Translation peculiarities of business style

English official style: socially related sublanguages, types of business correspondence, business correspondence style. English official style and ways of its rendering into Kazakh: conventional Symbols. Style rendering on the word and structure level.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже

Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.

The symbol &, which means in English and, is used in some terms like C&F (Cost and Fright), C&I (Cost and Insurance). But is marked as # in contract texts. The symbol is used instead of the word number. In American English the symbol # means number as well, but it is used in different tables and graphics, and not in the text. It is never used, however, to denote numbers of houses.

One more example with the conventional symbol:

Public/Product Liability Insurance with coverage up to €5,000,000 for each and every claim.

In translation the symbol is repeated and a descriptive translation of the symbol is given in brackets to avoid mistakes in the total sum of money under the contract.

Азаматты? жауапкершілікті са?тандыру ?р ж?не кез-келген ?ызметті? сапасы €5.000.000 (бес миллион евро) ??райды.

By the way, the use of figures instead of words for sums can create many problems for people. To avoid any possibility of confusion, it is necessary to write sums in both figures and words, for example, $ 9.897.44 (nine thousand, eight hundred and ninety-seven dollars, forty-four cents). It is also a norm to put only dollars (pounds, etc.) in words and cents (pence, etc.) in figures only, for example, $ 100.50 (one hundred dollars and 50 cents). From the above-written it is clear that the symbols Ј (pounds) and $ (dollars), in documents in particular, are put before the sum and their usage is not of any mistake.

Thus the use of initials and acronyms is becoming more and more frequent in business correspondence. Therefore technical translations usually involve plenty of initials and abbreviations which are different in every language and can not be translated literally, but there are various tactics and rules that a technical translator must always bear in mind.

Even though it may at first appear to be an easy problem to deal with, there are some abbreviations which can sometimes lead to confusion when translating, because an equivalent does not exist in the target language, and it is not always clear how to proceed. So, technical translators resort to a variety of dictionaries and glossaries of terms, initials and acronyms in different fields.

Thus the abbreviations which are formed in the process of word shortening also may cause difficulties in the translation of word of business documents. Shortening is a way of word-formation when new words are formed from initial letters of each of the successive part or major parts of a compound form.

Some acronyms are much less common, making it nearly impossible to find a consistent rule to follow. In such cases, the translator must decide whether to stick to the original or rearrange the letters to fit the new language in which it appears. When making this decision, the reader's comprehension is essential. Accordingly, the context in which the acronym will appear is a factor.

One of the well known abbreviations used in business correspondence is the English abbreviation CV.

CV is an abbreviated form of curriculcum vitae, which can accordingly be translated into the Kazakh language as ?мірбаян and ?мірнама. The given old Latin-English word-combination is currently used in English in the meaning of a document giving details of your qualifications and the jobs you have had in the past that you send to someone when you are applying for a job. The abbreviation CV can also be translated by a borrowing резюме which is widely used in Modern Kazakh.

It should be noted that there are a lot of abbreviations of Latin origin used in business correspondence. Here are some of them:

The abbreviation et al is of Latin origin and is used in business correspondence as a short form of the expression et alii, which can be rendered into Kazakh by т.б short for та?ы да бас?алары. The given abbreviation is used actually in the form of an adverb and is usually written after a list of names to mean that other people are also involved in something or some actions. We translate the given old Latin abbreviation with the help of the corresponding equivalent of the target language.

Another abbreviation is etc. short for et cetera, which is Kazakh т.с.с. short for та?ы да сол сия?тылары.

The next Latin-English abbreviation can be met in any context of any language: e.g. short for exempli gratia. It can be translated into Kazakh with the help of anologue, i.e. just as мысалы (sometimes the abbreviated form is used: мыс:).

An old Latin abbreviation ibid short for ibidem is equivalent to the Kazakh expression сол жерде. The given abbreviation is commonly used in official documents in the form of an adverb to mean from the same source, place, or document as the one that has just been mentioned.

English i.e. short for id est is also borrowed from Latin and accordingly has the following correspondence in the Kazakh language: я?ни. This abbreviation is widely used in written form of the language before a word or phrase that gives the exact meaning of something that someone just have written or said.

Also Latin P.S. (post scriptum), can be translated into the Kazakh language as постскриптум (жазыл?ан н?рседен кейін; хат?а ?осымша). The given abbreviation is considered to be a message written at the end of a letter or email, usually below the place where you sign your name or other writing with the purpose of adding some more information. [15; 1100] As we see the abbreviation can be rendered into Kazakh by the methods of transliteration/transcription or we can use the descriptive method of translation and give an appropriate explanation for the abbreviation used.

The old Latin abbreviation viz. short for videlicet can actually be translated into Kazakh language as д?л (-ірек) айт?анда. The given old Latin abbreviation is currently used in the formal style of written language in the form of an adverb before the process of naming the things that somebody has just referred to in a general way. We can use the analogue translation rendering this abbreviation or can use the method of compensation.

