Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works

Word Building as a part of Lexicology. The Ways of Word Building: affixation, conversion, abbreviation, composition. Role of word building a relevant in prose and poetry in E. Poes works; to investigate which of them are the most frequent and productive.

22.05.2012
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1.2.4 Composition

This type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems, is one of the three most productive types in Modern English, the other two are conversion and affixation. Compounds, though certainly fewer in quantity than derived or root words, still represent one of the most typical and specific features of English word-structure. [2,113]

Compound words are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a sentence as a separate lexical unit. E. g.: I'd rather read a time-table than nothing at all.

Composition or compounding is the way of word building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. The structural unity of a compound word depends upon: a) the unity of stress, b) solid or hyphenated spelling, c) semantic unity, d) unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. These are characteristic features of compound words in all languages. For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on the first component), e.g. hard-cover, best-seller. We can also have a double stress in an English compound, with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component, e.g. blood- vessel. The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses, e.g. snow- white, sky-blue. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphenated spelling. [7,103]

Spelling in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling even in the same text, e.g. war-ship, blood- vessel can be spelt through a hyphen and also with a break, insofar, underfoot can be spelt solidly and with a break. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound words which are called block compounds, they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break, e.g. air piracy, cargo module, coin change, pinguin suit etc. The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components, e.g. to ghostwrite, skinhead, brain-drain etc. In nonidiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong, e. g., airbus, to bloodtransfuse, astrodynamics etc. English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. They are used in a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically, e.g. these girls are chatter-boxes. Chatter-boxes is a predicative in the sentence and only the second component changes grammatically. There are two characteristic features of English compounds: a) both components in an English compound are free stems, that they can be used as words with a distinctive meaning of their own. The sound pattern will be the same except for the. The stems are bound morphemes, as a rule.

b) English compounds have a two-stem pattern, with the exception of compound words which have form-word stems in their structure, e.g. middle- of-the-road, off-the-record, up-and-doing etc. The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones. [9,146]

a) Ways of forming compound words

The structural cohesion of a compound may depend upon unity of stress, solid or hyphenated spelling, semantic unity, unity of morphological and syntactic functioning, or, more often, upon the combined effect of several of these or similar phonetic, graphic, semantic, morphological or syntactic factors. [6,64]

The integrity of a compound is manifest in its indivisibility, i.e. the impossibility of inserting another word or word-group between its elements. If, for example, speaking about a sunbeam, we can insert some other word between the article and the noun, e. g. a bright sunbeam, a bright and unexpected sunbeam, because the article a is a separate word, no such insertion is possible between the stems sun and beam, for they are not words but morphemes here. Syntactic ties are ties between words, whereas in dealing with a compound one studies relations within a word, the relations between its constituents, the morphemes. In the compound spacecraft space is not attribute, it is the determinant restricting the meaning of the determinatum by expressing the purpose for which craft is designed or the medium in which it will travel.

The great variety of compound types brings about a great variety of classifications. Compound words may be classified according to the type of composition and the linking element; according to the part of speech to which the compound belongs; and within each part of speech according to the structural pattern (see the next paragraph). It is also possible to subdivide compounds according to other characteristics, i.e. semantically, into motivated and idiomatic compounds (in the motivated ones the meaning of the constituents can be either direct or figurative). A classification according to the type of the syntactic phrase with which the compound is correlated has also been suggested. Even so there remain some miscellaneous types that defy classification, such as phrase compounds, reduplicative compounds, pseudo-compounds and quotation compounds. [15,178]

The classification according to the type of composition permits us to establish the following groups:

1) The predominant type is a mere juxtaposition without connecting elements: heartache (n), heart-beat(n), heart-break(n), heart-breaking(a), heart-broken(a), heart-felt(a).

2) Composition with a vowel or a consonant as a linking element. The examples are very few: electromotive (a), speedometer (n), Afro-Asian (a), handicraft(n), statesman(n).

3) Compounds with linking elements represented by preposition or conjunction stems: down-and-out (n), matter-of-fact (a), son-in-law(n), pep-per-and-salt(a), wall-to-wall (a), up-to-date(a), on the up-and-up(adv) (continually improving), up-and-coming, as in the following example: No doubt he'd had the pick of some up-and-coming jazzmen in Paris. There are also a few other lexicalised phrases like devil-may-care (a), forget-me-not(n), pick-me-up(n), stick-in-the-mud(n), what's-her name(n). [12, 97]

The classification of compounds according to the structure of immediate constituents distinguishes:

1) Compounds consisting of simple stems: film-star;

2) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a derived stem: chain-smoker;

3) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a clipped stem: maths-mistress (in British English) and math-mistress (in American English). The subgroup will contain abbreviations like H-bag (handbag) or Xmas (Christmas), whodunit (n) (for mystery novels) considered substandard; [11,112]

4) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a compound stem: wastepaper-basket.

