Translation peculiarities of business style

English official style: socially related sublanguages, types of business correspondence, business correspondence style. English official style and ways of its rendering into Kazakh: conventional Symbols. Style rendering on the word and structure level.

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The term words used in their logical dictionary meanings are rendered into Kazakh by their equivalents:

be shipped - тиелінеді

be delivered - жеткізілінеді

FOB - ФОБ

the Buyer - cатып алушы

the Seller - cатушы

expenses - шы?ындар

transportation - тасымалдау

tax - салы?

duty - алым [19]

The translation:

Ба?ыт Сатып алушы белгілеген порт?а ФОБ шарты бойынша тиелінеді ж?не жеткізілінеді. Сатушы шекара?а дейінгі тасымалдаумен байланысты барлы? шы?ындарды т?леуге міндетті, ал содан кейін Сатып алушы КР территориясында кезігетін барлы? салы? пен алым т?лемін ?зіне алады.

Other examples are taken from the text of a contract.

Source Text:

The line is insured by the Seller to the amount of XXX - USD. In case of any damage during the transportation the losses shall be refunded to the Buyer. The Seller shall provide the Buyer with 1 year guarantee for the line and all the necessary technical documentation. In the case of break down the specialist of the Seller shall be ready to assist to the Buyer free of charge within 2 years after the date of purchase.

USD - А?Ш доллар

line - ба?ыт

insure - са?тандыру

free of charge - тегін т?рде [19]

Target Text:

Сатушы XXX А?Ш долларрымен ба?ытты са?тандыр?ан. Тасымалдау барысында ?андай да бір за?ымны? пайда болу жа?дайда шы?ындар ?темі Сатып алушы мойынына ж?ктеледі. Сатушы Сатып алушыны ба?ыт пен барлы? ?ажетті техникалы? ??жаттар ?шін 1 жылды? кепілдікпен ?амтамасыз етеді. Сыны? пайда бол?ан жа?дайда Сатушыны? маманы Сатып алушы ба?ытты сатып ал?аннан кейін 2 жыл ішінде о?ан тегін т?рде к?мек к?рсетуге дайын т?рады.

Source Text:

This agreement is made the 24 day of October 2011 between

NN Ltd, a legal entity duly established and acting under the laws of Great Britain, wih registered office situated at YY Road, hereinafter called the Contractor, on the other hand,…

agreement - келісім.

legal entity - за?ды ?йым

the Contractor - мердігер

hereinafter - ?рі ?арай [19]

Target Text:

Б?л келісім ?азанны? 24 ж?лдызында 2011 жылы жасалды:

«NN Лтд» ?лыбританияны? за?ына с?йкес негізі ?алан?ан за?ды ?йым. Мына мекен-жай бойынша тіркелген: YY Road, Rugby, ?рі ?арай «мердігер» деп аталады.

Source Text:

The scope of Services shall include the supply by the Contractor of spares in

accordance with the provisions of Annex D and Clause 8 of Annex A.

supply - жеткізу

the Contractor - мердігер

spares - ?осал?ы б?лшектер [19]

Target Text:

Мердігерді? ?осал?ы б?лшектерді жеткізуі D ?осымшасына немесе А ?осымшасыны? 8-бабына с?йкес ?ызмет к?леміне кіреді.

Белгілі бір ж?мысты ?з мойнына алып, келісілген ба?а бойынша орындап беретін азамат.

Source Text:

Upon a written request of the Authorized Representative of the Purchaser, provide a service Engineer on an Emergency Call-out basis for the purpose of restoring the Equipment to normal operation in the event of a breakdown. The availability of the Emergency Call-out service, the procedure for obtaining a Service Engineer and the response time are as specified in Annex A.

emergency - т?тенше жа?дай [23; 75]

Target Text:

Жабды?тар істен шы?ып ?ал?ан жа?дайда олады? ж?мыс?а ?абілеттілігін орнату ма?сатымен т?тынушыны? у?кілетті ?кіліні? жазбаша тапсырысы бойынша т?тенше жа?дайда сервис инженерімен ?амтамасыз ету. Сервис инженеріні? т?тенше жа?дай болып жат?ан орын?а бару м?мкіндігі, оны? ?ызмет к?рсету т?ртібі, сондай-а? маманны? бару мерзімі А ?осымшасында к?рсетілген.

Words with emotive meaning are also not to be found in business correspondence. Even in the style of scientific prose some words may be found which reveal the attitude of the writer, his individual evaluation of the fact and events of the issue. But no such words are to be found in business style, except those which are used in business letters as conventional phrases of greeting or close, as Dear Sir; yours faithfully. [5; 26]

Source Text:

Dear Sir,

As you know, in May and June of the present year a check on activities of our company was carried out by the department of labour and social protection of the А. region, in accordance with the Labour Legislation of ROK. In this connection, we ask you to sign the enclosed documents on the results of this check and as well as to sign a report that responsibility will not be taken upon by public individual, but by the Company in general. Besides, signatory will not perform the legal operations by signing these documents as administrative penalty was paid.