As we remember abbreviations are shortened forms of a simple or complex term - letters, syllables or words are omitted from the original term, for example, INFO - information, PKGS - packages. Let us analyse the ways of rendering abbreviations of the text below:

The Source Text:

«NN-Munai» LLP represented by X, hereinafter referred to as Employer, from one side and Y, in the position «Coordinator» hereinafter referred to as «Employee» on the other part, have concluded the present Contract for the following:

1. The worker, holding a position of the Coordinator, performing the work connected with transportation of the goods and back takes up a full liability for maintenance of safety of the goods received under power of attorney of reception-transfer and/or by proxy and/or under the single power attorney and/or under other single documents, and bears the property responsibility for the harm which has arisen owing to shortage by deliberate destruction or deliberate damage of materials, the goods, semi-finished items, products, and also not being limited to the tools, special clothes and other subjects of value.

2. And in connection with above stated the Employee undertakes:

* To provide safety of the goods from the moment of reception before delivery on a warehouse of the Employer, being on the base of the Employer in Aktobe;

* To be responsible for shortage, damages of the goods;

* To take measures for prevention of damage;

* To inform the Employer in time on all circumstances menacing to maintenance of safety of the goods entrusted to it;

* On receiving of the goods from suppliers of the Employer, and also on direct purchase from places of realization to examine integrity of the goods, and to count quantities of the goods according to a waybill, to check up packing of the goods which should correspond to rules of transportation;

* At detection of shortage, damages or TU discrepancies of the goods, to inform directly Employer about it immediately.

The text of the contract contains two abbreviations LLP and TU. The first one is Limited Liability Partnership - Жауапкершілігі Шектеулі Серіктестік and can be rendered into Kazakh by an abbreviation ЖШС. The second one is a Russian specification Tehnicheskie Uslovia (Технические условия) which is frequently transliterated for clauses in the form of abbreviation for such kind of documents. In the Kazakh translation this abbreviation is omitted.

The Target Text:

«NN - М?най» ЖШС X - атынан жолданыл?ан б?дан былай «Ж?мыс беруші» деп аталады, бір жа?ынан, ж?не координатор болып ж?мыс істейтін азамат Y б?дан былай «?ызметкер» деп аталады, екінші жа?ынан т?мендегі е?бек келісім шарты келісілді:

1. Тауарды ?келіп ж?рген координатор ?ызметін ат?ар?ан ?ызметкер сенімхат немесе бір жол?ы сенімхатпен алын?ан тауарды? б?тіндігін ?амтамасыз етуіне, м?лікке зиян тиген жа?дайда жауапкершілікті, тауарды? жетіспеушілігіне байланысты, немесе материалдарды б?лдіру, д?мбілдерді, тауарларды ж?не арнаулы киім, ??ндылы?ы бар заттарды ?аса?ы жою м?селесінде, толы? материалды? жауапкершілікті мойындайды.

2. Со?ан байланысты ?ызметкер міндеттенеді:

- тауар алу уа?ыттан ж?не Ж?мыс берушіні? А?т?бе базада?ы ?оймасына тапсыруына дейін б?тіндігін ?амтамасыз етуге;

- тауарды? жетіспеушілігіне, б?лінуіне жауап беру;

- зиянды алдын алуына байланысты ?арекет ету;

- Ж?мыс берушіге тауарды? б?тіндігіне ?ауіп ?атерлі жа?дайларды уа?ытында хабар етуіне;

- Ж?мыс берушіні? жеткізушіден тауарды ал?анда ж?не де тікелей сауда к?терме жерден сатып ал?анда тауарды? б?тінділігін, тауарды? буып т?юсын, тізіміне ?арай санын тексеруіне;

- тауарды? жетіспеушілігінде немесе б?лінуінде дереу Ж?мыс берушіге хабар беруіне.

Let us consider another example:

The Source Text:

Dear All

Please be aware that Rig 249 move is complete.


ECC Operator

The Target Text:

??рметті ?ріптестер,

249-шы б?р?ылау ?ондырмасыны? к?шуі ая?талды.


Апат?а ?арсы ?рекет ету ж?ніндегі байланыс орталы?ыны? операторы

Acronyms are abbreviations of a complex term, made up of (mostly initial) letters or syllables of its components and pronounced as a single word For example, the acronym Zip or Zip Code which is used in the texts of business documents is a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963 and is deciphered as Zone Improvement Plan.

Initialisms are abbreviations of a complex term made up of the initial letters of its components, each letter being pronounced separately, for example, CID - si: ai di: is a commercial item description or SCAC - Standard Carrier Alpha Code.


adsd (addressed) - жіберілген

арр. (appendix) - ?осымша

Co. (company) - серіктік, компания

dd 1. (dated) - даталан?ан

2. (delivered) - жеткізілген

enc., encl. (enclosed, enclosure) - салын?ан


CEO (chief executive officer) - ат?арушы директор

CV (curriculum vitae) - ?ыс?аша ?мірбаян

doc. (document), (pl. - docs.) - ??жат (тар)

memo (memorandum) - хат, жазба


H.Q., HQ, h.q. (headquarters) - бас бас?арма (компания, ?йым)

В/Е, В.Е., b.e. (bill of exchange) - к?шірме вексель

p.a. (per annum, лат.) - жылына

Plc, PLC (public limited company) - жауапкершілігі шектеулі ашы? акционерлік серіктестік

To translate these abbreviations properly a translator is to be able to decipher them or know the meanings of each component.