In what follows the main structural types of English compounds are described in greater detail. The list is by no means exhaustive but it may serve as a general guide.

b) Classification of English compounds

According to the parts of speech compounds are subdivided into:

1. Noun compounds: Noun compounds are subclassified according to the syntactic relation of the compounding elements:

a) Subject and verb: The verb may take the form of the base or that of the base plus -ing. Example are headache the headaches, heartbeat the heart beat; crybaby the baby cries; commanding officer the officer commands and revolving door the door revolves.

b) Verb and object: The verb may take the form of the base or that of the base + -ing. For example: pickpocket to pick pockets birthcontrol to control birth; house-keeping to keep house; and dressmaking to make dresses.The type housekeeping and dressmaking is very productive.

c) Verb and adverbial: Verbal noun in -ing + adverbial (consisting of a prepositional phrase); e.g. swimming pool to swim in the pool or a pool for swimming; diving board to dive from a board, drinking cup to drink out of a cup; typing paper to type on paper. It is a very productive type. [3, 89]

d) Subject and object: steamboat steam powers the boat; gaslight the gas produces light; honeybee the bee produces honey.

e) Restrictive relations: the first element restricts the meaning of the second: raindrop a drop of raining; moonwalk a walk on the moon; evening school a school in the evening; tablecloth a cloth for the table; ashtray a stray for ash; breakfast time the time for breakfast.These types of words like ashtray, tablecloth and breakfast time expressing purpose is very productive.

f) Appositive relations: the first element is in apposition to the second one: e.g. a peasant girl the girl is a peasant, a pine tree the tree is a pine.Compound nouns can also be formed from phrasal verbs. This type is very common in contemporary English. Examples are: sit-in, dropout , phone-in, breakdown, walk-on , walkout, setback , and take-off. [11,113]

2. Adjective compounds: Adjective compounds are also subclassified according to the syntactic relation of the compounding elements:

a) Subject and verb: Examples are thunder-strick (houses) thunder struck the houses; weather-beaten (rocks) weather beat the rocks; suntanned (skin) sun tanned the skin. This type is highly productive.

b) Verb and object: The verb is in the form of present participle, e.g. fault-finding to find fault; peaceloving to love peace; record-breaking to break records. It is a productive type.

c) Verb and adverbial: e.g. ocean-going to go across oceans; hardworking to work hard everlasting to last forever; well-behaved to behave well; new-laid (eggs) x has laid (the eggs) recently.

d) Noun and adjective: e.g. taxfree free from tax; seasick sick due to sailing on the sea; watertight tight against water; ocean green as greenas the ocean; crystal-clear as clean as a crystal; knee-deep so deep as to reach the knees. [5,120]

e) Coordinating relationship: e.g. bittersweet sweet but bitter; Anglo-French relation relation between Great Britain and France

Adjective compounds also are formed from:

a) Phrasal verb: This endlessly talked-about topic bored me. (cf. this topic has been talked about endlessly.)

b) Adverbial phrases: They kept a round-the -clock (all the time) watch on the house. (cf. They watched the house round the clock.)

c) From proverbs and idiomatic expressions: My grandfather displayed a never-to-be-too-old-to-learn spirit (from the proverb One is never too old to learn.)

d) From an attributive clause: a jet-propelled plan (a plane that is propelled by jet). [11,114]

3. Verb compounds: Verb compounds fall into main groups according to their method of formation:

a) Those formed by back-formation: Back-formation is a reversal of derivation, for instance, house-keep is formed by deleting -ing and -er from housekeeping and housekeeper, which entered the language much earlier.

b) Those formed by conversion. In this case, the verb compounds are converted from noun compounds; e.g. to blue-pencil, to honeymoon, to machine-gun, to nickname, to outline, to snowball, etc. [5,100]

3. According to their structure compounds are subdivided into:

a) Compound words proper which consist of two stems, e.g. to job-hunt, train-sick, go-go, tip-top

b) Derivational compounds, where besides the stems we have affixes, e.g. ear-minded, hydro-skimmer,

c) Compound words consisting of three or more stems, e.g. cornflower- blue, eggshell-thin, singer-songwriter,

d) compound-shortened words, e.g. boatel, tourmobile, VJ-day, motocross, Intervision, Eurodollar, Camford. [3,98]

We can make a conclusion that a compound word is made up of two or more words that together express a single idea. There are three types of compounds. An open compound consists of two or more words written separately, such as salad dressing, Boston terrier, or April Fools' Day. A hyphenated compound has words connected by a hyphen, such as age-old, mother-in-law, `force-feed. A solid compound consists of two words that are written as one word, such as keyboard or typewriter. In addition, a compound may be classified as permanent or temporary. A permanent compound is fixed by common usage and can usually be found in the dictionary, whereas a temporary compound consists of two or more words joined by a hyphen as needed, usually to modify another word or to avoid ambiguity. [2, 87]

In general, permanent compounds begin as temporary compounds that become used so frequently they become established as permanent compounds. Likewise many solid compounds begin as separate words, evolve into hyphenated compounds, and later become solid compounds. Although the dictionary is the first place to look when you are trying to determine the status of a particular compound, reference works do not always agree on the current evolutionary form of a compound, nor do they include temporary compounds. The following general rules apply to forming compounds. Keep in mind that words that are made up of a word root plus a prefix or a suffix are not normally considered compounds, strictly speaking. [5, 78]