Yours faithfully, N.

a check - тексеріс

enclosed documents - берілген ?ужаттар (салын?ан)

responsibility - жауапкершілік

signatory - ?ол ?оюшы

legal operations - ???ы?ты? шаралар

penalty - ?кімшілік айып [19]

Target Text:

??рметті M. мырза,

Сіз білетіндей осы жылды? мамыр ж?не маусым айларында біздін мекемены? ?ызметтеріне ?Р е?бек за?ында ?арастырыл?андай А. ауданыны? е?бек ж?не ?леуметтік ?ор?ау департаменті тексеріс ?ткізді. Осы?ан орай?, сізден осы тексеріс н?тижелеріне с?йкес ?осылып берілген ?ужаттар?а ?ол ?оюы?ызды с?раймыз ж?не сонымен бірге, жауапкершілікті ?о?амды? т?л?а ?ана емес, жалпы компания да алатынлы?ын хабардар етеміз. О?ан ?оса, б?л ??жаттар?а ?ол ?оюшы?а еш?андай ???ы?ты? шаралар ?олданылмайды. Себебі, ?кімшілік айып т?ленген

Ізгі ниетен, N.

The techniques which present difficulties in translation of words used in business documents are, in our opinion, borrowings from another terminological system within the same language or other languages. Terminological systems may be regarded as intersecting sets because some terms belong simultaneously to several terminological systems. There is no harm in this if the meaning of terms and their definitions remain constant, or if the respective branches of knowledge do not meet, if this is not so, much ambiguity can arise, which may cause difficulties for translation. For example, the English word capacity can be translated into Kazakh as «дебит», «к?лем», «сыйымдылы?, іштілік», «?абілет». Let us consider the following examples:

carrying capacity - ж?к к?теру ?абілеті.

current carrying capacity - электр тарма?ыны? шегіне жеткен ?улеті.

heat capacity - ???ырды? дебиті жылылы? сыйымы. [19]

Some more examples with the word currency:

currency intervention - валюта бас?ыншыл?ы

currency monopoly - валюта монополиясы

currency account - валюталы? шот. [19]

In fact, each of the subdivisions of the official style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions which differ from the corresponding terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style. Thus, in finance we find terms like extra revenue; taxable capacities; liability to profit tax. Terms and phrases like high contracting parties; to ratify an agreement; memorandum; pact; protectorate; extra-territorial status; plenipotentiary will immediately brand the utterance as diplomatic. In legal language, examples are: to deal with a case; summary procedure; a body of judges; as laid down in; the succeeding clauses of agreement; to reaffirm faith in fundamental principles; to establish the required conditions; the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law.

The vocabulary of business documents is characterized not only by the use of special terminology but the choice of lofty (bookish) words and phrases which are borrowed from other languages:

plausible (=possible); to inform (=to tell); to assist (=to help); to cooperate (=to work together); to promote (=to help something develop); to secure (=to make certain) social progress; with the following objectives/ends (=for these purposes); to be determined/resolved (=to wish); to endeavour (=to try); to proceed (=to go); inquire (to ask).

In the case when a term is borrowed from the terminological system within the same language we suggest that the definition of a term should be helpful or if possible to use its equivalent. For that we can recommend that a translator should refer to terminological dictionaries or ask experts in this field for the equivalent referent of the term.

Peculiarities of a term allow us to overcome the problem of term translation in this way. A term - sign of the language is used to name a definite special notion in this language. An interpreter's aim is to find a sign in the other language for naming just the same special notion.

Graphically it looks like this: term 1 - special notion - term 2

As it is said in I.V. Arnold's book «The English Word» [24; 114] the notional content of a word is expressed by the denotative meaning i.e. the lexical meaning is the realization of the notion by means of a definite language system. In the case when a term was formed as a result of conversion or semantic shift we can suggest the use of a generic term, i.e. words that are called semantically wide. They denote in a most general way objects, actions, states, etc., for example, the word «run» is used in the expressions run the bank, run out of something, running broker, running costs, running - down clause.

If we use the general meaning of the word «run» in these expressions then we get the following:

run the bank - manage the bank

run out of something - to use up or finish something

running broker - a person who acts for buyers and sellers of bills of exchange and who arranges payment of the bills for a fee.

running costs - overheads, a regular cost of running a business

running-down clause - a condition in a marine isurance policy stating that insurance will be paid if a ship collides with another vessel.

In the case of semantic shift the use of the definition is more convenient:

The translation of word-combinations also presents difficulties. These difficulties are mostly connected with the fact that in different word-combinations one and the same word may have different meanings, for example:

open flow - еркін дебит

oil flow - м?найды? ат?ыламасы

turbulent flow - турбулентті а?ыс

optimum flow - е? ?олайлы ж?мсау

cash flow - ?олма-?ол а?шасыны? ?оз?алысы [19]

So we see that the semantic variety of attributives in these term combinations is rather large and depends a lot on the situation.