One of the biggest challenges faced by translators dealing with acronyms is whether the original acronym should be left as written (so that it remains true to the original language) or whether the acronym should be adjusted to the target language. In such cases, it is best to look at the standard usage of the acronym in the target language - for example, by seeing how it is used in major media outlets, journals or other public sources.

Incoterms 2010, for example, is an acronym that appears around the world - it stands for International Commercial Terms, for example:

In case of replacement/supply by the Contractor of a spare part at its own cost, delivery of the repaired or replaced spare part to the Purchaser shall be done at the Contractor's cost in accordance with CIP Incoterms 2010.

Sometimes this acronym is rendered by a transliteration as ИНКОТЕРМС but more often the English variant without changes is used in the source language text.

Егер мердігер ?осал?ы б?лшектерді ?з есебінен ауыстырып н/е жеткізетін болса, CIP Incoterms 2010 шарттарына с?йкес, ж?нделген н/е ауыстырыл?ан б?лшекті? т?тынушы?а жеткізілуі мердігер есебінен ж?зеге асады.

Goods in international trade are transported with the help of multimodal (door-to-door) shipment. In contracts delivery and acceptance terms are marked with the International Commercial Terms (Incoterms) [16; 16]. So, contracts can be classified in accordance with the way of delivery. Most of Incoterms are represented as abbreviations.

The seven abbreviations for rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for any mode(s) of transportation which are used in business documents are:

EXW - Ex Works (named place of delivery) - зауыттан, к?сіпорыннан, кеніштен, ?оймадан «франко - ?ойма» немесе «франко - зауыт».

The seller makes the goods available at its premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a seller has the goods ready for collection at his premises (works, factory, warehouse, plant) on the date agreed upon. The buyer pays all transportation costs and also bears the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. The seller doesn't load the goods on collecting vehicles and doesn't clear them for export. If the seller does load the good, he does so at buyer's risk and cost. If parties wish seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

FCA - Free Carrier (named place of delivery) - ..атал?ан бекетте…

«тасымалдаушыдан босатылды» («франко-тасымалдаушы» немесе ж?нелтілетін «франко - станция».

The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, into the disposal of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the named place. The seller pays for carriage to the named point of delivery, and risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

CPT - Carriage Paid To (named place of destination) - тасымала?ы…?а дейін т?ленді…ж?к апарылатын бекетті? атауы (сатып алушыны? стансасына жеткізу келісілген «франко - вагон»).

The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.

CIP - Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) тасымала?ы немесе са?тандыру…?а дейін т?ленді…ж?к апарылатын бекетті? атауы (к?лікті? кезгелген т?рі ?шін).

The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

DAT - Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)

Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.

DAP - Delivered at Place (named place of destination)

Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.

DDP - Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination) - кедендік баж салы?тарын ?тей отырып жеткізу «франко-т?тынушы ?оймасы» - жабды?таушы барлы? к?ліктік шы?ындарды ?з мойнына алады.

Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer.

The four abbreviations for rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are:

FAS - Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment) - ФАС - тауар ба?асына оны кеме бортына жеткізу ??ны ?осыл?анда?ы су жолымен тауар жеткізуге байланысты сатып алу-сату ж?ніндегі сырт?ы сауда шартыны? т?рі. франко-ж?нелту порты» - жабды?таушы ж?кті кеме айла?ына т?сіріп, порт?а тиеуге дейінгі шы?ындарды т?лейді.

The seller must place the goods alongside the ship at the named port. The seller must clear the goods for export. Suitable only for maritime transport but not for multimodal sea transport incontainers (see Incoterms 2010, ICC publication 715). This term is typically used for heavy-lift or bulk cargo

FOB - Free on Board (named port of shipment) [17; 175]

ФОБ - халы?аралы? саудада тауарлар жеткізілімі талаптарыны? бірі, м?нда сатушы ж?к тиелетін келісілген портта сатып алушы жалда?ан кемені? бортына тауарды белгілеген мерзімде ?зіні? есебінен жеткізуге ж?не сатып алушы кемені ?зіні? есебінен жалдау?а ж?не тиелетін мерзімі мен орнын, кемені? атауын, келетін уа?ытын, тиеу кезін де хабарлау?а тиіс.

For example:

The line shall be shipped and delivered on FOB conditions to the port indicated by the Buyer. The Seller shall be in charge to pay all the expenses connected with transportation up to the frontier, and then the Buyer shall undertake all the taxes and duties existing on the territory of ROK.