4. According to the relations between the components, compound words are subdivided into:

a) Subordinate compounds where one of the components is the semantic and the structural centre and the second component is subordinate; these subordinate relations can be different:

With comparative relations, e.g. honey-sweet, eggshell-thin, with limiting relations, e.g. breast-high, knee-deep, with emphatic relations, e.g. dog-cheap, with objective relations, e.g. gold-rich, with cause relations, e.g. love-sick, with space relations, e.g. top-heavy, with time relations, e.g. spring-fresh, with subjective relations, e.g. foot-sore etc

b) Coordinative compounds where both components are semantically independent. Here belong such compounds when one person (object) has two functions, e.g. secretary-stenographer, woman-doctor, Oxbridge etc. Such compounds are called additive. This group includes also compounds formed by means of reduplication, e.g. fifty-fifty, `no-no, and also compounds formed with the help of rhythmic stems (reduplication combined with sound interchange) e.g. criss-cross, walkie-talkie. [6, 76]

5. According to the order of the components compounds are divided into compounds with direct order, e.g. kill-joy, and compounds with indirect order, e.g. nuclear-free, rope-ripe.

The suggested subdivision into three groups is based on the degree of semantic cohesion of the constituent parts, the third group representing the extreme case of cohesion where the constituent meanings blend to produce an entirely new meaning. [1,103]

The following joke rather vividly shows what happens if an idiomatic compound is misunderstood as non-idiomatic.

Patient: They tell me, doctor, you are a perfect lady-killer.

Doctor: Oh, no, no! I assure you, my dear madam, I make no distinction between the sexes.

In this joke, while the woman patient means to compliment the doctor on his being a handsome and irresistible man, he takes or pretends to take the word lady-killer literally, as a sum of the direct meanings of its constituents. [2, 123]

In this chapter, we have looked at numerous affixational processes in English. We investigated some general characteristics of English affixation; we saw that suffixation and prefixation are very common and extremely restricted phenomenon in English word-formation. In the next chapter, we will have a closer look at the characteristics of some non-affixational processes by which new words can be derived.

Also In this chapter we have looked at a number of word-formation processes that do not involve affixes as their primary or only means of deriving words from other words or morphemes. We have seen that English has a rich inventory of such non-affixational processes, including conversion, and abbreviation. Each of these mechanisms was investigated in some detail and it turned out that, in spite of the initial impression of irregularity, a whole range of systematic structural restrictions can be determined. As with affixation, these restrictions can refer to the semantic, syntactic, and phonological properties of the words involved and are highly regular in nature.

affixation conversion abbreviation composition poe

Chapter Two. Analysis of the Examples on the Basis of E. Poe's Prose and Poetry

The practical part of our works deals with the major processes of word building in E. Poe's works. Giving the examples of their using in Poe's prose and poetry we want to face with the problem that neither a traditional morphological nor a syntactic interpretation sufficiently explains the unique function of word-formation. From a linguistic perspective, this work offers a reasonable insight into the English language as regards word formation. Language is a living instrument, so it evolves with its users and adjusts to the times; accordingly, some words fall out of use because speakers no longer have need for them, whereas some new words arise in response to different motivations: pragmatic, communicative and connotative. Both the birth and the death of words are illustrated in the prose and poetry.

English has never lost its native powers of making new words by derivation, of building up words of native stocks and parts. Though these powers were atrophied by centuries of foreign domination in cultural matters during the French supremacy and to a less extent by the almost overwhelming importance of Latin at the Renaissance, they never ceased to be; and its huge expansion in the later centuries, these powers have been to some extent called into use. [16, 34]

To supplement our review of word-formation processes, of which compounding has been given primary attention, one has to present some instances of words derived by means of affixation and coined by the process of compounding, such a way of producing new words is extremely productive in English.

Comparing derivation with composition, the analysis shows that while a different conceptual process is involved, composition also includes large areas where it fades into prefixation and suffixation. Finally, derivation is contrasted with conversion which generally requiring a larger degree of contextual support than derivation, and this is regarded as the major reason for the continuing productivity of derivational word-formation in English.

This article shows how language resorts to the productive use of already existing devices to cater for both new and ever-present needs. Therefore derivation, compounding, conversion are used to name new realities, to speed up communication, to gain in conciseness, to awaken positive associations, to build individual and collective identities, and above all, to maintain a desirable status quo. [18, 67]

2.1 Derivation by means of Affixation

Affixation is a phenomenon giving two ways of word building: suffixation and prefixation. Comparing both linguists have come to the conclusion that suffixation is a more fruitful way of forming new derivatives than prefixation, though it is also widely used in forming new words, that is the new parts of speech.

2.1.1 Suffixation

a) Nominal suffixes

Nominal suffixes are often employed to derive abstract nouns from verbs, adjectives and nouns. Such abstract nouns can denote actions, results of actions, or other related concepts, but also properties, qualities and the like.

