Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works

Word Building as a part of Lexicology. The Ways of Word Building: affixation, conversion, abbreviation, composition. Role of word building a relevant in prose and poetry in E. Poes works; to investigate which of them are the most frequent and productive.

22.05.2012
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, , , , .

Will you please mail the parcel? [18.247]

Mail (n) - to mail (v) To send / go by something It can be paraphrased as Will you please send the parcel by mail? [19,143]

We summered in Qingdao. [21.202]

Summer (n) - to summer (v) To spend the period of time denoted by something (We spent summer in Qingdao.)

b) Verb- noun conversion

Conversion from verb to noun is also quite common. Nouns converted from verbs are not as numerous as verbs converted from nouns, because the English speaking people are inclined to employ derivation by means of deverbal suffixes (as in arrangement from arrange, ratification from ratify and the numerous noun-formations in -ing ) or to employ a ready-made synonym from borrowed words (as to climb, ascent; to scatter, dissemination)

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

The curtain, a funeral pall,

Comes down with the rush of a storm [19.215]

To rush (v) - rush (n) the meaning of the verb is shifted and instead of action it denotes the numinalizated name of this process

The tremble of a living wire

Of those unusual strings [19.217]

To tremble (v) - tremble (n) in this case of conversion the word expresses the effect done with the noun as biological process.

A walkway for the queenliest dead that ever died so young-

A dirge for her the doubly dead in that she died so young. [19, 97]

To dirge (v) - dirge (n) the verb denoting the act of church ceremony is shifted to the noun reflected its matter.

Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to borrow

From my books surcease of sorrow- sorrow for the lost Lenore- [19, 96]

To surcease (v) - surcease (n) the verb is conversed to show the matter of the action.

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

A few days ago in Baltimore, Ms. Burns was in her apartment in the middle of a high- rise in the middle of everywhere in place. [21, 213]

To rise (v) - rise (n) this verb can also be nominalised, like in turn (where to turn)

This election had been the most emotionally draining experience of my life. [21, 234]

To experience (v) - experience (n) the noun coming from verbs can express state of mind or state of sensation

More than half of the incidents were involved loss of consciousness or a heart attack. [20, 151]

To attack (v) - attack (n) the noun coming from the verb can express state of mind or state of sensation.

Noah will be living proof that one animal is able to carry, and give birth to, a healthy animal that is the clone of a completely different species. [19, 217]

To clone (v) - clone (n) In this case the noun refers to the subject of the original verb.

c) Adjective - noun conversion

Adjective - noun conversion is classified into two groups: partial conversion and complete conversion. Partial conversion: Some adjective are used as nouns when preceded by the definite article such as the poor, the wounded; yet these converted nouns take on only some of the feature of the noun; i.e. they do not take plural and genitive inflections, nor can they be preceded by determiners like a, this, my, etc. early (n. - adv.).

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

A void within the filmy Heaven

The waves have now a redder glow [19, 31]

Void (adj.) - void (n)

I feel it more than half a crime,

When Nature sleeps and stars are mute [19, 54]

Mute (adj.) - mute (n)

From their high thrones in the Heaven

With light like hope to mortals given [19, 55]

Mortal (adj.) - mortal (n)

But their red orbs, without beam,

To thy weariness shall seem [19, 108]

Orb (adj.) - orb (n)

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

From one direction comes the rich smell of frying bread, from another the aroma of boiled pork dumplings and from yet another fermented or "smelly" bean curd, a Chinese favorite. [20, 65]

Favorite (adj.) - favorite (n) - is the case of nominalization which occurs when the noun is elided and the adjective is widely used as a synonym of an existing set pattern.

We have to assume the worst. [21, 45]

The worst (adj.) - worst (n) this adjective can still be changed to the comparative and superlative form (adjective nature).

We've got some older fans now, but the more the merrier-everyone's welcome! [19, 178]

More (adj.) - more (n) - these adjective and noun cannot have any inflections if their number or case is changed, they will produce ungrammatical sentences.