As translation presents the word in the target language which is not motivated for laymen we can suggest the use of definitions for such words, for example:

deposit - депозит (салым, кепіла?ы)

endorse / indorse - индоссолау (табыстау, жазбасын жасау)

accept a bill - векселді акцептеу (вексельге ризалы? беру, вексельді ?абылдау) [19]

One should know the differences in the meaning of the following expressions which are often used in business letters because many firms as additional stimulus for their clients are ready to level down the original prices. For this purpose various kinds of discounts and allowances are used.

Cash discount - ?олма-?ол т?лемге арнал?ан же?ілдік - ?з шотын ?ыс?а мерзімде т?лейтін сатып алушылар?а беріледі;

Quantity discount - сатып алынатын тауарды? санына же?ілдік - тауарды к?п м?лшерде сатып алатын сатып алушылар?а беріледі;

Trade discount - сауда же?ілдігі - тауар сату, оны са?тау, есеп бас?аруында белгілі функциялар ат?арушы, тауар айналымы ?ызметтерін ?ндірушілерге ?сынылады;

Seasonal discount - маусымды? шегірме - маусымды? тауарлар сатып алатын ж?не ?ызметтер ат?аратын клиенттерге ?сынылады.

Есептеулерден ба?а тізімдегі ба?аларды? бас?а же?ілдік т?рлері т?сіндіріледі:

Trade in allowance - тауар айырбастау есептеуі - ескі тауарды беру шартына сай жа?а тауар ба?асыны? азаюы (б?л к?бінесе автомобильдер ж?не ?за? пайдалану?а арнал?ан бас?а тауарларды сатуда жиі ?олданылады);

Advertising allowance - жарнамалы? есептеу (немесе жарнамалы? шегірме) - жарнамалы? нау?андар ж?не тауар айналымында ?атыс?аны ?шін береді.

We translated all terms with the help of descriptive or explanatory translation. [25; 105]

Special attention should be paid to words which seem to be synonyms.

In business correspondence two English verbs confirm and acknowledge are often used and can be translated into the Kazakh language as «??птау, растау, д?лелдеу». However, the verbs are not full synonyms. So, «to confirm» is used, when it is necessary to confirm either the maintenance of something or the fact of the consent with something (to confirm one's letter, an order, prices, etc.). And the verb «to acknowledge» is more often used in expression «ал?анын растау».

Let's compare:

1) Please, acknowledge receipt.

2) We confirm our prices.

Another example is with the words works - factory - mill; plant; enterprise - зауыт; фабрика.

In the Kazakh language the branch principle is put as a basis of a choice of a word «зауыт» or «фабрика». If it is a question of the enterprise of light or a food-processing industry we speak about «фабрика», and «зауыт» is an enterprise of the heavy industry.

In the English language not all so unequivocally operates «салалы? ?станым» and the degree of processing of raw material is simultaneously considered. At the initial stage of processing in the light, food and wood industry the word «mill» (for example, cotton mill - ма?та иіретін фабрика is used; sugar mill - ?ант зауыты), and in the heavy industry - «works» (for example, steel works - болат зауыты, etc.) Here we have used approximate translation, i.e. with the help of a corresponding analogue.

At a high degree of processing irrespective of branch the word «factory» is used (for example, automobile factory - к?лік зауыты; textile factory - то?ыма фабрикасы and so on.).

The word «plant» can be translated as «?ондыр?ы; саймандар комплектісі». Therefore, if it is an enterprise, which produces power, or processes chemicals, or makes machines and equipment used in industy, we can use the word «plant» (for example: N-plant - АЭС; `turn-key' plant - дайын зауыт (a loan translation is used)).

«К?сіпорын» in the general sense of the word - «enterprise». Here realization of idea of business is more likely emphasized, instead of connection with technologies or manufacture.

«Тауар жиыны» has three alternative conformities in English language. They are «lot», «consignment» and «cargo». However these three synonyms have various shades of meaning: «lot» - is the most neutral synonym, it means «ерекшеленген тауар б?лігі»; as a rule «cargo» is translated as к?пшілік тауарды? жиыны (ж?к), and «consignment» is translated as к?ліктер, ??рал-саймандар немесе бас?а даналап сатылатын тауарды? жиыны. [25; 119]

There is often a question of storage of the goods and of warehouse in the texts of commercial correspondence and documentation. The word «?ойма» (in the meaning ?оймалы? ?й, б?лме) is translated as «warehouse» or often translated as «storehouse.» «Stock» is a stock of the goods in a warehouse, however, a number of word combinations with this word are translated with the help of the word «?ойма». So, «from stock» - ?оймадан, «from consignment stock» - консигнациялы? ?оймадан, «in stock» - ?оймада. Though the main meaning of the word «storage» is са?тау, the expression «storage expenses» is translated as «?ойма шы?ындары», or «са?тау?а ж?мсал?ан ?аражаттар». As you see, these words and expressionsare rendered with the help of descriptive or explanatory translation. [25; 151]

A Kazakh word «к?лік жапсырмасы» corresponds to English terms «bill», «waybill» and «consignment note». So, on air transport «air waybill» is used, or it is differently called «air consignment note». At auto transportation is called «road waybill». Sending a cargo with the railway, we use «railway bill» or «railway consignment note». Thus, a way bill is the form of receipt used when shipping goods by road, rail or air carriers.