Ба?ыт Сатып алушы белгілеген порт?а ФОБ шарты бойынша тиелінеді ж?не жеткізілінеді. Сатушы шекара?а дейінгі тасымалдаумен байланысты барлы? шы?ындарды т?леуге міндетті, ал содан кейін Сатып алушы КР территориясында кезігетін барлы? салы? пен алым т?лемін ?зіне алады.

The seller must load the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of the vessel (this rule is new!). The seller must clear the goods for export. The term is applicable for maritime and inland waterway transport only but NOT for multimodal sea transport in containers. The buyer must instruct the seller the details of the vessel and the port where the goods are to be loaded, and there is no reference to, or provision for, the use of a carrier or forwarder. This term has been greatly misused over the last three decades ever since Incoterms 1980 explained that FCA should be used for container shipments.

CFR - Cost and Freight (named port of destination) - франко-ж?нелту станциясы» - жабды?таушы ж?кті темір жол станциясына жеткізіп, ж?нелту бойынша шы?ынды ?тейді.

Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport only and Insurance for the goods is not included. This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F).

CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination) - ??н, са?тандыру ж?не тасымал… ж?к апарылатын портты? атауы немесе «СИФ»

(тек ?ана те?із тасымалы ?шін).

Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only.

There are so many abbreviations and acronyms in business documents that there are special addenda in dictionaries to decode them, for example:

The units of measure such as length, weight, etc. are often used in texts of contracts and business letters in their abbreviated forms and are usually translated into Kazakh by a full equivalent:

The field, discovered in 1979, is one of the world's largest gas and condensate fields. Located in north-west Kazakhstan and covering an area of over 280 square kilometres, it holds estimated hydrocarbons initially in place (HIIP) of 9 billion bls of condensate and 48 trillion cu. ft (tcf) of gas, with estimated gross reserves of over 2.4 billion bls of condensate and 16 tcf of gas.

In the original text the contracted forms of measure such as cu. ft - cubic feet, tcf - trillion cubic foot, bls - barrels are used.

1979 жылы ашыл?ан ы?ана? кен орны ?лемдегі е? ірі газ конденсат кен орындарыны? бірі болып табылады. Кен орны ?аза?станны? солт?стік-батысында орналас?ан ж?не 280 шаршы километр аума?ты алып жатыр. М?нда?ы к?мірсутектерді? есептелінген бастап?ы балансты? ?оры 9 миллиард баррель конденсат пен 48 триллион текше фут газды ??райды, ал ба?алан?ан жалпы ?ор к?лемі 2.4 миллиард баррель конденсат пен 16 триллион текше фут газдан асады.

2009 has been another year of record production at 139.4 million bls of oil equivalent, representing an increase of about three million bls of oil equivalent compared to 2008, despite the 33 days shutdown which was concluded during the year. In addition, 6,589 million standard cubic metres of gas was extracted, treated and subsequently injected into the reservoir.

2009 жылы ?ндірісте біз та?ы жа?сы жетістіктерге жеттік, атап айт?анда 139,4 миллион баррель м?най шы?арды?, 2008 жыл?а ?ара?анда 3 миллион баррель?а к?п, о?ан ?оса сол жылы 33 к?нге созыл?ан Толы? То?талыс ж?мыстары ж?ргізілген болатын. Сонымен ?атар 6,589 миллион текше метр газ ?ндіріліп, тазартылып ж?не бір б?лігі коллектор?а ?айта айдал?ан болатын.

Abbreviations are very useful, because they are very quick to write and easy to read. But the both parties are expected to know what the abbreviations stand for. If one of the partners is not absolutely certain that the abbreviations are easily recognised he / she should not use it.

Our investigation shows that the translation of acronyms presents unique challenges to translators, who are often charged with the tricky task of piecing together both well-known and unfamiliar abbreviations in a way that readers will understand. While some acronyms are universally recognizable, lesser-known acronyms require some extra explanation on the translator's part. The lack of global guidelines for acronym translation adds to the confusion, but three quick tips can make the translator's job easier.

Whichever route translators choose, clarity and consistency are paramount to ensuring reader comprehension. Upon first introduction of an acronym, it's wise to note the phrase's full name in the source language and, if necessary, target language. For less well-known acronym translations, this allows readers to decipher the acronym without difficulty. After the first reference, the chosen acronym can simply be used.

Similarly, once an acronym has been established, it's imperative to stick with the same acronym throughout a document. Some translators, especially those who work in specialty fields, make their own reference guides of acronyms, adding new entries as they go and consulting their list of personal acronym translations like their very own translation dictionary.

Sometimes, a translator's greatest resource is the person or company requesting the translation in the first place. If a client has a preferred acronym that should appear in a translation, he or she should communicate this to the language services provider at the start of the project. This way, translators have the answers they need from the outset, which saves time and promotes consistency.

Taking steps like these can help maintain accuracy in acronym translation, making the job easier for translators and helping improve reader comprehension.