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

"As in that fleeting, shadowy, misty strife

Of semblance with reality, which brings" [19, 67]

Semblance (n) It is formed by adding the suffix "-ance", and stands for the word "resemblance". It is attached mostly to verbs, -ance creates action nouns such as absorbance, riddance, retardance. The suffix is closely related to -cy/-ce which attaches productively to adjectives ending in the suffix -ant/-ent. Thus, a derivative like dependency could be analyzed as having two suffixes (dependency) or only one (dependency).

This some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door-

Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door" [19,144]

Entrance (n)-derived from the verb to enter with the suffix "-ance" We can find -ance nominals only if there are corresponding -antadjectives.

Defendant of the palace- reared its head.

In the monarch Thought's dominion" [19, 56]

Defendant (n) the word derived from the verb "to defend" by adding of suffix "-ant". This suffix forms count nouns referring to persons or to substances involved in biological, chemical, or physical processes (attractant, dispersant, etchant, suppressant). Most bases are verbs of Latinate origin.

It was many and many a year ago,

In a kingdom by the sea [19, 67]

Kingdom (n)-derived by adding suffix "-dom" to the noun "king" The native suffix -domis semantically closely related to -hood and - ship which express similar concepts.

It was night in the boredom of October

Of my most immemorial year" [19, 77]

Boredom (n) the suffix -dom attaches to nouns to form nominals which can be paraphrased as state of being something as in apedom, clerkdom, slumdom, yuppiedom.

That the play is the tragedy, "Man,"

And its hero the Conqueror Worm" [19, 23]

Conqueror (n) formed from the verb "conquer" by adding of the suffix"-or" its orthographic variant of the suffix "-er". The orthographic variant -or occurs mainly with Latinate bases ending in /s/ or /t/, such as conductor, oscillator, compressor. The suffix -or is frequently used in the poem Conqueror Worm

In the clamor and the clangor of the bells

Have gone to their eternal rest" [19, 89]

Clangor (n) the verb to clang" is added by the suffix "-or'

With a desperate desire,

And a resolute endeavor [19, 90]

Endeavor (n) it is the native origin word and stands for "the try".

Thy messenger hath known

Have dreamed for thy Infinity [19, 22]

Messenger (n) the word "message" is added by the suffix"-er" The suffix -er can be seen as closely related to suffix-ee as its derivatives frequently signify entities that are active or volitional participants in an event.

It was down by the dank tarn of Auber,

In the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir" [19, 99]

Auber (n) the suffix -er is used to create person nouns indicating place of origin or residence (e.g. Londoner, New Yorker, Highlander, New Englander)

Unthought-like thoughts that are the souls of thought,

Richer, far wilder, far sealer visions [19,109]

Sealer (n) derived from the word "to seal". Suffix -er is often described as a deverbal suffix, but there are numerous forms (not only inhabitant names) that are derived on the basis of nouns (e.g whaler, noser, souther).

Enchantress fills my soul with Beauty (which is Hope),

And are far up in Heaven- the stars I kneel to [19, 62]

Enchantress (n)-The word prince is added be the suffix "-ess". This suffix derives a comparatively small number of mostly established nouns referring exclusively to female humans and animals (stewardess, lioness, tigress, and waitress).

Then- in my childhood, in the dawn

Of a most stormy life- was drawn. [19, 50]

Childhood (n) It is built from the suffix "-hood" and the word "child Similar in meaning to the suffixes -dom, hood derivatives express concepts such as `state' (as in adulthood, farmerhood).and `collectivity' (as in beggarhood, Christianhood, companionhood).

The heritage of a kingly mind,

And a proud spirit which hath striven [19, 71]

Heritage (n) the suffix-age derives nouns that express an activity (or its result) as in coverage, leakage, spillage, and nouns denoting a collective entity or quantity, as in acreage, voltage, yardage.

Adorn yon world afar, afar- The wandering star. [19, 95]

Wandering (adj.) derived from the verb "to wander" by adding the suffix "-ing". Derivatives with this deverbal suffix denote processes (begging, running, sleeping) or results (building, wrapping, stuffing). The suffix is somewhat peculiar among derivational suffixes in that it is primarily used as a verbal inflectional suffix forming present participles.

In a mad expostulation with the deaf and frantic fire [19,121]

Expostulation (n) the word consist of the verb "expostulate" which stands for to convince" and suffix "-ion. Derivatives in -ion denote events or results of processes. As such, verbal bases are by far the most frequent, but there is also a comparatively large number of forms where the suffix -ation is directly attached to nouns without any intervening verb in the suffix-ate. The suffix has Latin origin.

What a world of merriment their melody foretells! [19, 119]

Merriment (n) derived from the adjective "merry" by adding the suffix "-ment". This suffix derives action nouns denoting processes or results from (mainly) verbs.

