Characteristics of special self-defense tactics and their application
The concept of special tools and equipment. Implementation of technical means in the work of the Interior. Organizational-methodical and tactical basics of using technology in law enforcement agencies. Methods of the active defense, personal protection.
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Chapter 1. The concept of special tools and equipment
Chapter 2. Classification of special self-defense
2.1 Active defense
2.2 Personal protection
Chapter 3. Legal basis using special tools and equipment in the exercise of self-defense
List of references
Post my chosen course work "Characteristics of special self-defense tactics and their application."
Scientific and technical progress present carries both positive and negative changes. Developing and improving the knowledge and the technical means by which committed the offense, and therefore developing and improving knowledge and technical means for their prevention and elimination.
Accordingly, the problem of ensuring the safety of citizens, police officers and public safety appears quite relevant, among other issues of life.
Special equipment - a collection of hardware, special devices, materials and related tactics used in strict compliance with law in the course of operational performance measures for the prevention and detection of crimes, public order and protection of individual institutions.
Special protective equipment - a combination of hardware, special devices, materials and related tactics used in strict compliance with the law during the implementation of measures to ensure personal protection, preservation of their health and life.
The goal of my work is to investigate and clarify the meaning of the special security equipment for police officer, classify and describe the types of possible remedies that are used for self-defense.
Chapter 1. The concept of special tools and equipment
Special equipment - a collection of hardware, special devices, materials and related tactics used in strict compliance with law in the course of operational performance measures for the prevention and detection of crimes, public order and protection of individual institutions.
Implementation of technical means in the work of the Interior has the following trends:
1. I get ready made and taken into service hardware that fit the law enforcement agencies for tactical and technical characteristics.
Examples of such tools include certain motor vehicles, standard equipment wired and wireless communication, opto-mechanical devices monitoring, measuring instruments, photographic and video equipment, computer and other equipment.
2. Technical means are purchased in finished form, structurally modified or supplemented in order to adapt them to specific tasks and conditions of Internal Affairs.
For example, avtomotozasoby, equipped with radios, means strengthening language means masking and remote control for different cameras and camcorders, personal computers, on which created workstations for staff operational and investigative units ATS.
3. Development and production of hardware made specifically for police with the most complete view of the specific tasks and working conditions of these bodies.
The measures taken by the leadership MIA arsenal specially made for police hardware has grown considerably. These primarily include operational communications equipment, burglar alarm equipment, means of traffic control, mass search technology, plant protection personnel and others.
Along with the tasks of technical arms of the Interior newest types of technology to the fore the problem of development based on the requirements of the law and best practices of police departments on organization, methods and tactics application of appropriate technical means.
Organizational-methodical and tactical basics of using technology in law enforcement agencies include:
- Measures to provide logistics, maintenance and readiness to use technical means (definition attendance requirements and order supplies equipment nyrishennya regular issues of maintenance, repair and copying technology, moral and material incentives for employees and others.)
- Defining the duties and rights of the heads of services and different levels and other employees of the organization and the use of direct use technology;
- Setting of forms and methods of participation engineers and technical workers, forensic experts and other professionals in the events associated with the use of special equipment;
- Typical choices of organizational forms and tactics application of certain types of equipment, and especially the integrated use of the different tools that are designed with the peculiarities of agencies and institutions at various levels, as well as on the operational situation and the specific operational performance measures and investigations;
- Search for new forms and methods of use of technical equipment in conjunction with existing forces, means and methods of operational performance;
- Improvement of existing and creation of new means of special equipment, regulations and guidelines for their use;
- The collection, compilation and analysis of information on the use of technical equipment in the law enforcement activities of other states.
The term special equipment is included, as is evident, not only hardware and instrumentation, but also relevant tactical techniques, which also has its own features, for example, how the use of active defense in the protection of public order.
Special hardware can be classified according to the investigative, operational and administrative activities rozshukovoyita police.