We have come to the conclusion that the special vocabulary of business documents, i.e. terms, clichй and set expressions can be rendered in the following ways:

1) borrowing the term from the source language and transferring it unchanged into the source language;

2) transcribing and or\ transliterating the term in the source language using the alphabet of the target language, modern tendency being that of a maximal phonetic approximation of the technical terms in the source and target languages;

3) using a loan translation whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the target language;

4) providing a descriptive translation of a given expression.

Summing up all that has been said above we think that some words should be said about dictionaries. So as to acquire the terminological system of a business document one should know terms with which he/she operates with. To know a term means to know its definition where special notion is reflected. And being a translator, we should know their equivalents in the other language. All that is impossible without the usage of specialized dictionaries:

terminological dictionaries - dictionaries to know what a term means;

translation dictionaries - dictionaries to know the equivalents of a term in the target language.

2.3 Style Rendering on Structure Level

Translation of official documents not only requires sufficient knowledge of terms, phrases and set expressions, but also depends on the clear comprehension of the structure of a sentence and some specific grammar and syntactical patterns, which are characteristic of this style because business documents have definite compositional pattern and design. It is well known that languages differ in their grammatical structure. Apart from having different grammatical categories they differ in the use of those categories that seem to be similar. This naturally results in the necessity to introduce some grammatical changes in the translated version of any text. These changes depend on the character of correlation between the grammatical norms of the source language and the target language.

Coming across an unknown term in the text, a translator can consult a dictionary. Coming across such a phenomenon as the nominative absolute construction, for instance, a translator can find it time-consuming to search for an equivalent conveying its meaning, unless he or she already knows the corresponding pattern.

Every word in the text is used in a particular grammatical form and all the words are arranged in sentences in a particular syntactic order. Grammaticality is an important feature of speech units. Grammatical forms and structures, however, do not only provide for the correct arrangement of words in the text, they also convey some information which is part of its total contents. They reveal the semantic relationships between the words, clauses and sentences in the text; they can make prominent some part of the contents that is of particular significance for the communicants. The syntactic structuring of the text is an important characteristic identifying either the genre of the text or its author's style. Though the bulk of the information in the original text is conveyed by its lexical elements, the semantic role of grammatical forms and structures should not be overlooked by the translator. The importance of the grammatical aspects of a source text is often reflected in the choice of the parallel forms and structures in a target language, as in the following example:

In compliance with the existing Company safety procedure, every employee working in the field is obliged to follow training and pass exam for obtaining certificate of hydrogen sulphide.

Компанияда бекітілген ?ауіпсіздік техникасы ережелеріне сай кен орнында ж?мыс жасайтын ?рбір ж?мысшы міндетті т?рде жатты?у курсынан ?тіп, к?кіртсутекпен ж?мыс жасау сертификатын алу ?шін арнайы емтихан тапсыруы керек.

In many cases, however, equivalence in translation does not try to mirror the grammatical forms in the source text. There are no permanent grammatical equivalents and the translator can choose between the parallel forms and various grammatical transformations. He may opt for the latter for there is never an absolute identity between the meaning and usage of the parallel forms in the source and target languages. For instance, both English and Kazakh verbs have their infinitive forms. The analogy, however, does not preclude a number of formal and functional differences. As we know the English infinitive has perfect forms, both active and passive, indefinite and continuous, which are absent in Kazakh. The idea of priority of action expressed by the Perfect Infinitive is not present in the meaning of the Kazakh Infinitive and has to be rendered in translation by some other means.

Or both English and Kazakh conditional clauses can be introduced by conjunctions or asyndetically. But the English form is bookish while its Kazakh counterpart is predominantly colloquial. As a result, it is usually replaced in the target text by a clause with a conjunction, for example:

Had the Director adopted the proposal, it would have been an important step towards the solution of the problem.

Егерде директор ?сынысты ?абылда?анда, б?л м?селені? шешілуіне жасал?ан мы?ты ?адам болар еді.

We shall consider the translation peculiarities of certain English constructions which may cause special difficulties while translating. One of the most peculiar features of business document grammar is a wide use of so called verbals or non - finite forms of the verbs. The English system of non-finite forms of the verb comprises the infinitive, the - ing-form or the gerund and the participles. In Kazakh we also have three non-finite forms of the verb but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language: есімше, к?семше, т?йы? етістік.

These non-finite forms of the verb have a double nature, nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a noun.

The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute (like those of the finite forms), but relative; the form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, future or past; it shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb form or prior to it.

All the verbals can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive). The verbal element stands in predicate relations to the nominal element, i.e. in a relation similar to that between the subject and their predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence. [26; 132]

The translation of verbals, thus, is very specific and can present certain difficulties.

