in «The waves at the beach were heaps good.»). This was more common in regional Australia and South Australia but has been in common usage in urban Australia for decades. The suffix «- ly» is sometimes omitted in broader Australian English. For instance «real good» instead of «really good».
Australia's switch to the metric system in the 1970s changed the country's vocabulary of measurement from Imperial towards metric measures.
The rhymed slang - «heritage» of immigrants cockneys has distribution. Special names and phrases meet: «a porcelain plate» (English china plate) - «the good friend» (English good mate), «let's look» (English have a look) - «give the captain Cook» (English have a captain Cook), «shark» (English shark) - «Noah's Ark» (English. Noah's ark) etc. Among means of the nomination reductions are widespread (documentation - doco, a smoke break - smoko, soccer - footie etc.). The self-name of English-Australian is also result of reduction - «ozz» (English aussie) reduced from «Australians» (English Australians). Some researchers of the Australian English compare it to the live museum in which regionalisms of XVIII and XIX centuries remained from:
* Ireland: dust-up «fight, fight», tootsy (foot) «foot» (a children's pronunciation), corker «tremendous copy» (about the person or a thing);
* Scotland: billy (bally) «a bucket from under milk»;
* Worcester / Uorkshira: larrikin «hooligan; huliganstvuyushchiya»;
* Cornwall: to fossick «to rummage, dig; to look for gold»;
* Central counties of England (English The Midlands): to stonker (to stonk): I am stonkered «I am exhausted»;
* Suffolk: cobber (to cob) «friend, buddy»;
* Dawg: clobber (clubbered up «dressed up»);
* English in general: tucker («food; [school] dining room»).
However there is also the, original Australian slang brightly and neatly describing people, situations. Expression «behind a black stub» (English «past the black stump») describes not populated, wild area deprived of any signs of a civilization, that is internal areas of the continent. The folklore allocated these areas with a certain mysticism. It is also possible to carry to such expressions:
* «Spark cookies» (English «shark biscuits») - the surfer beginner;
* «Won't cry even if the shark will bite» (English «Wouldn't shout if a shark bit her») - the characteristic of the avaricious, hard-fisted person, not person interested to treat friends with binge (English «shout» means «to shout», but also «to treat someone with binge».)
* «Boomerang» (English «boomerang») - something, for example the book which needs to be returned.
Some expressions describe the phenomena having analogs in other options of English:
* «Gossip hotline»: «bush telegraph» («forest telegraph») in Australia and «moccasin radio/telegraph» («mokasinny radio») in Canada.
A certain number of words in the Australian English developed new values:
* «station» - «location; station», Austr E + «a livestock, sheep-breeding farm»;
* «bush» - «a bush, the district, dumetose», Austr E + «the wood; rural areas»;
* «to tie up» - «to connect; to tie to something», Austr E + «to tie an animal to a column».
2.1 Peculiarity in pronunciation
Differences in stress, weak forms and standard pronunciation of isolated words occur between Australian English and other forms of English, which while noticeable do not impair intelligibility.
The affixes - ary, - ery, - ory, - bury, - berry and - mony (seen in words such as necessary, mulberry and matrimony) can be pronounced either with a full vowel or a schwa. Although some words like necessary are almost universally pronounced with the full vowel, older generations of Australians are relatively likely to pronounce these affixes with a schwa while younger generations are relatively likely to use a full vowel.
Words ending in unstressed - ile derived from Latin adjectives ending in - ilis are pronounced with a full vowel (/?el/), so that fertile rhymes with fur tile rather than turtle.
In addition, miscellaneous pronunciation differences exist when compared with other varieties of English in relation to seemingly random words. For example, as with American English, the vowel in yoghurt is pronounced as /??/ («long 'O'») rather than /?/ («short o»), and vitamin is pronounced with /?e/ («long 'I'») in the first syllable, rather than /?/ («short 'I'»). As with British English, advertisement is pronounced with /?/. Two examples of miscellaneous pronunciations which contrast with both standard American and British usages are data, which is pronounced with /??/ («dah») as opposed to /e?/ («day»); and maroon, pronounced with /o?/ («own») as opposed to /u?/ («oon»).
The speech, characteristic for Australians, can be illustrated with the following examples:
1. - Knife a samich? That means: - Can I have a sandwich? - «It is possible for me a sandwich?»
2. - I'll gechawun inn a sec. - I'll get you one in a sec. - «One moment».
3. - Emma chisit? - How much is it? - «How much is it?»
4. - Attlebee aitninee. - That'll be eight ninety. - «From you 8.90».
2.2 Words of Australian origins and Comparison with other varieties
Australian English term Outback means a «remote, sparsely-populated area». Jackaroo is a type of agricultural worker.
Battler is a term that means a person with few natural advantages, who works doggedly and with little reward, who struggles for a livelihood and who displays courage. The first citation for this comes from Henry Lawson in While the Billy Boils (1896): `I sat on him pretty hard for his pretensions, and paid him out for all the patronage he'd worked off on me. and told him never to pretend to me again he was a battler'.
The origins of other terms are not as clear, or are disputed. Dinkum or fair dinkum means «true», «the truth», «speaking the truth», «authentic» and related meanings, depending on context and inflection. One of the earliest references to fair dinkum. It originated with a now-extinct dialect word from the East Midlands in England, where dinkum (or dincum) meant «hard work» or «fair work», which was also the original meaning in Australian English.