The process of Conversion is mostly peculiar to E.A. Poe's poetry because of the necessity to state a poetical thought in a limited number of syllables. Due to Conversion one can contain the sense of a whole phrase into a single word. In the most of the cases to distinguish the type of Conversion which was used is obviously impossible because of the basic form of nouns and verbs are identical in many cases. Conversion from verb to noun is the most typical aspect of this word formational process in the case of E. Poe's prose and poetry. The others are not frequently occur in his literally works due to the period when they were created (Conversion is more peculiar to the Modern Literature.)

2.3 Abbreviation

An abbreviation is a short way of writing a word or a phrase that could also be written out in full. Abbreviations are very rarely used in formal writing of E. Poe. Almost the only ones which are frequently used are the abbreviations for certain common titles, when these are used with someone's name: Mr Willis, Dr Livingstone, Mrs Thatcher, Ms Harmon, St Joan. (Note that the two items Mrs and Ms are conventionally treated as abbreviations, even though they can be written in no other way.) When writing about a French or Spanish person, you may use the abbreviations for the French and Spanish equivalents of the English titles: M. Mitterrand, Sr. Gonzlez. (These are the usual French and Spanish abbreviations for Monsieur and Seor [], equivalent to English Mister.)

Other titles are sometimes abbreviated in the same way: Prof. Chomsky, Sgt. Yorke, and Mgr. Lindemann []. However, it is usually much better to write these titles out in full when you are using them in a sentence: Professor Chomsky, Sergeant Yorke, and Monsignor Lindemann. The abbreviated forms are best confined to places like footnotes and captions of pictures.

Also in E.A. Poe's prose occur abbreviations b.c. and a.d., usually written in small capitals, for marking dates as before or after the birth of Christ:

According to tradition, Rome was founded in 753 b.c. [21,169]

The emperor Vespasian died in a.d. 79. [21,170]

We can conclude that the process is sufficient in the case of E. Poe's prose and poetry due to the specificity of his literally works and the period of time when they were created.

2.4 Composition

E.A. Poe created a great amount of compound words in his literally works, many of them not purely ornamental or pretentious, not humorous or satirical, but poetic, evocative, fancy-embodying, according to the "power of words" at their suggestive best, as. E.Poe expressed it. Many of these come from his poems: the "angel-nod," the "after-drunkenness of soul," the "eagle-hope," the "fountain-flood" of the Naiad, the "ghoul-haunted woodland," the "lip-begotten words," the "sad-serene City in the Sea," the "silvery-silken," the "spirit-land," the "star-dials," the "star-isles," the "love-haunted heart," the "wanlight," and the "storm-tormented ocean of his thoughts," and "surf-tormented shore."

The list of compounds is full of these fantasies of his creative auctorial spirit. The compound in E. Poe's prose and poetry are humorous, often satiric, sometimes shocking in its novelty, and not essentially contributory to the total "power of words" of English language. This type probably arises from the habitual indulgence in linguistic play, puns, fanciful place names, and jocular coinages of the author

Since the variety of his interests encompassed scientific developments, especially demonstrated in Eureka, we find him apparently coining such terms as "concentralization," "counter-vortex," "imparticularity," "cycloid," "nebulist," "space-penetrating", "light-particles" and "light-impressions," and "ray-streams." A few, but very few, of his coinages may be attributable to misconceptions or even typographical mistakes, such as "sphereicity," or "fillogram," or "post-pranclian," or "nare," but Poe's mastery of Latin and, probably of Greek, as well as a still disputed control over German, French, Spanish, and Italian makes his errors or blunders very few indeed.

a) Noun-Noun Composition

The most common type of word formation is the combination of two (or more) nouns in order to form a resulting noun:

Noun + Noun = Noun

This type of word building is very common to E. Poe's prose and poetry among so many words, there would have to be many pertaining to common and commonplace objects, perhaps showing that Poe merely embalmed in his books expressions widely current, but not recorded by any of the contemporary or, for a few words, subsequent dictionaries: "balloon-bag," "chandelier-chain," "cigar-girl" and "perfumery-girl," "demon-traps", "dog-leaf," "history-writing," "humming-top, " "mail-robber," "trunk-paper," "walking-advertiser" and "walking advertisement," and ''coffin-tressels.''