One of the most frequently used verbals in business letters is the infinitive. According to Trofimova A.S. there are six types of patterns in which the infinitive is to be regarded as a verb adjunct:

an adjunct to an active verb;

an adjunct to a passive verb'

a complex adjunct to an active verb;

a prepositional complex adjunct to an active verb;

a wh - infinitive adjunct;

an adjunct to a verb in a sentence with a function of the subject.

The groups of the infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb, the infinitive as an adjunct to a passive verb and the infinitive as a complex adjunct to an active verb are used in commercial correspondence and in contracts in particular. The last three types of the infinitive are very rarely used in business correspondence or might be used just occasionally.

The infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb always follows a head-verb. In business correspondence it is lexically dependent and commonly found after the following verbs: to agree, to appear, to arrange, to continue, to decide, to expect, to fail, to hesitate, to hope, to intend, to like, to manage, to need, to offer, to omit, to plan, to prefer, to prepare, to propose, to regret, to secure, to try, to want, to wish. [27; 32]

An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest «stem» form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.

Depending on the function the Infinitive plays in the sentence it can be translated by different parts of speech or even a subordinate clause. For example, as an attribute the infinitive often has a modal significance - it expresses an action thought of as obligatory or possible. In this function the infinitive can be rendered into Kazakh by an infinitive, for example:

In case of violation of payment deadlines by the Purchaser, the Contractor has the right to claim a penalty of 0.1% for each day of delayed payment, but not exceeding 5% of the due amount.

Егер т?тынушы т?лемді уа?ытында ?темеген жа?дайда, мердігер ?р кешіктірілген к?н ?шін есептен 0,1% айып ?тем талап етуге ???ы?ы бар, біра? т?ленбеген соманы? 5% нан к?п болмауы керек.

As an adverbial modifier of purpose the infinitive can express an independent idea that adds some new information about its subject; the adverb only is omitted in translation, for example:

The president announced his resignation only after the failure of his drive to push through the merger of the two companies last summer.

Президент ?зіні? ?ызметтен кетуын ?ткен жазда оны? екі мекемені біріктіру ?рекеті с?тсіздікпен ая?тал?аннан кейін ?ана жариялады.

In agreements and contracts the infinitive in the function of the adverbial modifier of purpose can be rendered not only by a noun but by an infinitive as well, for example:

Provide the normal test equipment [which can be hand carried to site] to carry out the work under the Contract.

Келісімшарт бойынша ж?мыс ж?ргізуге арнал?ан сына? ??рыл?ымен (?олмен жеткізуге м?мкін болатын) ?амтамасыз ету.

Make available the equipment as necessary to enable the service engineer's work to be carried out without delay for an emergency call-out.

Ш??ыл ша?ыртумен келген сервис инженерді? еш кедергісіз ж?мыс ат?аруы ?шін ?ажет ??ралдар?а ?ол жетімді болдыру?а.

Upon Contractor's written request, provide for the service engineer, an assistant engineer, foreman or senior electrician or equivalent grade of technician as necessary for the work being carried out to comply with current health and safety legislation.

Мердігерді? жазбаша с?ранысы бойынша сервис инженерді денсаулы? са?тау ж?не ?ауіпсіздік ж?нінде орнатыл?ан за?дар?а с?йкес ж?мысты? орындалуына ?ажет инженер к?мекшісі, мастер немесе а?а электрикпен ?амтамасыз етуге?рекеті с?тсіздікпен ая?тал?аннан кейін ?ана жариялады.

After the adjectives the last, the only and ordinal numerals the infinitive is translated as the predicate of an attributive subordinate clause, its tense form is determined by the context, for example:

He was the first high official to be admitted to the inner council of government, to the cabinet.

Ол кабинет м?жілісіні? жабылуына жіберілген жо?ар?ы д?режедегі бірінші шенеунік болды.

The Complex Object with the infinitive is translated as an object subordinate clause or a separate simple sentence:

The Contractor shall, at its own cost, obtain and maintain for the duration of this Contract the following insurances to be evidenced by broker's letters, acceptable and available to the Purchaser prior to the commencement of the Services.

Мердігер ?з есебінен т?тынушыны келісімшарт ?рекет ететін мерзім аралы?ында к?шке енген са?тандырумен ?амтамасыз етуі тиіс. Са?тандыру делдал хаттарына с?йкес расталып, ?ызмет к?рсетуден б?рын т?тынушы?а беріледі.

The English finite form is transformed into a Kazakh parenthesis and the English Infinitive into a Kazakh predicate, for example:

So, there appear to be two choices.

С?йтіп, екі та?дау бар екен.

The English Infinitive is transformed into a Kazakh predicate екені к?м?нді, for example:

Neither proposal is likely to work.

Осы с?йлемдерді? ?андайда біреуі ?серлі екені к?м?нді.

If the English predicate has an object by somebody, such predicate-object clusters are translated as a parenthesis пікірінше, осы?ан с?йкес, к?рсетуінше (белгіледі, суреттеді, etc.), for example:

The results were interpreted by Brown to be insufficient to draw any substantial conclusions.