During the investigation of crimes means of special equipment used publicly for collecting and research evidence. Methods and techniques for the application of these tools are developed criminology. These technical tools, instruments and techniques encompassed by the term "forensic engineering". Application of forensic techniques regulated by the Criminal Procedure Act. [7, c.8-11]
In operational activities special technique is used to prevent and solve crimes and wanted criminals, and used it mostly behind the scenes. This set of special equipment, tools and techniques under the name "operative technique." Application of this technique is governed by the laws of Ukraine "On Police", "On Operational Activities", the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, as well as some bylaws.
In the administrative activities of the Interior technique used publicly. Technical facilities, equipment and methods of their use are developed or adapted depending vidnapryamku administrative activities of the Interior and the purpose of their use. The special technical means used in the administration of the internal affairs and tools include office equipment, special vehicles, equipment protection, traffic control equipment and others. The application of this technology is regulated, usually rules of administrative law.
Using some hardware has universal: the same hardware can be used in all major areas of the Interior. This applies, for example, radio facilities, photos and video, recording devices, search engine technology. This fact is of practical importance and should be considered when creating new equipment while organizing the logistics of the Interior, as well as in the organization of work on the use of the same types of technology workers of various sectoral services.
Management activities of the Interior provided technical facilities management. These include communication, strengthening language Rigging labor, computers and so on.
Form of Internal Affairs may be vowel or silent.
By vowels forms of ATS include: prevention, inquisitorial, investigative, administrative, legal, security.
Covert form is mainly operational-search activity.
Depending on which form is used equipment - in vowels or tacitly, different approaches require the organization and tactics, to regulate the use of certain funds.
Methods of applying special techniques are very diverse. In general, they represent a combination of techniques, tactical and technical operations to ensure rapid and complete achievement of this goal in different conditions of operational and service measures or investigation. During their preparation and implementation usually takes into account all the tactical and technical capabilities and experience positive use of a vehicle in similar conditions.
Techniques must be made clear, because otherwise it could adversely affect the implementation of the basic problem. Therefore, we recommend carrying out preliminary experiments, training in conditions similar to those expected at the time of the planned measures. For example, when using portable radios to transmit conventional signals of active defense and personal protection, photo and video. Sometimes the appropriate methods to work out in detail in advance integrated application of special equipment by conducting tactical exercises and games using the method of modeling a particular situation. In particular, the testing can be carried out during the preparation of ambushes and arrest armed criminals at night, when you can use in the dark vision devices, radios, means of active defense and personal protection alarm devices and other special techniques.
Some means of special equipment that differ constructive complexity and peculiarities of their operation, should be used in consultation with a specialist forensic units or operational and technical management (staff of this) or direct their participation. This is necessary in case of equipment sound and video, search devices and others.
Thus, the question of methods to use a special technique closely related to organizational arrangements that provide the best conditions for the use of technology and use it to get the relevant results.
The analysis of the practices of departments and services of the Interior show that the high efficiency of their work is achieved with the use of special equipment. Successful completion of many tasks undertaken by patrol officers, traffic through the protection of public order, it would be simply impossible without the widespread use of communications equipment, vehicles, and other speech enhancement technique. [7, c.14]
Of great importance in the fight against crime with means and methods of operational and forensic techniques. In particular this applies to providing high quality reviews in place of the offense, receiving input data the offender, identifying evidence, solve crimes through technical means.
Thus, part of the special equipment includes tools radio and wire communication, speech enhancement, special tools and equipment alarms, sound and video-equipment, search appliances, visual detection, special chemicals operative capture and daktyloskopuvannya.
Specific special purpose is to:
- Creating conditions conducive to the prevention of crime.
Thus, the use of the alarm to record illegal entry to the objects that are protected, and promptly take action to apprehend the offenders and the use of available records makes it possible to determine the number of people involved in certain types of crimes;
- Facilitating the disclosure of crimes committed.