And much of Madness, and more of Sin,

And Horror the soul of the plot [19,120]

Madness (n) formed by the suffix "-ness" which is the most productive suffix of English. The suffix -ness is much less restrictive than its close semantic relative- ity. But in E. Poe's poetry there are only a few example of using this suffix.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

Indeed, some remote connection between this passage in the English moralist and a portion of the character of Ligeia [20, 65]

Passage (n) is derived by the suffix -age. This suffix derives nouns that express an activity (or its result) as in coverage, leakage. Base words may be verbal or nominal and are often monosyllabic.

Ah, word of no meaning! Behind whose vast latitude of mere sound we entrench our ignorance of so much of the spiritual [20, 46]

Spiritual (n) is formed by the suffix -al. A number of verbs take -al to form abstract nouns denoting an action or the result of an action. The teeth glancing back, with a brilliancy almost startling. [21, 78]

Brilliancy (n) the word consists of the base and the suffix -cy. The suffixes -cy/-ce which attaches productively to adjectives ending in the suffix -ant/-ent. Thus, a derivative like dependency could be analyzed as having two suffixes (depend -ent -cy) or only one (depend -ency)

It was faultless -- how cold indeed that pickpocketee when applied to a majesty so divine! [21, 35]

Pickpocketee (n) is derived by the means of the suffix -ee. The meaning of this suffix can be rather clearly discerned. It derives nouns denoting sentient entities that are involved in an event as non-volitional participants.

I forget myself, were in no manner acted upon by the ideal, nor was any tincture of the mysticism which I read to be discovered. [20,199]

Mysticism (n) the word is formed by means of the suffix-ism. Forming abstract nouns from other nouns and adjectives, derivatives belonging to this category denote the related concepts state, condition, attitude, and system of beliefs or theory, as in blondism, Parkinsonism, conservatism, revisionism, Marxism.

She seemed also conscious of a cause, to me unknown, for the gradual alienation of my regard. [19, 68]

Alienation (n) is made with the suffix -ion. This Latinate suffix has three allomorphs: when attached to a verb in -ify, the verbal suffix and -ion surface together as -ification (personification).

I think, truly defines to consist in the saneness of rational being [21,132]

Saneness (n) is derived by the suffix -ness. Quality noun forming -ness is perhaps the most productive suffix of English. With regard to potential base words, -ness is much less restrictive than its close semantic relative --ity.

b) Verbal suffixes

There are four suffixes which derive verbs from other categories (mostly adjectives and nouns), -ate, -en, -ify and -ize, and all of them occur in E.Poe's prose and poetry.

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

Astarte's bediamonded crescent

Distinct with its duplicate horn [19,151]

Duplicate (v) formed by the suffix "-ate" Forms ending in this suffix represent a rather heterogeneous group. There is a class of derivatives with chemical substances as bases, which systematically exhibit so- called ornative and resultative meanings.

Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree

Or the blacken eagle soar! [19, 90]

Blacken (v)is made by merging of the adjective "black and the suffix "-en" The Germanic suffix -en attaches to monosyllables that end in a plosive, fricative or affricate.

And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain

Thrilled me- filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before [19,160]

Silken (v) is formed form the noun "silk" and the suffix "-en". Most bases are adjectives (e.g. blacken, broaden, quicken, ripen), but a few nouns can also be found (e.g. strengthen, lengthen)

My tantalize spirit

Here blandly reposes [19, 74]

Tantalize (v) this word has roots in Latin mythology and formed by adding of the suffix "-ize". Both -ize and -ify are polysemantic suffixes, which can express a whole range of related concepts such as locative, ornative, and causative/factitive, resultative, inchoative, performative, similative.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

In studies of a nature more than all else adapted to deaden impressions of the outward world [20, 170]

Deaden (v) is derived from the word dead by means of the suffix -en'. The Germanic suffix -en attaches to monosyllables that end in a plosive, fricative or affricate. Most bases are adjectives (e.g. blacken, broaden, quicken, ripen) and nouns can also be found (e.g. strengthen, lengthen).

But all we want just now, you know, uncle, is that you would indicate the time precisely [21, 65]

Indicate (v) this example of the suffixation has the suffix -ate and can be paraphrased as provide with something, as fluorinate, or `make into something', as in methanate.

All I accomplished was the demolition of the crystal which humidifies the dial of the clock upon the mantel-piece [19, 33]

Humidify (v) made by the suffix -ify. Both -ize and -ify are polysemous suffixes, which can express a whole range of related concepts such as locative, ornative, and causative/factitive, resultative, inchoative, performative, simulative.

c) Adjectival suffixes

The adjectival suffixes of English can be subdivided into two major groups. A large proportion of derived adjectives are relational adjectives, whose role is simply to relate the noun the adjective qualifies to the base word of the derived adjective.

The following are the examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

A dark unfathomed tide

Of interminable pride [19, 30]

Interminable (adj.) the verb "to intermine" is combined with the suffix "-able". The suffix chiefly combines with transitive and intransitive verbal bases, as in deferrable and perishable, respectively, as well as with nouns, as in serviceable, fashionable.