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

The storm, the earthquake, and the ocean-wrath-

(Ah! will they cross me in my angrier path?) [19, 56 ]

Earthquake (n + n = n) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. The compound may create a whole new meaning of the used words.

But now, at length, dear Dian sank from sight,

Into a western couch of thundercloud [19, 60]

Thundercloud (n + n = n) It is noun compound according to the parts of speech classification. Neutral compound. It is compound words proper, which consist only of two stems, with the direct order of the components.

O! Nothing earthly save the thrill

Of melody in woodland rill [19,173]

Woodland (n. + n = n) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with the direct order of the words. In this case the nature of the compound is self-explanatory, and their meanings are quite comprehensible even for those who encounter them for the first time.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

Innumerable battle-lanterns, which swung to and fro above her rigging The battle-lanterns were always at hand. [21, 89]

Battle-lantern (n + n = n) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. The compound may create a completely new meaning of the used words.

The true book-purpose is answered. [16.37]

Book-purpose (n + n = n) It is semantically simple compound which can be easily understand and is coined by E. Poe.

Death-furniture floundered about [21.184]

Death-furniture (n + n = n) It is noun compound according to the parts of speech classification. Neutral compound. It is compound words proper, which consist only of two stems, with the direct order of the components.

The frogman croaked away [20.75]

Frogman (n + n = n) this compound is made by E. Poe for the aims of his narration and it characterize the awkward looking man.

b) Verb-Noun Composition

Here verbs describe what is done with an object or what a subject "does", in short, a new noun is formed, usually referring to something concrete, and the verb defines the action related to it:

Verb + Noun = Noun

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

In spring of youth it was my lot

To haunt of the wide drawbridge a spot [19, 21]

Drawbridge (v + n = n) draw + bridge = drawbridge. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. A drawbridge is a bridge that can be inclined in order to allow ships to pass, or "drawn". Here, the noun is the direct object.

Come! Let the burial rite be read- the funeral song be sung!-

An walkway for the queenliest dead that ever died so young [19, 82]

Walkway (v + n = n) walk + way = walkway. In the word walkway (a way to walk on) the noun may stand for an adverb of place.

Thy soul shall find itself alone

Mid dark thoughts of the grey grindstone [19, 92]

Grindstone (v + n = n) Grind + stone = Grindstone. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. Here, the word as part of speech is the subject.

But that, among the rabble-men,

Lion ambition is chain'd down. [19, 184]

Rabble-men (v + n = n) rabble + man = rabble-man. This compound is coined by E. Poe in his poem Tamerlane and it has meaning common people, plebeians.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

by that analogy which speaks in proof-tones to the imagination alone. [21, 159]

Proof-tone (v + n = n) proof + tone = proof-tones. It is noun compound according to the parts of speech classification. Neutral compound. It is compound words proper, which consist only of two stems, with the direct order of the components

the tinkering of the Punch-men among the tombs [20, 105]

Punch-man (v + n = n) punch + man = punch-men. It is E. Poe's neologism and has a metaphoric function in his works. In this case the nature of the compound is not self-explanatory, and their meanings are quite incomprehensible for those who encounter them for the first time.

c) Noun-Adjective Composition.

Nouns and adjectives can also be compounded in the opposite order:

Noun + Adjective = Adjective

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

Rome to the Caesar- this to me

The heritage of a heartsick [19, 153]

Heartsick (n + adj. = adj.) heartsick (a person suffering from heart disease). Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. In this case, the resultant is an adjective, while the noun explains the objective.

Sought a precipitate pathway up through heaven,

There fell a soul-black veil of light. [19, 149]

Soul-black (n + adj. = adj.) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. Another possibility is that the noun supports the adjective, i.e. as an intensifier.

It is not that my founts of bliss

Are gush-strange! With tears. [19, 189]

Gush-strange (n + adj. = adj.) gush + strange = gush-strange. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. In this case, the resultant is an adjective, while the noun explains the objective.

The examples from E.A. Poe's prose

the expression of his earnest and human-evil eye. [20.194]

Human-evil (n + adj. = adj.)