Браунны? пікірінше б?л м?ліметтер ?андайда бір ма?ызды ?орытындылар шы?ару?а жеткілікті емес.

A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. To make a gerund, you add «- ing» to the verb, just as with a present participle. The term «verbal» indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.

Depending on the function the gerund plays in the sentence, it can be translated as:

a noun:

Banking on a loss of nerve within the board of trustees may turn out to be misguided.

As we see, in this example the gerund in the function of a subject is rendered in Kazakh by a noun and again such grammatical transformations as the replacement and transposition are used.

?ам?орлы? ке?ес м?шелеріні? ж?йкелеріне тиеді деген, ?ате есептеу болып шы?уы м?мкін.

Gerund in the function of a direct object or indirect object is translated into Kazakh usually by a noun:

Upon a written request of the authorized representative of the Purchaser, provide a service engineer on an emergency call-out basis for the purpose of restoring the equipment to normal operation in the event of a breakdown. The availability of the emergency call-out service, the procedure for obtaining a service Engineer and the response time are as specified in Annex A.

Жабды?тар істен шы?ып ?ал?ан жа?дайда олады? ж?мыс?а ?абілеттілігін орнату ма?сатымен т?тынушыны? у?кілетті ?кіліні? жазбаша тапсырысы бойынша т?тенше жа?дайда сервис инженерімен ?амтамасыз ету. Сервис инженеріні? т?тенше жа?дай болып жат?ан орын?а бару м?мкіндігі, оны? ?ызмет к?рсету т?ртібі, сондай-а? маманны? бару мерзімі А ?осымшасында к?рсетілген.

If during the performance of the Contract physical loss of or physical damage to material property belonging to the Purchaser arises directly from any act or omission by the Contractor then the Contractor shall be responsible for making good such loss or damage to property provided that the Contractor's total liability for damage to the Purchaser's property (including damage caused by the Contractor's breach of the Contract, tort or breach of statutory duty) shall not exceed €1,500,000 (one million five hundred thousand Euro). The Contractor shall have no liability to the Purchaser for or in respect or in consequence of any loss of or damage to the Purchaser's property that shall occur after the expiration of the warranty period.

Келісімшартты орындау барысында мердігерді? іс-?рекетіні? н?тижесінде н/е оны? ?атысынсыз бол?ан материалды? шы?ын н/е т?тынушы?а тиесілі м?лікке за?ым келген жа?дайда, мердігер оны т?зетуге жауапты. Т?тынушыны? за?ымдал?ан м?лкіне танытатын жалпы жауапкершілігі (за? б?зушылы?, мердігерді? келісімшартты б?зуынан туында?ан залал н/е за?мен белгіленген иіндеттерді орындамауын ?оса есептегенде) €1.500.000 (бір миллион бес ж?з мы? Евро) дан жо?ары болмауы тиіс. Мердігер кепілдеме кезе?і ая?тал?аннан кейін бол?ан кез-келген залал мен т?тынушы м?лкіні? за?ымдануына т?тынушы алдында жауапкершілік танытпайды.

The basis of this Contract is that repairs to the equipment are reasonably capable of being carried out as a field maintenance task. If after inspection it is the Contractor's opinion that a major overall of a part of the equipment is required or that the effective repair properly entails the removal of a portion of the equipment to the Contractor's Works then the cost of such major repairs and or such removal shall be the subject of a separate contract between the Parties. In such event no liability shall attach to the Contractor for any loss occasioned by the repairs not being carried out under the current Contract.

Б?л келісімшартты? негізгі б?лігін оъектте ж?ргізуге болатын ??ралдарды? ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ??райды. Егер тексеріс н?тижесінде мердігер жабды?ты к?рделі ж?ндеуден ?ткізу керек деген то?там?а келсе н/е ж?ндеу ж?мыстарыны? н?тижелі болуы ?шін жабды?ты? б?лігін мердігер шеберханасына жеткізу керек. М?ндай к?рделі ж?мысты? ба?асы мен мердігерге жеткізуі екі жа? арасында?ы б?лек келісімшартты? м?ні болып табылады. Сонымен, б?л келісімшартта ?арастырылмай ж?ргізілген ж?ндеу ж?мыстары н?тижесінде туында?ан шы?ын?а мердігер жауапты емес.

Gerund in the function of an abverbial modifier is translated into Kazakh usually by a finite form of the verb in the subordinate clause:

The Contractor shall furnish the Purchaser, within 60 days after signing of the Contract with

- an original copy of properly formalised and apostilled tax residency certificate confirming the Contractor's tax residency in the UK for the purposes of the double tax treaty between the UK and the Republic of Kazakhstan,

- Extract from the Trade Register (the register of shareholders or other similar document provided by the law of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) indicating the founders (participants) and the majority shareholders of the Contractor.