For example, the use of search equipment ensures high quality of the inspection of the crime, facilitates the identification of evidence during searches;
- Creating opportunities obtaining reliable information about the persons involved in the preparation or commission of crimes.
Practice shows that through a series of operational and technical means to quickly and reliably obtain and record information about specific individuals who conceive or prepared crimes, and then take steps to prevent them. Examples of such tools can be instruments sound and video recording, observation devices and others;
- Stopping group violations of public order and hooliganism.
This can be achieved through the use of special means of protection of personnel and special operations;
- Identifying the causes of crime and the conditions conducive to the commission.
Computer aids to quickly and fully analyze the state of the situation, to handle data on the causes and conditions that contribute to the commission of certain crimes. The results of the analysis, processing relevant information make it possible to detect and predict such patterns, trends, given that you can take the most appropriate and effective action to prevent certain offenses.
Special conditions apply when was used and did not give the desired results all other forms of actions that have been applied before. Namely:
1) to protect citizens and protect themselves from militia attacks and other acts that endanger their life or health;
2) to stop the riots and group violations of public order;
3) to repel the attack on the building, premises, facilities, vehicles, regardless of their origin or their release in case of capture;
4) for the apprehension and bringing people to the police if they resist police officers or if there is reason to believe that they can escape or harm others or yourself;
5) to stop mass land seizures and other actions that may lead to a conflict groups, as well as: acts that paralyze transport jobs, livelihoods settlements encroach upon the public peace, life and health;
6) to stop resisting police officers and other persons performing services or public duties to protect public ^ order and combat crime;
7) for the release of hostages.
Do not use special devices:
1. In women with obvious signs of pregnancy, the elderly with signs of disability and minors, unless they commit a group attack that really threatens the life and health of people, police or armed attack armed resistance.
2. In premises and land plots reserved for diplomatic, consular and other representatives of foreign states.
3. In areas related to the production of explosive or flammable substances in children's and medical institutions.
Special tools are used to protect police personnel and citizens during public order and in the performance of official duties, are divided into:
1. Active defense.
2. Personal protection equipment.
3. Means of Special Operations.
4. Devices to open the premises occupied offenders.
The first two groups of special equipment directly intended to protect police personnel. The third and fourth - are used during special operations that are associated with the detention of armed criminals termination in accordance with applicable law (Article 14 of the Law of Ukraine "On the Police"), riots and other manifestations of public disorder. [7, c.33]
Chapter 2. Classification of special means of self-defense
2.1 Active defense
Active defense to protect citizens and police officers, actively influencing the offenders to stop their actions. In this sense, expressed by means of protection include special-purpose weapon or "non-lethal weapons."
According to Art. 12 of the Law of Ukraine "On Police", they are used only if other methods do not provide the performance of the duties of policemen. This group of special equipment include:
- Gas grenades, cartridges and pistols and revolvers for shooting cartridges equipped with tear gas and rubber or similar characteristics missiles non-lethal;
- Rubber batons;
- Stun devices.
Gas grenades, cartridges and guns shooting bullets, filled with tear gas and rubber or similar characteristics missiles non-lethal.
Gas grenades, hand or in the form of bullets, tear-filled substance and are called "Cheremukha" (Russia), "Intermediate" (Ukraine) and "Sirens" (Russia). The degree of damage depends on the degree of concentration of the substance in the vehicle. For example, for "Cheremukha" there are three degrees of concentration: threshold (significant), obnoxious, dangerous. Last degree of concentration often created on the premises. The person who was in the area of the tear substance almost instantly deprived of the opportunity to lead active, purposeful actions. After leaving the area of substance within 10-15 minutes of all manifestations of lesions disappear. In the field "Cheremukha" did not significantly affect the eyes of animals (dogs). You must also consider the fact that the effective defeat of offenders who are under the influence of alcohol or high degree of psychological arousal to increase the degree of concentration of tear matter.