2.2 Style Rendering on the Word Level

The most general function of business documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. It should be noted that the language of business document has its own specific features. First of all, it is rather stable. [18; 249] As a rule, words have their only exact meaning. There are no words which are emotionally coloured. As a result of it, we can point out the words, which are used practically in every business document. The most striking, though not the most essential feature, is a special system of clichйs and set expressions by which each sub-style can easily be recognized, for example:

the above-mentioned - жо?арыда айтылып кеткен

hereinafter named - м?нан былай аталатын

on behalf of - атынан [19]

Let us consider the following business letter with a translation:

Source Text:

Dear Mr. N,

Unfortunately, we have not received computers «APPLE» which are the part of our order. We shall be grateful, if you will send them as soon as possible and if it is not possible, in this case return money cashed from us.

We look forward to your reply.

Yours sincerely,


Managing director

Encl: a copy of the order Copy 345

For Mr. X

Target Text:

??рметті N мырза,

?кінішке орай, біз тапсырысымызды? бір б?лігі болып табылатын «APPLE» компьютерлерін ?лі ал?ан жо?пыз. Сіздер осы тапсырысымызды тезірек жіберсе?іздер, ал жібере алма?ан жа?дайда, бізден ал?ан а?шаны ?айтарса?ыздар екен.

Жауабы?ызды асы?а к?теміз.

Ізгі тілекпен,



345 - тапсырысты? к?шірмесі бірге жіберіліп отыр

К?шірме XXге

As we see the English letter contains such set expressions as Dear Mr. N, We look forward to your reply, Yours sincerely, which are commonly used in business letters and make up the style or format of business documents. [20; 23] They are rendered into Kazakh with the help of the source language equivalents, for example:

Dear Mr. N. - ??рметті N мырза,

as soon as possible - м?мкіндігінше тезірек

We look forward to your reply - Жауабы?ызды асы?а к?теміз

Yours sincerely - Ізгі тілекпен [19]

While writing business letters in English one could use the following set expressions which have a definite communicative aim and comprise its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means: to enclose (a booklet,) to refer to (a letter), certified letter (registered letter), to be in communication with, etc. All these expressions have their own meanings and can be translated into Kazakh with the help of permanent equivalents:

to enclose (a booklet) - хат?а ?осымша (буклет) салу

to refer to (a letter) - (хат?а) сілтеме жасау

certified letter (registered letter) - тапсырыс хат

to be in communication with… - … мен байланыста болу

or such expressions which are retained in most business correspondence contexts:

Please, accept my apologies for… - … ?шін мені? кешірімді ?абылдауы?ызды ?тінемін

close collaboration - жа?ын ынтыма?тасты?

not above - к?п те емес

as follows - мынадай…

according to… - …-?а с?йкес

in connection with… - … мен байланысты

as a result of… - … н?тижесінде

without fail - міндетті т?рде, даусыз

in case of necessity - ?ажет бол?ан жа?дайда

at the present time - ?азіргі уа?ытта [19]

Thus we see that the above set expressions can easily be translated into Kazakh with the help of corresponding equivalents.

The following set expressions are commonly used in the text of a contract or enclosure and also have their corresponding Kazakh equivalents, for example:

pro and contra - ?олдаушылар мен ?арсылар

supply and demand - с?раныс ж?не ?сыныс

to sign a license contract - лицензиялы? келісімге ?ол ?ою

the license rights - лицензиялы? ???ы?

by mutual agreement - екі жа?ты келісім

for an order - тапсырыс ?шін

on the following conditions - келесі шарттарда

to place an order - тапсырысты тарату

to alter an order - тапсырысты ?згерту

to cancel an order - тапсырысты жою

in accordance with… - …мен салыстыр?анда [19]

The aforesaid is a clichй which is more preferable in texts of business documents instead of its less formal equivalents: the above-mentioned, the above-written, as was written / said before, and the like. [21; 26]

For example:

The aforesaid documents should contain references…

The aforesaid guarantee shall end for the following vehicles…

The aforesaid liquidated damages shall be full and exclusive monetary compensations for any delay of whatever nature under the Agreement.

It is understood and agreed. On the one hand it usually adds nothing, because every clause in the contract is factually understood and agreed. On the other hand, it adds an implication that the other clauses are not backed up by this phrase. By including one you exclude the other.

For example:

The prices in this contract are understood and agreed upon.

The delivery date is understood and agreed to be the date…

Including without limitation. Usually people want to specify things underscored in contracts, and this phrase indulges the prediction.

For example:

You may assign any and all your rights including without limitation your exclusive Rights.

Assignees and licensees. These are important words on which acceptability depends from one's point of view.

For example: TCO, its assignees and licensees

This beginning suggests that TCO may hand you over to somebody else after contracts are signed. If you happen to be TCO, you will want those particular rights and should use the phrase.

Without prejudice. The British use this phrase all by itself, leaving the reader intrigued: without prejudice - to what exactly?

Americans use it more elaborately. Legal rights, for example, are not the same thing as remedies in the offers to enforce them. Thus it's the American right to write:

Without prejudice to any of my existing or future rights or remedies.

We have carefully examined the samples from this consignment and offer you, without prejudice, an allowance of 50 USA cents per 50 kilos.