Келісімшарт?а ?ол ?ойыл?ан к?ннен бастап 60 (алпыс) к?н ішінде мердігер т?тынушы?а мыналарды тапсыру?а міндетті:

- ?аза?стан мен ?лыбритания шарттарына с?йкес мердігерді? ?лыбританияда?ы жергілікті салы? коммитетіні? раста?ан р?сімделген ж?не за?дастырыл?ан сертификатты? т?пн?с?асы,

- Сауда тізімінен ?йымдастырушылар (?атысушылар) мен мердігер акционерлері к?рсетілген к?шірме (?лыбритания мен Солт?стік Ирландия за?намасымен растал?ан акционерлер тізімі н/е т.с.с. ??жаттар)

On receiving of the goods from suppliers of the Employer, and also on direct purchase from places of realization to examine integrity of the goods, and to count quantities of the goods according to a waybill, to check up packing of the goods which should correspond to rules of transportation.

Ж?мыс берушіні? жеткізушіден тауарды ал?анда ж?не де тікелей сауда к?терме жерден сатып ал?анда тауарды? б?тінділігін, тауарды? буып т?юсын, тізіміне ?арай санын тексеруіне

Provide reasonable access to telephone and e-mail facilities for use by the service engineers while performing services on the Purchaser site.

Сервис инженерін т?тынушы объектісінде ?ызмет к?рсету барысында телефон желісімен, электронды? поштамен ?амтамасыз етуге;

Having analyzed the texts and sentences with the gerund in different functions we have come to the following conclusion: the gerund is mostly rendered into Kazakh by a verbal noun, or finite form of the verb.

A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in - ing or - ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in - ing. Past participles end in - ed, - en, - d, - t, or - n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.

Participle I can be translated as:

an attributive clause, for example:

The States concluding this Treaty hereinafter refer to as the «Parties to the Treaty». ?азіргі келісім-шарт?а ?ол ?оюшы мемлекеттер, т?мендегіше «Келісім-шарт ?атысушылары» деп аталады.

a separate sentence, for example:

The treasury announced that in August the sterling area had a gold and dollar deficit of 44 million dollars bringing the gold and dollar reserve down to the lowest level reached this year.

?аржы министірлігі тамызда стерлинг айма?ы 44 миллион доллар?а те? алтын ж?не долларлы? тапшылы?ты бол?анын жариялады. Сайып келгенде, осы жылы алтын ж?не долларлы? ?орлары е? аз де?гейге жетті.

Participle II at the beginning of the sentence can be translated as:

As a part of the Complex Object construction, Participle I and Participle II can be translated as:

an object clause, for example:

The country would like to see its proposals approved by the General Assembly.

Ел Бас Ассамблея оны? ?сыныстарын ма??лда?анын ?алады.

The Nominative Absolute Construction with Participle I and II can be translated in different ways depending on the form of the Participle and the position of the construction in the sentence:

- in preposition the Nominative Absolute Construction with Participle I and II performs the function of an adverbial modifier of cause or time:

It being too late for further discussion, the session was adjourned.

М?жіліс ая?талды, себебі тал?ылауды жал?астыру ?шін ?те кеш еді.

- sometimes Participles may be omitted, but the subject-predicate relations in the Construction are still preserved:

The first conference a failure, another meeting at a ministerial level was decided upon.

Бірінші м?слихатты? с?тсіздігіне орай, та?ы бір министрлерді? де?гейінде кездесу ?ткізу туралы шешім ?абылданды.

Some more examples of English participles translation into Kazakh:

Provide the authorized representative of the Purchaser with a written report, prepared in English, following each emergency call-out, giving details of place of work, the duration and scope work carried out, together with any recommendations or comments, as well as provide Act of performed Services (two originals), signed by the Contractor.

Сатып алушыны? у?кілетті ?кіліне орындал?ан ж?мысты? орны, жасал?ан ж?мысты? мерзімі мен к?лемі туралы ма?л?мат бар а?ылшын тілінде жазбаша есеп, о?ан ?оса кепілдеме мен т?сінік, сонымен ?атар орындал?ан ж?мыс туралы Акт (2 дана), ?з атынан ?ойыл?ан ?олы болуы керек.

Maintain and provide for review of service engineer at each visit a record of routine service and maintenance and of all breakdowns and stoppages occurring on the equipment.

Сервис инженеріне ?р келген кезінде ?ызмет к?рету жоспарын ж?не ж?ндеу ж?мысы, сондай-а? барлы? сын?ан ж?не істен шы??ан жабды?тар ж?нінде жазба даярлау?а.

Provide such general site services and unskilled labour as may be reasonably required by the service engineer to fulfil the Contract. The Purchaser shall retain control of and be responsible for the safe working of these services and of the unskilled labour (including the personnel provided under Clause 2 Section 4, but in any case the Purchaser shall not be responsible for any negligence of the service engineer.

Келісімні? шарттарын орындау ?шін сервис инженеріні? с?ранысы бойынша объектті жалпы ?ызметтер мен е?бек тобымен ?амтамасыз ету. Т?тынушы осындай ?ауіпсіз ?ызметтер мен ж?мысшыларды ба?ылап, олар?а жауапты болады (2-б?лімні? 4-бабына с?йкес ?ызметші де соны? ішіне кіреді), алайда т?тынушы ?андай жа?дай болмасын сервис инженеріні? ??ыпсызды?ы ?шін жауапкершілік танытпайды.