In Ukraine used gas grenades "Teren-6" and "ter-BM" - devices instant spray aerosol irytantu (IPC + CS). These special tools police use to ensure that the special actions by temporarily suppressing psyhovolovoyi stability offenders affecting organs of vision and breath spray irytantu. The device "Teren-6" is used to throwing hand, and "ter-BM" vidstrilyuyetsya by nastvolnoyi mortyrky with submachine gun or rocket launcher "Fort-500." Time wrapped-tion - 3,5 ± 1 s. Volume cloud irytantu - 120-150 m3. Minimum distance using -2 m Its mass in running form is 180 g [8, c.36]
Now armed with the MIA of Ukraine is pump-action shotgun 12 caliber "Fort 500" domestic production. This rifle weighing 3.5 kg with the sighting range of up to 100 meters can be equipped with an example or pistol grip. Supplied guns are nozzles for firing bullets, buckshot and shot, and to use non-lethal weapons, special ammo and grenades and tear of substances irritant action.
In Russia, armed with grenades are "Cheremukha" and "Siren" outfit active substance CN.
Gas cylinders - affordable, reliable and most effective weapon we have gas. Many experts believe that in its impact on humans are significantly more effective than existing gas pistols and revolvers.
Urazhalna substance in the cartridge pistol or revolver is a powder, and when a shot under the influence of powder gases, temperature and pressure into a gas cloud at a distance of three meters. Substance in cans of any application is in the liquid state and during contact with a person or towards action begins to evaporate and provides much more astounding impact. As for gas cylinders are also more profitable.
"Intermediate-4M" gas cylinders, designed to stop illegal actions of the offender resistance by influencing the organs of sight and breath spray irytantu (IPC + CS) with not less than 0.4 m within a radius of 2 m Weight - up to 73 g
A similar appointment with gas cylinders "Cobra-1", "1S Cobra," "Cobra-1S-1" Bearing ALHOHEN active substance (CII). Effective range: "Cobra-1" (aerosol) - up to 2 m, "1S Cobra" (inkjet) - up to 7 m, "Cobra-1S-1" (inkjet with dye) - up to 7 m Continuous spraying - 10-12 sec.
Legalized remedy, according to departmental standards JMA 78-19-001:2007 "pistols, revolvers, and other short-barreled device non-lethal", approved by the Ministry of Ukraine of 29.09.2007 № 325, is non-lethal weapons - pistols, revolvers and Short-other devices equipped with gas cartridges and cartridges equipped with elastic non-lethal action.
Pistols. Modern gas pistols, as well as those that are designed to fire cartridges equipped with non-lethal actions attributed to individual automatic weapons, ammunition to the chamber which served alternately with box store. The design of this weapon provides maintenance and manage it during the shooting with one hand. Weight of gun (revolver) without cartridges should not exceed 1.0 kg, and the trigger mechanism should ensure efforts on the trigger in the range from 9.8 N to 29.4 N (from 1.0 kg to 3.0 kg) in position Consolidated chicken.
Most gas pistols produced today - automatic - recharge and prepare for the next shot made at the expense of energy of powder gases after the first shot. In this way, the role of the shooter when firing a gun is limited to sight and consistent pressing the trigger. Automatic operation mechanisms recharge, mixing trigger during each shot, quick change shop provide this greater rate of pistols than revolvers.
Revolvers. Revolver (from the English word "revolve" - ??spinning) - is an individual multiply nonautomatic firearms, whose main feature - the presence of the drum kamoramy (MS), which simultaneously serves as tanks and ammunition, chamber and barrel revolver. Can also be block shafts, rotating. Rotate the drum (and feed next matron of the chamber) carries himself gunner by pressing the trigger.