Planets... revolve, moon-pale, about their starry circles. [19.279]

Moon-pale (n + adj. = adj.)

A love which shall be passion-free [19.382]

Passion-free (n + adj. = adj.)

The patent-black line (business), perhaps an error for patten-blacking [20.285]

Patent-black (n + adj. = adj.)

by the sable-draperied, by the corporate Night. [19.74]

Sable-draperied (n + adj. = adj.)

All these examples of compounds which are built by means of adding a noun to a adjective and have the similar structure and they are coined by E. A. Poe. The compounds listed above play mostly stylistical function in his prose and their meaning may be incomprehensible without the contest of the literal work but they brightly characterize the compositional tendencies in E. Poe's prose.

d) Adjective-Noun Composition

Another major type of word formation is the compounding of Adjectives and nouns:

Adjective + Noun = Noun

The examples from E.A. Poe's poetry

And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side

Of my darling- my darling- my life and my bride [19, 56]

Night-tide (adj. + n = n) the flow that occurs at night. In this case, the adjective defines or describes the character of the noun. It is also possible, however, to link the two segments and end up with a totally new word.

Too coldly- or the stars- however it was

That dream was as that night-wind- let it pass. [19, 96]

Night-wind (adj. + n = n) night + wind = night-wind. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. In this case, the nature of the compound is self-explanatory, and their meanings are quite comprehensible even for those who encounter them for the first time.

Till the fair and gentle Eulalie became my blushing bride-

Till the young Eulalie with yellow-hair became my smiling bride [19, 55]

Yellow-hair (adj. + n = n) yellow + hair = yellow-hair. Neutral compound. Derivational compounds, where besides the stems we have affix -ed.

With all thy train, athwart the moony sky-

Apart- like red-flies in Sicilian night. [19, 104]

Red-fly (adj. + n = n) nouns, such as: baby-moon, globe-trotter Neutral, which are formed by joining together two stems without any joining morpheme, e.g. ball-point, to window-shop, Compound words proper which consist of two stems.

The examples from E. A. Poe's poetry

Those which came from the larboard being what are called backwater seas. [19, 73]

Backwater (adj. + n = n) back + water = Backwater.

the burn of blue-fire melodramaticism. [21.188]

Blue-fire (adj. + n = n) blue+ fire= Blue-fire.

He has broken Fair-law. [20, 176]

Fair-law (adj. + n = n) fair+ law= Fair-law.

a pile of ratlin-stuff and old sails [21, 208]

Ratlin-stuff (adj. + n = n) ratlin+ stuff= Ratlin-stuff.

There were the Philadelphia picturesque-hunters. [19,128]

Picturesque-hunter (adj. + n = n) Picturesque + hunter= Picturesque-hunter.

lunar-lunatic theories in St. Pierre [20,182]

Lunar-lunatic (adj. + n = n) Lunar + lunatic = Lunar-lunatic

Frog Pond munching of peanuts and pumpkins and buried in big-wigs [21.394]

Big-wig big + wig = big-wig

All these examples of compounds which are built by means of adding a adjective to a noun and have the similar structure and they are coined by E.A. Poe. The compounds listed above play mostly stylistical function in his prose and their meaning may be incomprehensible without the contest of the literal work but they brightly characterize the compositional tendencies in E. Poe's prose.

Compounds are very often used in E. Poe's literally works because of their brevity and vividness, which were necessary for his humorous and grotesque works. For example a schoolboy is more concise than a boy attending school, up-to-the-minute information is more vivid than the latest information. The old man would sit for hours, thinking sadly of all the might-have-been is more compact and expressive than thinking sadly of the desirable things that could have happened in the past. Adjective compounds like coffee-pot-fresh, dew-bright and lemon-fragrant, often seen in advertising, are particularly vivid.