Stable, opaque, immortal- all by dint

Of the dear names that he concealed within't. [19, 71]

Immortal (adj.) is produced by the suffix the "-al. This relational suffix attaches almost exclusively to Latinate bases (accidental, colonial, cultural, federal, institutional, and modal).

Gazing, entranced, adown the gorgeous vista,

And thrilling as I see, upon the right [19, 51]

Gorgeous (adj.) is derived from the noun gorge" by adding he suffix "-ous". This suffix derives adjectives from nouns and bound roots, the vast majority being of Latinate origin (curious, barbarous, famous, synonymous, and tremendous).

O God! Can I not save?

One from the pitiless wave [19, 21]

Pitiless (adj.) this word is combined by adding the suffix "-less' to the adjective "pity". Semantically, -less can be seen as antonymic to -ful, with the meaning being paraphrasable

Up many and many a marvellous shrine

Whose wreathed friezes intertwine?

So blend the turrets and shadows there

That all seem pendulous in air" [19,100]

Marvellous (adj.) and pendulous (adj.) are derived by the suffix "-ous"

Their odorous souls in an ecstatic death-

Fell on the upturned faces of these roses [19,104]

Ecstatic (adj.) is form by adding the suffix "-ic" to the base -ecstate". Being another relational suffix -ic also attaches to foreign bases (nouns and bound roots). Quite a number of -ic derivatives have variant forms in -ical (electric - electrical, economic - economomical, historic - historical, magic - magical etc.).

How many scenes of what departed bliss

How many thoughts of what entombed hopes. [19, 109]

Departed (adj.) derived by the adding of the suffix -ed to the verb "to depart. This suffix derives adjectives with the general meaning as in broad-minded, pig-headed, and wooded.

Entombed (adj.) the suffix "-ed" is added to the verb "to entomb. The majority of derivatives are based on compounds or phrases (empty-headed, pig-headed, air-minded, and fair-minded).

The following are the examples from E. A. Poe's prose

Through a species of unutterable horror and awe, for which the language of mortality has no sufficiently energetic expression [20, 143]

Unutterable (adj.) consist of the base utter, prefix un- and the suffix -able. The suffix chiefly combines with transitive and intransitive verbal bases, as deferrable and perishable, respectively, as well as with nouns, as in serviceable, fashionable.

I derived, from many existences in the material world, a sentiment such as I felt always aroused within me by her large and luminous orbs. [19,209]

Material (adj.) derived by the means of the suffix -al. This relational suffix attaches almost exclusively to Latinate bases (accidental, colonial, cultural, federal, institutional, and modal).

Was it rather a caprice of my own -- a wildly romantic offering on the shrine of the most passionate devotion? [21,165]

Romantic (adj.) is built be the suffix -ic. Being another relational suffix, -ic also attaches to foreign bases (nouns and bound roots). Quite a number of -ic derivatives have variant forms in -ical (electric - electrical, economic - economomical, historic - historical, magic - magical etc.).

The most beautiful became the most hideous. [21,172]

Beautiful (adj.) constructed with the suffix - ful. The adjectival suffix -ful has the general meaning having something, being characterized by something and is typically attached to abstract nouns, as beautiful, insightful, purposeful, tactful.

His complexion was absolutely bloodless. [20,249]

Bloodless (adj.) derived by the means of the suffix -less. Semantically, -less can be seen as antonymic to --ful, with the meaning being paraphrasable as without something: expressionless, hopeless, speechless, and thankless.

Yet I believe that I met her first and most frequently in some large, old, decaying city near the Rhine. [20, 72]

Decaying (adj.) the suffix -ing is added to the word to decay. This verbal inflectional suffix primarily forms present participles, which can in general also be used as adjectives in attributive positions.

His imagination was singularly vigorous and creative; and no doubt it derived additional force from the habitual use of morphine. [19,290]

Vigorous (adj.) combined by the adding of the suffix -ous. This suffix derives adjectives from nouns and bound roots, the vast majority being of Latinate origin (curious, barbarous, famous, synonymous, and tremendous).

Creative (adj.) this suffix forms adjectives mostly from Latinate verbs and bound roots that end in t or s: connective, explosive, fricative, offensive, passive, preventive, and primitive, receptive, speculative. Some nominal bases are also attested, as in instinctive, massive.

We can conclude according the examples, which are given above that the main function of suffixes in E.A. Poe's prose, and poetry is to form one part of speech from another; the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. Suffixation is the most productive type of affixation in E.A. Poe's literally works and throughout the history of English literature. It consists in adding a suffix to the stem of a definite part of speech. E. Poe used the process of affixation to coin a new word by adding a suffix or several suffixes to some root morpheme.

The role of the suffixation in E. Poe's works is very important and therefore it is necessary to consider certain features of this process dominating in E. A. Poe's prose and poetry. From the scope of the part-of- speech classification Noun-suffixes and Adjective-suffixes prevail in comparing with the other types of this classification. According to the lexico-grammatical character of suffixes, de-nominal and de-adjectival suffixes are the most frequently used ones. Also a wide spread have the Latin and Greek suffixes due to specificity of E. Poe's works.

