Translation peculiarities of business style
English official style: socially related sublanguages, types of business correspondence, business correspondence style. English official style and ways of its rendering into Kazakh: conventional Symbols. Style rendering on the word and structure level.
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Should the Contractor make the repair at its own cost, the aggregate liability of the Contractor for remedial work shall not exceed that portion of the Contract price attributable to the remedial work. Herewith, the cost of required spare parts and/or consumables shall be paid by the Contractor separately.
Мердігер ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ?з есебінен ж?ргізетін болса, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына танытатын б?кіл жауапкершілік к?лемі келісімшарт б?лігіні? ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына б?лінген ба?асынан аспауы керек. Сонымен ?атар, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына ?ажет ?осал?ы б?лшектер мен материалды? шы?ындарды да ?зі к?тереді.
Subordinate clauses of concession with an inverted predicate often serve emphatic purposes and can be translated with the help of Kazakh combinations бол?анымен, -?анмен; -?анмен; - генмен; сонда да:
Such a principle, strange as it may seem, is championed in one form or another by certain scholars.
Осындай ?станым о?аш к?рінгенімен, бас?а т?рде де кейбір ?алымдар оны ?станады.
Useful as it is, the book has two general shortcomings.
Мына кітап ?аншалы?ты пайдалы бол?анымен, оны? екі ма?ызды жетіспеушілігі бар.
Thus, the difficulties that can of specific difficulty for a translator in the process of translation form English into Kazakh may the absence of those grammar form available in English. First and foremost it is the absence of gender and article in the Kazakh language. There are no deliberate equivalents for them and to solve this grammatical barrier in translation different ways are possible and few but powerful hints to help translator in such cases is the advice to take into account the context.
The translation usually finds it possible to make a relatively free choice among the possible grammatical arrangements of TT, provided the basic relationships expressed by the SL grammatical categories are intact.
The style of official documents is represented by the following substyles or variants:
- the language of business documents;
- the language of legal documents;
- the language of diplomacy;
- the language of military documents.
Like other styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and, accordingly has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking and to reach agreement between two contracting parties.
Each of the subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style.
Our investigation has proved that the peculiar features common to all stylistic varieties of official documents are the use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions; the use of words in their logical dictionary meaning; absence of emotiveness; definite compositional pattern and design. It should be noted that the syntactical pattern of this style is as important as the vocabulary.
As a result of the study of official style texts we have come to the conclusion that transformations and translation methods used in rendering the style of official texts are determined by the general purposefulness and genre-stylistic inhering of the source text.
The main aim of official style rendering is to render a source information with maximum exactness and accuracy. This aim can be achieved through logical statement of facts, without any explicit emotionality and expression means such as metaphor, metonymic transpositions, and other stylistic elements which are widely used in the works of fiction.
The most typical features of official style texts are terms and terminological phrases, special vocabulary, set expressions, various types of clichйs and abbreviations. Unlike literary texts the genre of these texts can be defined by fixed semasiologically related linguistic means made in the form of terms. In the given situation terms are words and word-groups used to define particular objects and notions connected with economy, business, banking, marketing, financing, etc. These terms precisely denote the objects and phenomena, thus determining a univocal understanding of the translated information. So when using a variety of translation methods and transformations it is necessary to know the translation of the key term. In other words, business correspondence which is, by all means, dominated by terms and neutral common professional words can be characterized by certain uniformity.
The research has shown that the vocabulary of business documents, i.e. terms, clichй, set expressions abbreviations can be rendered in the following ways:
- borrowing the term from the source language and transferring it unchanged into the source language;
- transcribing and or\ transliterating the term in the source language using the alphabet of the target language, modern tendency being that of a maximal phonetic approximation of the technical terms in the source and target languages;
- using a loan translation whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the target language;
- providing a descriptive translation of a given expression.
In order to solve grammatical problems of translation translator should take into account the necessity to keep the main idea of the source text, as well as peculiarities of the target language. Discrepancy in grammatical systems of the two languages and impossibility to render the meaning of one or another word should be compensated by other grammatical, or sometimes, lexical means.
Our translation analysis of business correspondence has revealed that the form of the letters and contracts are mostly stereotyped. Standardization of business correspondence is mostly peculiar to European languages, while the Kazakh language is not so abundant with fixed clichйs, that is why, translators have to use different transformations, particularly functional replacement.
It is important to render the purport of the text as close to the original as possible. Translation should be neither literal nor loose, although the elements of the both translations can inevitably be found. Nevertheless, there should not be a loss of substantial information in the target text.
Translation of business correspondence is oriented to rendering of information, that is, it has an informative character. For this reason one of the main challenges of a translator during the translation of business correspondence is to keep the informative function and the style of the source text.
Having analyzed the translation of business documents we have come to the conclusion that English business texts are abundant with the usage of verbals and their constructions, which are frequently changed into other parts of speech. Translation of English business documents into Kazakh requires quite many translation transformations, since the language structures of the two languages are rather different.
Generally speaking, the translation of the verbals consists of two stages: first it is necessary to understand its meaning and then find a corresponding way of expressing it in Kazakh. For the purpose of translation, grammar does not exist separately. It is not the grammatical form but the grammatical meaning that is of primary concern for a translator or an interpreter. A mistake in grammar (whether it is a misunderstood construction of the source language or a wrong variant in the target language) always tells on the sense and logic of the text. As soon as the sense and logic of the sentence stop to be transparent it is necessary to stop and look for a mistake in the translation.
Thus having made a quantitative analysis of the documents to determine the most frequently used transformations done in their translations, we have revealed that in translation of English business documents into Kazakh grammatical transformations are used more frequently than lexical ones, which proves the discrepancy of grammatical systems of the two languages.
Nowadays in the period of world community integration the significance of proper business document writing, as well as its proper translation cannot be overestimated. The increasing role of business English as a working language of the majority of international companies and organizations, and frequent use of business correspondence have led to the necessity of being able to understand and translate business documents in a proper way which is impossible without knowing translation techniques.
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