It is a phenomenon that needs more study than it has received, especially for its influence upon literary figures. Such a study would require a careful examination of the magazines and newspapers of the day and the reading habits and scope of references, interests, and author assignments of figures such as Poe, Melville, and Hawthorne. Among Poe's words are many almost flippant coinages of this sort, often compounds but also single words, especially for the proper noun derivatives. These coinages indicate, to my mind, a power of satire attached to a gay and merry spirit that too few readers impute to the poet of "The Raven" and the writer of Tales of the Grotesque []

The tendencies, in his coinages, which tell us much more about his personality than there is time to indicate here. He used "looking" as a sort of enclitic at the end of thirty-eight compounds, such as "cosy-looking," "ivory-looking," "square-looking," and ''light-house-looking.'' "Like," added to a noun, provided twenty-four words, from the useful "chasm-like" to the humorous "forlorn-hope-like." His use of "soul" as the first element in eight compounds is probably symptomatic of his belief. Finally, perhaps appropriately for the first-person narrator par excellence, he started thirteen compounds with "self."

Conclusions

The practical part of our work deals with the major processes of word building in E.A. Poe's creative works in prose and poetry. Having chosen and analysed more than 300 examples and their usage in Poe's prose and poetry we wanted to face the problem that neither a traditional morphological nor a syntactic interpretation sufficiently explains the unique function of word-formation and to make a comparative analysis of these word building ways.

We can conclude, according to the examples of suffixation and prefixation, which are shown in Chapter Two, that the process of affixation is the most productive in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry. Affixation consists in adding derivational affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to roots and stems to form new words. Affixation is a very common and productive process of word building in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation, they both are presented above in examples according to the context of our investigation.

E.A. Poe used Prefixation to form the words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. It is mostly characteristic for forming verbs in his works. If we analyze the examples according to the Semantic classification of prefixes- Prefixes of negative meaning are frequently used (de-, dis-,in-im-, il-, ir-) Prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions and Prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations rarely occur in E. Poe's prose and poetry and have small number in comparison with the other types of prefixation. From the point of view of etymology the using of the borrowed affixes (Romanic, such as: in-, de-,ex-, re-and Greek, such as: sym-, hyper-) play an important role in E. Poe's literally works.

Having analyzed the total amount of the cases (from E. Poe's prose and poetry) in which the processes of affixation take place, we can draw a conclusion that the role of the suffixation in his works is dominative. The rest of the examples are presented in Appendix 1.

The process of Conversion is mostly peculiar to E.A. Poe's poetry because of the necessity to state a poetical thought in a limited number of syllables. Due to Conversion he can contain the sense of a whole phrase into a single word. In the most of the cases to distinguish the type of conversion which was used is obviously impossible because of the basic form of nouns and verbs are identical in many cases. Conversion from verb to noun is the most typical aspect of this word formational process in the case of E.A. Poe's prose and poetry. The others are not frequently occur in his literally works due to the period of time when they were created (Conversion is more peculiar to the Modern Literature.)

Abbreviations are very rarely used in formal writing of E. Poe. Almost the only ones, which are frequently used, are the abbreviations for certain common titles, abbreviations b.c. and a.d., for marking dates as before or after the birth of Christ.

Another dominant among the processes of word building in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry is Composition. Compounds are very often used in E. Poe's literally works because of their brevity and vividness, which were necessary for his humorous and grotesque works. For example a schoolboy is more concise than a boy attending school, up-to-the-minute information is more vivid than the latest information. The old man would sit for hours, thinking sadly of all the might-have-been is more compact and expressive than thinking sadly of the desirable things that could have happened in the past. Adjective compounds like coffee-pot-fresh, dew-bright and lemon-fragrant, often seen in advertising, are particularly vivid.

E.A. Poe created a great amount of compound words in his literally works many of them not purely ornamental or pretentious, not humorous or satirical, but poetic, evocative, fancy-embodying, according to the "power of words" at their suggestive best, as he expressed it; many of these come from his poems. The list of compounds is full of these fantasies of his creative auctorial spirit. The compounds in E. Poe's prose and poetry are humorous, often satiric, sometimes shocking in its novelty, and not essentially contributory to the total "power of words of the English language.

Comparing derivation with composition, the analysis shows that while a different conceptual process is involved, composition also includes large areas where it fades into prefixation and suffixation. Finally, derivation is contrasted with conversion which generally requiring a larger degree of contextual support than derivation, and this is regarded as the major reason for the continuing productivity of derivational word-formation in English.