2.1.2 Prefixation

In contrast to compounding, affixation links so-called prefixes and suffixes, which are not independent, to words of all types. The type of affix determines the effect the affixation will have on the word. Here, we discuss supportive and opposing prefixes. They are used to express support for or disapproval of whatever is expressed by the word they are attached to.

The prefixes of English can be classified semantically into the following groups. First, there is a large group that quantify over their base words meaning

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

Flapping from out their transparent wings

Invisible Woe [19,198]

Transparent (adj.) the prefix "trans-"designating direction and location (super-, sub-, hyper-, hypo-, mid-, trans-, ultra-and retro-). However, many direction and location prefixes have quantificational senses as well, exploiting the conventional metaphorization of over as more and under- as -iess.

Can struggle to its destined eminence,-

To distant spheres, from time to time [19,14]

Distant (adj.) derived by the prefix di-" which denotes twice or two' (bi-, bilateral, bifurcation and di-, disyllabic, intransitive)

Lest an evil step be taken,-

Lest the dead who is omnipotent [19,42]

Omnipotent (a) is derived by the prefix omni-which denotes all (omni-omniscient, omnipresent, omnirange).

For the same end as before-Videlicet, a tent-

Which I think extravagant [19,58]

Extravagant (a) is made by the prefix "extra-". It could be included here, with the meaning of 'outside', and one needs to imagine an appropriate situation, for example, extracurricular.

Second, there are numerous locative prefixes. Locative prefixes determine the place, or relative place, or (relative) direction, of action or objects. Also, abstract nouns and processes or relations are determined in terms of locality.

The examples from E. A. Poe's poetry

And I have other reasons for so doing

Besides my innate love of contradiction [19, 68]

Contradiction (n) Prefix "contra-"Another prefix that overlaps in meaning with against or in opposition to is counter-, which can be prefixed to nouns and verbs.

While the star that oversprinkles

All the heavens seem to twinkle [19, 66]

Oversprinkle (v) the verb "to sprinkle" is added by the prefix "over-" is one of the most productive English prefixes.

Wreathed in myrtle, my sword I'll conceal

Like those arch-enemies devoted and brave [19, 94]

Archenemy (n) the noun "enemy" is combined with the prefix "arch-. Arch-has meaning 'principle', attaches to nouns referring to people occupying an important social or psychological role.

The examples of Locative prefixes in E. Poe's prose.

and then I entered the antechamber. [20, 127]

Antechamber (n) is derived by the adding of the prefix "ante-",which denotes before and added to nouns.

We circumnavigated this area again and again. [21, 28]

Circumnavigate (v) is completed by the prefix circum- which means around and mostly added to verbs, nouns.

I could smelt the extrasensory of this performance in the air. [19, 171]

Extrasensory (adj.) is based on the prefix extra-which stands for outside, beyond and added to: adjectives, nouns.

The beast cut her forefinger and disfigured her face. [21, 40]

Forefinger (n) is made by adding the prefix fore-to the noun finger. This prefix means in front, front part of.

Negative Prefixes

A third group consists of prefixes expressing negation: de-, dis-, in-, non-, un- etc.

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

Amid the jewels of antichrist's throne,

Halo of Hell! And with a pain [19, 105]

Antichrist (n) it is completed by of the prefix anti-" to the base. This polysemantic prefix can express two different, but related notions in the words like anti-war, anti-abortion, anti-capitalistic, anti-scientific, and anti-freeze.

Vast forms that move fantastically

To a discordant melody [19,121]

Discordant (adj) the prefix dis- is closely related semantically to un-and de-, the prefix dis-forms reversative verbs from foreign verbal bases disassemble, disassociate, discharge, disconnect, disproof, disqualify.

Disconsolate linger- grief that hangs her head,

Repenting follies that full long have Red [19,154]

Disconsolate (v) the verb "consolate" is mixed with the "prefix" dis- Apart from deriving reversative verbs, this suffix uniquely offers the possibility to negate the base verb in much the same way as clausal negation does: disagree, not agree, disobey, not obey, dislike, not like.

Yet heavier far than your Petrarchan stuff-

Owl-downy nonsense that the faintest puff [19,125]

Nonsense (n) the word "sense is added by the prefix "non-" Nouns prefixed with non-can either mean absence of something or not having the character of something (non-delivery, non-member, non-profit, non-stop).

While the angels, all pallid and wan,

Uprising, unveil, affirms [19.141]

Unveil (v) the verb "to veil" is added o the prefix" un-" which can attach to verbs and sometimes nouns.

I see them still- two sweetly scintillant

Venuses, unextinguished by the sun [19, 38]

Unextinguished (v) is derived by the adding of the prefix "un". The prefix is also used to negate simple and derived adjectives: uncomplicated, unhappy, unsuccessful, and unreadable.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

The asymmetrical architecture of this palace frightened me. [20, 59]

Asymmetrical (adj.) is derived by the means of the prefix a-which stands for not, lacking in, not affected by and added to adjectives, nouns.