As between us - it is a useful phrase because people are always forgetting or neglecting to mention that a great many interests may be involved in what appears to be a simple dialogue. A is controlled by investors, and B - by a foreign parent company. That's why it will be useful to say in such a situation as between us

We confirm the exchange of telexes as between us follows…

Solely on condition that - it's one of a few phrases that can be considered better than its short counterparts.

We can accept the goods solely on condition that you grant us allowance of…per…

In contracts there are other prepositional phrases made up from words. They are complex, and one must be careful using them. The prepositions also provided are the following: on conditions that; on the understanding, etc.

We agree to this only on the understanding that the rate of freight does not exceed.

Claims against the quality of vehicles may be submitted on conditions that the defects are found within 40 days.

Such prepositional phrases are practically equal in meaning.

Subject to - a few contracts do without this phrase. Many promises can be made good only if certain things occur. The right procedure is to spell out these plausible impediments to the degree that you can reasonably foresee them.

Our agreement is subject to the laws of ROK.

The wood goods hereinafter specified subject to a variation in the Sellers' option of 20 per cent…

But there is another meaning of the prepositional phrase. It may express some condition.

We offer you, subject to your acceptance by cable, 1000 tons of ore.

Exclusive - it's important in contracts. English is vast and its usage creates difficulties in many cases. Exclusivity as a term means that somebody is bored from dealing with another one in a specified area.

In the text of contracts there are many foreign words, first of all, Latin ones, such as pro rata and pari passu. Pro rata proves helpful when payments are to be in proportion refuting prior formulas in a contract, for example:

Demurrage is to be paid per day and pro rata for any part of the running day.

Pari passu is used when several people are paid at the same level or time out of a common fund.

Fractions to be considered pari passu.

Such clichй words as inferior / superior are often used to describe the quality of goods.

Should the natural weight be superior or the contents of foreign admixture inferior

We had specially selected the goods which were superior to the samples in every respect.

Complaints and claims may arise in connection with inferior quality of the goods, late delivery or non-delivery of goods.

Ad hoc is also a Latin word, not often used in contracts nowadays.

It means now an arbitrary court for a concrete trial. Such Latin words as ultima, proxima are now archaic and rarely used.

If the excess is discovered only on arrival of the goods at their ultima destination in the U.K.

On the contrary, such a Latin adjective as extra, which means additional, keeps being widely used in official English, and is quite common for the colloquial style.

In order to obtain delivery we have had to incur extra expenses for which we hold you responsible.

No extra payment is to be effected for any excess weight.

Very few words are borrowed from French. The most widespread of them is force majeure, which is an essential clause of almost any contract and serves to describe some unpredictable events that may happen to goods while being delivered or other reasons, and amicably, which means friendly.

Very often the parties amicably agree upon a settlement of the claim in question.

The Sellers and the Buyers shall take all measures to settle amicably any disputes.

So, in contracts and letters one can come across a definite number of clichй words and word combinations which make up lexical peculiarities of this kind of business documents. They all are rather bookish and belong to formal style of written English, not being used in informal English and rarely used in spoken formal English. Almost all of them have corresponding equivalents in Kazakh or can be translated with the help of analogues.

In addition to them, there are English adverbials derived from the adverbs here, where, there which are frequently used in a contract law document and throughout the law genre for reasoning and inferencial judgement across the official style and the public administration services' paperwork, thus indicating a legal context-bound style of writing or the document writer's stylistic preferences. They are used in official documents with the meaning of `in, under, across, complying with, or related to, or following from the document under study'. A slight difference between them relates to the stylistic and usage preferences of the text writer, rather than the meaning proper, and is similar to the one in-between demonstrative pronouns this and that, as in; …any conditions attaching there to; … and..everything herein contained.

Here + after, by, in, etc. -› hereafter, hereby, herein, hereof, herewith. [22; 218]

In combination with certain adverbs and prepositions the usual meaning of here as `this', `this place', or `this time', etc. is extended to a broader meaning of under consideration, in this instance or case pertaining to a document, contract, agreement, statute, law, etc. under study to shape out, for example:

As of the effective date hereof all previous agreements between the parties hereto as regards the subject herein shall become null and void.

hereto= to it - осы?ан

herein = in this document - осы ??жатта

Subject to General Conditions on Sale endorsed hereon

hereon = on this document - осы ??жатта

There + after, by, in, etc. -› thereafter, thereby, therein, thereof, therewith [22; 218] Being a word element, in fact a prefix, with the usual meaning of `that', `that place', or `that time', etc., there is combined in contract texts with certain adverbs and prepositions to shape out.

All expenses connected therewith being born by…

therewith = with it - осымен бірге

The examination of the goods and objection thereto

thereto = to it - осы?ан

The goods to be shipped as soon thereafter as suitable tonnage obtainable. thereafter = from that time - б??ан дейін

The Sellers shall not be responsible for any damage resulting to the Buyers therefrom.

therefrom = from it / them - одан, ол жа?тан

Where+ in, by, upon, for, etc -› wherein, whereby, whereupon, wherefore, whereto wherewith, etc. [22; 218]

An adverb with the meaning of `in, to or at which place or situation' a reference is made in the text under study, changes its meaning depending on the combination it enters, for example whereas means because of the fact that.