Digger is an Australian soldier. The term was applied during the First World War to Australian and New Zealand soldiers because so much of their time was spent digging trenches. An earlier Australian sense of digger was `a miner digging for gold'. Billy Hughes, prime minister during the First World War, was known as the Little Digger. First recorded in this sense 1916.
Fair go - a reasonable chance, a fair deal. Australia often sees itself as an egalitarian society, the land of the fair go, where all citizens have a right to fair treatment.
A «Yobo,» also spelled Yobbo, is someone who tends to be loud and obnoxious, lacks in social skills and general behaviour. A Yobbo can also apply to someone who over indulges in alcohol and may have little or no regard for his/her appearance. Historically (1970-1990) Yobbos have also been known to have hairstyles such as the ' Mullet' or 'Rattails'. May also be shortened to Yob.
A bogan is another term for describing someone who is a Yobbo, although may have subtle regional differences such as «Bevan» in and around Brisbane, and «Boonah» around Canberra.
Americans in the Australian English are called «seppo» (English seppo) that is formed on a chain of «Yanks» - «Septic tanks» - «Seppos». Pommy, pommie or pom can call the Englishman (the etymology isn't clear; the main sense - red color (from «pomegranate» - «grenades»), perhaps color of a form of the British soldiers, color of cheeks at the British immigrants, or from an abbreviation on clothes of prisoners - POM (Prisoner of Motherland)). Loans from the American English at the level of lexicon are presented by the words «bonanza» - «a rich pot of gold». The word «biscuit» («cookies») exists along with American «cookie», British «motorway» («highway») - together with American «freeway». «Truck» - the American word «truck», but «gas station» - British «petrol station».
The Australian English of special confusion doesn't cause. Spelling British, lexicon generally - too, with impurity of the American words and microimpurity of words from languages of natives (kangaroo, billabong etc.). In general, not really there is a lot of differences unless in allegedly classless Australian society language is more informal than other territorial options. All can tell «Hi» and «mate», even to the prime minister. There is still a tendency in the Australian English to reduce everyday words, for example, arvo (afternoon), brekkie (breakfast), doco (documentation), prospers a local slang and typical Australian turns like She'll be right, No worries.
Approximate dialogue of the British and Australian can be presented as follows:
(Australian): Good on yer!
(British): Good on me what?
(Australian): How're you going?
(British): How am I going where?
For full understanding of such speech it is necessary to study features of communication on the basis of the Australian option of English.
Besides distinctions in a pronunciation of words, Australians resort to reductions and admissions of sounds. It can sometimes lead to mistakes in understanding of sense of the statement.
Distinctions in a pronunciation and usage scientific research institute can be illustrated with the following examples (tab. 1):
«Wyne chevva cold share?»
«Good day, mate»
Why don't you have a cold shower?»
We will review the examples of the Australian slang presented in table 2.
Pom or Pommy
a cup of tea
an English person
The pronunciation of the first settlers in Australia initially differed from the British English as the main part of the population was made by convicts, representatives of social bottoms, political exiled. They were carriers of city prostorechiya and dialects, the cockney, northern accents and adverbs. Simplification of a pronunciation of some sounds happened because most of the first white settlers had no education. Features of a landscape and climate had some impact. Greater mobility of the population and feature of national economy had strong impact on leveling of language distinctions.
The American option of English had rather strong impact on the Australian option. The most part of the Australian dictionary structure coincides with dictionary structure of the British option. Distinctive lines of the Australian option aren't distributed evenly on all dictionary structure of language, but concentrate in some areas corresponding to the spheres of activity most important and actual for Australians. These are areas of flora and fauna, a landscape, cattle breeding and especially sheep breeding, gold mining and fields of activity of the person, other, characteristic for Australia. Therefore, now, during development of the cultural and economic relations between Australia and other countries it is necessary to study not only English, but also its Australian option. It will help to carry out successfully communication, irrespective of the sphere of its application.
Words of Australian Aboriginal origin
Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been incorporated into Australian English, mainly as names for flora and fauna (for example koala, dingo, kangaroo).
Some examples are cooee and Hard yakka. The former is a high-pitched call (pronounced /k??.i?/) which travels long distances and is used to attract attention. Cooee has also become a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means work, strenuous labour, and is derived from yakka. It comes from yaga meaning `work' in the Yagara indigenous language of the Brisbane region. Yakka found its way into nineteenth-century Australian pidgin, and then passed into Australian English. First recorded 1847.
Boomerang is an Australian word which has moved into International English. It was borrowed from Dharuk, the Aboriginal language spoken in the Sydney region.
Didgeridoo is a wind instrument that was originally found only in Arnhem Land in northern Australia. It is a long, wooden, tubular instrument that produces a low-pitched, resonant sound with complex, rhythmic patterns but little tonal variation
Diminutives and abbreviations
Australian English vocabulary draws heavily on diminutives and abbreviations. These may be confusing to foreign speakers when they are used in everyday conversations.
There are over 5,000 identified diminutives in use. While other English dialects use diminutives in a similar way, none are so prolific with or diverse. A large number of these are widely recognised and used by Australian English speakers. However, many are used only by specific demographic groups or in localised areas.
Australia has four codes of football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football, and soccer. Generally, rugby league is called football in New South Wales and Queensland, while rugby union is called union throughout. Australian rules football is called football in the other states. Association football was long known as soccer in Australia. In 2005, the governing body changed its name to Football Federation Australia. Many media sources now refer to soccer as «football».
Specific character of English language. Words of Australian Aboriginal origin. Colloquialisms in dictionaries and language guides. The Australian idioms, substitutions, abbreviations and comparisons. English in different fields (food and drink, sport).
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