Thus, we can conclude that the most productive way of word building in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry is affixation. This result professes the hypothesis of our diploma thesis. The parity statistics of word building processes in E.A. Poe's prose and poetry is presented in Appendix 2.

Bibliography

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13. Howard Ph. New words for Old. Lnd., 1980.

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23. [14] .. .. 1959.

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32. [18] . . . ., 1956.

Dictionaries. Literary sources

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36. [22] The Collected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe (Vol. 2 - The Brevities, Marginalia, etc) Lnd. 1980.

Appendix 1

Compound Words Coined by E.A. Poe

After-dream - the after-dream of the reveller upon opium [21,273]

After-drunkenness - And after-drunkenness of soul / Succeeds the glories of the bowl [19, 58]

All-hallowed - To join the all-hallowed mirth / of more than thrones in heaven. [21,207]

Angel-nod - Nor ask a reason save the angel-nod / she grants to us. [19.114]

Babylon-like - Up fanes -- up Babylon-like walls [21.200]

Banner-like - Some lilies wave all banner-like, above a grave. [19.193]

Beast-like - The imitations made by the dwarf were sufficiently beast-like. [18.223]

Cab-introduction - The cab-introduction will bring among us a peculiar race of people, the cabman. (i.e., introduction of cabs) [21, 57]

Child-opinion - The child-opinion coincides with that of the man proper. [18.92]

Death-producing - and of its forbidden fruit, death-producing, and a distinct intimation. [4.202]

Death-struggles - My death-struggles with the water [20.590]

Eastern-looking - An Eastern-looking city, such as in the Arabian Tales. [21.169]

Fancy-exciting - Fancy-exciting and reason-repressing character of the alleged [19.134] discoveries.

Gaily-jewelled - Not the gaily-jewelled dead / Tempt the waters from their bed. [21.202]

Half night-mare - recurring visions, half night-mare, half asphyxia. [19.215]

Humming-top - The words must be all in a whirl, like a humming-top. [21.275]

Ill-based - A truly profound philosophy might readily prove them ill-based. [19.247]

King-coxcomb - He is king-coxcomb of figures of speech. [20.130]

Lee-lurch - lee-lurch about the whole sign [20.170] also The brig gave a tremendous lee-lurch. [3.96]

Maiden-angel - A maiden-angel and her seraph-lover [21.112]

Misty-looking - a misty-looking village of England. [21.301]

Moon-hoax-y - It had an amazingly moon-hoax-y air. [20.247]

Ocean-wrath - The storm, the earthquake, and the ocean-wrath [19.105]

Opium-engendered - wild visions, opium-engendered [20.264]

Patriot-farmer - He has taken us abroad with the patriot-farmer in his rambles about his homestead. [19.14]

Plague-goblins - Plague-goblins were the popular imps of mischief. [2.172]

Ready-slided - It is just as well to print them (vowels) ready-slided. [19.259]

Seraph-lover - A maiden-angel and her seraph-lover [21.112]

Shoe-peas - the monastic hair-cloths and shoe-peas [18.93]

Shovel-footed -Not a shovel-footed negro waddles across the stage. [19.114]

Silvery-silken - There fell a silvery-silken veil of light. [20.445]

Soul-life - was dearer to my soul than its soul-life. [21.467]

Star-isles - At the many star-isles / that enjewel its breast [20,110]

Star-litten - To duty beseeming / these star-litten hours [21,109]

Time-eaten - Time-eaten towers that tremble not! [21,199]

Town-lamp - the only one (light) apparent except those of the town-lamps [21, 293]

Under-toned - to give voice to under-toned comments about the condition of the Island of Manhattan. [19, 74]

Unthought-like - unthoughtlike thought -- scarcely the shades of thought [18,167]

Vampire-wing-like - And vampire-wing like pannels back [19,185].

Weather-lanyards - As the brig gave a tremendous lee-lurch the word was given to cut away the weather-lanyards. [19, 96]

World-reason - a conventional World-Reason awakens us from the truth of our dream [18, 312]

Appendix 2

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