The adverbial whereas expresses every man's idea of how a contract begins and means that the parties have been engaged in a series of transactions resulting in a dispute over accounting between them, for example:

The surplus is to be paid for by the Buyers, whereas short weight is to be refunded by the Sellers.

One more compound word with the adverb where is whereby, which means by which and refers to the present contract.

For example:

We have concluded the present contract whereby it is agreed as follows…

Let us consider the usage of the above discussed adverbials in contracts and their ways of translation into the source language:

1. The equipment shall mean that Equipment specified in Annex B attached hereto and located at the site stated in Annex A (hereinafter - the Site).

Жабды?тар - б?л В ?осымшасында?ы, сонымен ?атар А ?осымшасында да к?рсетілген жабды?тарды білдіреді (одан ?рі «Объект»).

2. The Contractor hereby warrants that to the moment of the Contract signing, the Contractor possesses all permissions (licenses, permits, and authority) issued by the relevant authorities required for the provision of Services under the Contract, relevant Emergency Call-Out and Purchase Order, The Contractor shall obtain all required permits and/or licenses on its own (without involving the Purchaser) and at his own expense within the whole validity of the Contract.

Мердігер б?л келісімшарт?а ?ол ?оя отырып, келісімшартта ?арастырыл?ан ш??ыл ша?ырулар мен т?тынушыны? тапсырмаларына ?ызмет к?рсетуге ?ажет ??зырлы органдар ар?ылы берген барлы? р??сат етілген ??жаттар (лицензия, р??саттама ж?не ?кілеттілік) бар екеніне кепілдік береді. Мердігер келісімшарт за?дылы?тарына ба?ына отырып, ?з есебінен барлы? ?ажетті р??саттама мен лицензияларды ?з бетімен (т?тынушыны? ?атысымынсыз) ?абылдайды.

3. Should the Purchaser fail to make payment as provided in the Contract, the Contractor may suspend progress of the works. Herewith, the Contractor shall give at least (ten) calendar days prior written notification to the Purchaser of its intension to suspend the works.

Егер т?тынушы келісім талаптарына сай т?лемін ?темесе, мердігер ?ызмет к?рсетуді то?тату?а ???ылы. М?ндай жа?дайда, мердігер он к?ннен кем емес уа?ыт ішінде т?тынушыны ?зіні? осындай туында?ан ойы ж?нінде хабардар етуі тиіс.

4. Should the Contractor fail to perform Services under the Contract, the Contractor shall immediately notify the Purchaser in writing. Herewith, the Contractor shall be responsible to return to the Purchaser the cost of paid, but not performed Services, within 30 days.

Келісімшартта ?арастырыл?андай ?ызмет к?рсетуге м?мкіндігі болма?ан жа?дайда, мерлігер ол туралы дереу т?тынушы?а хабарлауы тиіс. Ж?не де мердігер т?тынушы?а к?рсетілмеген ?ызметке т?ленген соманы 30 (отыз) к?н ішінде ?айтару?а міндетті.

5. Should the Contractor make the repair at its own cost, the aggregate liability of the Contractor for remedial work shall not exceed that portion of the Contract price attributable to the remedial work. Herewith, the cost of required spare parts and/or consumables shall be paid by the Contractor separately.

Мердігер ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ?з есебінен ж?ргізетін болса, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына танытатын б?кіл жауапкершілік к?лемі келісімшарт б?лігіні? ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына б?лінген ба?асынан аспауы керек. Сонымен ?атар, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына ?ажет ?осал?ы б?лшектер мен материалды? шы?ындарды да ?зі к?тереді.

6. At the Purchaser's written request any additional remedial work on the equipment which is not within the Contractor's obligations under this Contract and is within the Contractor's competence may be carried out by the Contractor at a time scope and cost to be agreed by the Parties in the additional agreement to this Contract and with the use of appropriate Material plus reimbursement of additional expenses of the Contractor. Herewith the conditions of this Contract shall apply unless otherwise agreed by the Parties in writing.

Т?тынушыны? жазбаша тапсырысы бойынша б?л келісімшартта?ы мердігер міндетіне кірмейтін кез-келген ?осымша ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ж?ргізе алады, біра? ол ?шін мердігерді? жеткілікті т?жірибесі мен біліктілігі болуы керек. М?ндай ж?ндеу ж?мыстары осы келісімшарт?а ?осымша жасал?ан ж?мысты? мерзімі, к?лемі, ба?асы, сондай-а? жеткізу жолдары мен ?ажет материалдарды пайдалану, мердігерді? ?осымша шы?ындары ?арастырыл?ан келісім бойынша ж?зеге асады. Сонымен ?атар, екі жа?ты? жазбаша жаса?ан келісімінде ?арастырылма?андары осы келісімшартты? шарттарына с?йкес іске асырылады.