I felt disgust being in front of this statue. [20, 62]

Disgust (n) is derived by the prefix dis -which denotes not, absolute opposite of what is meant by the second element and added to abstract nouns, verbs.

This unexpected blizzard was crashing all around. [20,231]

Unexpected (adj.) is derived by the means of the prefix un-which has meaning not, the opposite of and before words of French origin transformed in in-, il-(before l), im- (before p), ir- (before r). These are the most commonly used prefixes of negation.

We can conclude according the examples of suffixation and prefixation which are given above that the process of affixation is the most productive in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry. Affixation consists in adding derivational affixes (i.e., prefixes and suffixes) to roots and stems to form new words. Affixation is a very common and productive process of word building in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation, they both are presented above in examples according the context of our investigation.

E. Poe used Prefixation to form the words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In his works, it is mostly characteristic for forming verbs. If we analyze the examples according the Semantic classification of prefixes-Prefixes of negative meaning are frequently used (de-, dis-,in-im-, il-, ir-) Prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions and Prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations rarely occur in E. Poe's prose and poetry and have small number in comparison with the other types of Prefixation. From the point of view of etymology the using of the borrowed affixes (Romanic, such as: in-, de-,ex-, re-and Greek, such as sym-, hyper-) play an important role in E. Poe's literally works.

Having analyzed the total amount of the cases (from E. Poe's prose and poetry) in which the processes of affixation take place, we can draw a conclusion that the role of the suffixation in his works is dominative.

2.2 Conversion

Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [2,78 ] Thus, when the noun sign shifts to the verb sign(ed) without any change in the word form we can say this is a case of conversion. However, it does not mean that this process takes place in all the cases of homophones [6, 67]. Sometimes, the connection has to do with coincidences or old etymological ties that have been lost. For example, mind and matter are cases of this grammatical sameness without connection by conversion--the verbs have nothing to do today with their respective noun forms in terms of semantics.

Conversion is particularly common in English because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It is usually impossible in languages with grammatical genders, declensions or conjugations. [11, 56]

The status of conversion is a bit unclear. It must be undoubtedly placed within the phenomena of word-formation; nevertheless, there are some doubts about whether it must be considered a branch of derivation or a separate process by itself (with the same status as derivation or compounding). [16,176]

Despite this undetermined position in grammar, some scholars assert that conversion will become even more active in the future because it is a very easy way to create new words in English. [11,156 ] There is no way to know the number of conversions appearing every day in the spoken language, although we know this number must be high. As it is a quite recent phenomenon, the written evidence is not a fully reliable source. We will have to wait a little longer to understand its whole impact, which will surely increase in importance in the next decades.

a) Noun - verb conversion. Today the largest number of words formed by conversion is constituted by verbs from nouns.

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

My sorrow; I could not awaken

My heart to joy at the same tone [19, 96]

Joy (n) - to joy (v) the noun is converted into the verb and it denotes the act of being asleep or the process of triumph.

For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams

Of the beautiful [19.185]

Beam (n) - to beam (v) the word is turned into verb and took the meaning to appear through something.

In the startled ear of night

How they scream out their affright! [19, 74]

Scream (n) - to scream (v) the noun is conversed into the verb and denotes the action in which someone is involved in the process of making the noise.

Streams up the turrets silently-

Gleams up the pinnacles far and free [19.134]

Stream (n) - to stream (v); Gleam (n) - to gleam (v) the noun are converted into the verbs and they turned the natural phenomenon into the actions.

With its Phantom chased for evermore,

By a crowd that hammers it not [19.247]

Hammer (n) - to hammer (v) in this case of conversion the word express the action done with the noun as instrument. It can be exemplified with hammer (to hit a nail by means of a hammer).

In visions of the dark night

I have dreamed of joy departed[19.259]

Dream (n) - to dream (v) the noun is converted into the verb and it denotes the act of being asleep or the process of dreaming.

Where an Eidolon, named NIGHT,

On a black throne reigns upright [19, 74]

Reign (n) - to reign (v) this abstract noun is turned into verb denoting the process of being enthroned.

Ah, let us mourn! - For never morrow

Shall dawn upon him desolate? [19,215]

Mourn (n) - to mourn (v) the noun is conversed into the verb and denotes the action in which someone is involved in the process of grieves.

To the queen of the angels

To shield me from harm [19,215]

Shield (n) - to shield (v) the word is turned into verb and took the meaning to protect from something.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

The Negros canned apples. [19,134]

Can (n) - to can (v) it stands for to put in/on something the nouns are usually locative nouns denoting a place, a container or a specified location and can be paraphrased as The workers put apples in cans.

They sheltered the orphans. [21.248]

Shelter (n) - to shelter (v) To give something, to provide something It can be paraphrased as They gave shelter to the orphans.

William weeded the garden [20.143]

Weed (n) - to weed (v) To deprive of something or to remove the object denoted by the noun from something It can be paraphrased as He cut off weeds in the garden.

She mothered the orphan [20, 24]

Mother (n) - to mother (v) To be / act as something with respect to It can be paraphrased as She looked after the orphan like a mother.


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