Maintain and use the equipment in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer or original installer.

Жабды?ты? ?ндіруші немесе ?ондырушы ?сын?ан н?с?аулы?ты ескере отырып ?олданыс?а енуін ?ада?алау?а.

In the function of an attribute Participle I Active or Passive can be placed at the beginning of a statement (sometimes with conjunctions when, while) or at the end of a statement.

It is translated by:

a) a Kazakh deverbal form that is by a косемше with corresponding suffixes:

He spent the whole day preparing for his trade.

Ол б?кіл к?н ж?мысыны дайындалып ?ткізді.

Participle II in the function of an attribute can be translated by a participle or by the Kazakh deverbal form with the required words:

These averages are precisely the information required.

Д?л осы орташа м?ндер ?ажет етілген а?парат еді.

Low temperature tests were performed with the specimen completely submerged in liquid nitrogen or liquid helium environments.

Т?менгі температуралы сына?тар с?йы? азот?а немесе с?йы? гелийге ерітіндісіне толы?ымен батырыл?ан ?лгімен ж?ргізілді.

Generally speaking, the translation of the verbals consists of two stages: first it is necessary to understand its meaning and then find a corresponding way of expressing it in Kazakh. For the purpose of translation, grammar does not exist separately. It is not the grammatical form but the grammatical meaning that is of primary concern for a translator or an interpreter. A mistake in grammar (whether it is a misunderstood construction of the source language or a wrong variant in the target language) always tells on the sense and logic of the text. As soon as the sense and logic of the sentence stop to be transparent it is necessary to stop and look for a mistake in the translation.

The order of words in which the subject is placed after the predicate is called inverted word order, or inversion. While translating, the target sentence retains the word order of the source sentence in many cases:

Of special interest should be the first article in Clause I.

I Болімде?і бірінші бап ерекше ?ызы?тырады.

Also treated are such matters as theory construction and methodology.

Сонымен ?атар, теорияларды? жасалуы ж?не методология сия?ты с?ра?тар ?арастырылып жатыр.

Had this material been examined from this viewpoint, the rules that he discovered would probably have gone unnoted.

Егер мына материал осындай белгілі бір т?р?ыдан ?арал?ан болса, оны? негізінде белгіленген за?дылы?тары бай?алмай ?алуы м?мкін еді.

A most common example of dissimilarity between the parallel syntactic devices in the two languages is the role of the word order in English and in Kazakh. Both languages use a «direct» and an «inverted» word order. But the English word order obeys, in most cases, the established rule of sequence: the predicate is preceded by the subject and followed by the object. This order of words is often changed in the Kazakh translation since in Kazakh the word order is used to show the communicative load of different parts of the sentence, the elements conveying new information (the rheme) leaning towards the end of non - emphatic sentences, for example:

Should the Purchaser have no objections with regard to the performed services, the Purchaser shall sign the Act and return one original to the Contractor. Should the Purchaser have any objections, he shall provide a motivated refusal to sign the Act and indicate the reasons and time for the elimination of limitations. Should the Purchaser fail to sign the Act within 10 (ten) calendar days or fail to provide a motivated refusal to sign such Act the performed services shall be deemed as properly performed.

The predominantly fixed word order in the English sentence means that each case of its inversion (placing the object before the subject predicate sequence) makes the object carry a great communicative load. This emphasis cannot be reproduced in translation by such a common device as the inverted word order in the Kazakah sentence and the translator has to use some additional words to express the same idea:

К?рсетілген ?ызметке ескерту болма?ан жа?дайда, т?тынушы актке ?олын ?ойып, 1 данасын мердігерге ?айтарады. Ал егер ескерту бол?ан жа?дайда, т?тынушы актке ?ол ?оюдан бас тарта отырып, себептерін ж?не кемшіліктерді жою?а берген уа?ытын к?рсету. Егер он к?н ішінде орындал?ан ж?мыс туралы актке ?ол ?ойылмаса немесе ?арсылы? болмаса, к?рсетілген ?ызмет мінсіз орындалды деп саналады.

The refusal to use a parallel structure in the target text may involve a change in the number of independent sentences by using the partitioning or the integrating procedures described above. It should be noted that a parallel form may prove unsuitable because of its different stylistic connotation. For instance, both English and Russian conditional clauses can be introduced by conjunctions or asyndetically:

Should the Purchaser fail to make payment as provided in the Contract, the Contractor may suspend progress of the work. Herewith, the Contractor shall give at least (ten) calendar days prior written notification to the Purchaser of its intension to suspend the works.

Егер т?тынушы келісім талаптарына сай т?лемін ?темесе, мердігер ?ызмет к?рсетуді то?тату?а ???ылы. М?ндай жа?дайда, мердігер он к?ннен кем емес уа?ыт ішінде т?тынушыны ?зіні? осындай туында?ан ойы ж?нінде хабардар етуі тиіс.


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