7. The Contractor warrants provision of Services of high quality, to the full extent, and within the determined deadlines. The Contractor shall make good with all reasonable speed any defective work done under the Contract and which has been notified in writing to the Contractor within the warranty period for such works: which is six (6) month of such work having been done. Subject to the provisions of this Clause 6 such making good shall be the Contractor's sole liability to the Purchaser in respect of any defective work and in respect of any damage, loss or injury attributable thereto.

Мердігер жо?ары сапада ж?не белгіленген мерзім ішінде ?ызмет к?рсетуге кепіл береді. Ж?мысты? орындал?ан к?нінен бастап 6 (алты) айды ??райтын кепілдеме ?ызметті? мерзімі ішінде т?тынушыны? жазбаша т?рдегі ша?ымына байланысты келісімшарт?а с?йкес орындал?ан кез-келген сапасыз ж?мысты ?ыс?а мерзімде ?алпына келтіруге бар к?ш-жігерін салады. 6-шы бап?а с?йкес ж?мысты орындау кезінде туында?ан залал, за?ым, кез-келген а?аулар мен сапасыз ж?мыстарды ?алпына келтіру мердігерді? т?тынушы алдында?ы ерекше жауапкершілігі болып табылады.

8. In case of failure to respond to Emergency Call-Out Services within ten (10) days, the Purchaser is entitled to impose a penalty of 0.1% of the relevant cost of such Services and Works for each day of delay of the above deadlines, but not exceeding 3% of the relevant cost of such Services and Works. The payment of such Liquidated Damages shall be in full and final satisfaction for the Contractor's liability for any delay. All other times quoted by the Contractor constitute estimates only and shall not be construed as fixed times for completion and no liability shall attach for any delay thereto.

Егер 10 (он) к?н ішінде мердігер ш??ыл ша?ырту бойынша маман жібере алма?ан жа?дайда, т?тынушы ?р кешіктірілген к?н ?шін айып т?лем ретінде есептен 0,1% алып отыру?а ???ы?ы бар, алайда б?л ?ызметті? жалпы ба?асыны? 3% нан к?п болмауы керек. Мердігерді? кез-келген кешіктіруіне айыпп?л т?леуі шы?ынны? орнын толтыратын жолы болып табылады. Мердігер ?сын?ан бас?а да мерзімдер, ?ызмет к?рсетуді? алдын-ала мерзімі ретінде ?арастырылады, б?ндай мерзімні? б?зылуына мердігер еш?андай жауапкершілік танытпайды.

The examples with here/ there, where + … show that they are not always translated with the help of their dictionary equivalents. To translate them into Kazakh a translator usually chooses the contextual meaning of the expressions: одан ?рі, б?л, м?ндай жа?дайда, ж?не де, сонымен ?атар, сонымен, or they are omitted in translation.

In this power of attorney the adverdials hereinafter, hereby, whereof, are used several times in accordance with the style requirements of the English document:

Source Text:

By this Power of Attorney given on the 5 day of January 2011 ХХХ, the company incorporated and registered in the Republic of Kazakhstan, having its registered office at: XXX Prospect, XX, Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter called «the Company») hereby appoints Mr. E. Amanov, Consultant on International Affair's of the Company, the true and lawful Attorney (hereinafter called «the Attorney») of the Company to represent and act in the name and on behalf of the Company.

And it is hereby declared that the Company ratifies and confirms and agrees to ratify and confirm whatsoever the Attorney shall do or purport to do by virtue of this Power of Attorney.

In witness whereof this Power of Attorney has been executed this fifth day of January 2011.

Target Text:

Республика Казахстан, ХХ ?аласы, ХХ да??ылы, 2011 жылды? бесінші ?а?тары, Республика Казахстанда ?алыптас?ан ж?не тіркелген «ХХХ» компаниясы Компанияны? халы?аралы? ?атынастары бойынша ке?есші - Аманов Е. мырзаны Компанияны? атынан ж?не тапсырмасымен оны ?кілетті ету ж?не ?рекет ету ?шін Компанияны? ?азіргі ж?не за?ды Сенімдісі (одан ?рі «Сенімді» деп аталады) ретінде сеніп та?айындады.

Компания бекітеді, растайды ж?не Сенімдіні? осы сенімхат негізінде жаса?ан немесе жасау?а ынталы н?реселеріні? барлы?ын бекітуге, растау?а келіседі деп б?л сенімхатпен м?лімденді.

Осыны? ку?сінде б?л Сенімхат бір мы? то?ыз ж?з то?сан жетінші жылды? бесінші ?а?тарында ресімделді.

Another feature of the style under study is the use of words in their logical dictionary meaning. There is no room for words with contextual meaning or for any kind of simultaneous realization of two meanings, as in the other matter-of-fact styles, for example:

The original sentence:

The line shall be shipped and delivered on FOB conditions to the port indicated by the Buyer. The Seller shall be in charge to pay all the expenses connected with transportation up to the frontier, and then the Buyer shall undertake all the taxes and duties existing on the territory of ROK.

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