An essential feature of revolvers is that after spending all cartridges cartridge cases remain in the drum. This creates a problem for their removal, which is solved or alternate extraction cartridges using the cleaning rod or other suitable object, or the simultaneous removal by the "stars", located in the drum. In this case, the drum is rejected with a frame to the right or left hand shooter presses on the head of the rod that passes through the axis of the drum is connected to the core extractor in a "star" and removes cartridge cases from the drum.
Charging the revolver again, can be done either alternately or simultaneously using different assistive devices. But in any case the process of reloading revolver takes much longer than a pistol.
Gas pistols and revolvers, in principle, an ordinary firearm, striking the enemy is not a bullet and tear gas stream.
A common feature that distinguishes gas pistols and revolvers of military weapons, is the presence of a lens barrel that during the shot passes gas flow, but holds the ball.
Grenades, ammunition cans and gas pistols and revolvers sporyadzhayutsya usually two types of compounds: CS (ортохлорбензолмолонодінітріл) which combines the effect of suffocating tear, and CN (hloratsetofenon), which gives tear effect and has a characteristic odor Cheremukha.
After activation product (grenades, cartridges, ammunition) is the following: tear substance that is in the crystalline state inside the cartridge or grenades, transferred to a gaseous state (sublimated) by the heat of the charge that burns. Gaseous active material that is ejected from the cartridge (grenades), takes the form of clouds, which also does damaging effect.
Now it is expedient to characterize gas cartridges for pistols and revolvers. According to international conventions, cartridges for gas pistols and revolvers are color coded. Yes, wad cartridge, loaded substance CS, has yellow and equipped substance CN - blue, purple or white (depending on concentration). Noise (starter) with ammunition wad of green. The contents of gas canisters, usually reported in plain text, deposited on their surface.
In addition to the above, in aerosol containers and mechanical sprayer can be used oleorezin kapsikum (OS) and morfolid pelargonic acid. Substance OS is a 5-6% solution kapsoitsynu (the most irritating component of some varieties of red and green pepper, obtained by extraction from natural raw materials) in a neutral oil. Kapsoitsyn pain has a strong effect on the eyes, facial skin, respiratory system and causes painful cough. The effectiveness of it almost does not decrease when exposed to people who are under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In addition, kapsoitsyn good scare dogs. Morfolid pelargonic acid (BETWEEN) represents one of the most effective synthetic analogues kapsoitsynu, virtually conceding natural product. He filled gas cylinders "Intermediate-1", "Intermediate-4," Teren ^ M "and fired bullets" Teren-3 "domestic production. Recently, gas cans used substance alhohen (CR, dibenzoksazepin) - tear irritating substance. On the basis of aerosols produced "Cobra". In Ukraine, the development of this type of active defense began a few years earlier than in Russia. State Scientific Production Enterprise "Environmentalist" at the beginning of 90-ies of the last century began producing gas canisters "thistle." However, the PNP "Environmentalist" continues to work in this direction. Together with specialists DNDIMVS Ukraine they are constantly improving their products.
Today, the main manufacturer and supplier of gas weapons to the CIS countries is Germany. Most of these products has a serious drawback - the deterioration parameters at low temperatures, up to a total loss of capacity aerosol packaging. So we should give preference to gas cylinders Ukrainian or Russian origin. [10, c.17]
With the full range of the proposed gas compact arms produced in Russia, causing gas cylinders interest company "Tehkrym": "Cobra 250", "500 Cobra» - (CS), compact means of self-protection and protection from dog "Scorpio 5000" - (IPC ). The greatest interest is the active means of self-defense improved efficiency "Cobra 501", "502 Cobra," "Cobra 801", "802 Cobra» - (CS). The last two means of self-defense contain the maximum amount of substance CS. They have increased compared to the existing models, range - up to four meters in the absence of a strong headwind - and longer duration of action. Firm "Tehkrym" specifically designed for law enforcement aerosol sprays "Siren 10" and "Siren 10M" that provide greater efficiency compared to existing tools, which are armed with MVD. Two completely new development "Tehkryma"-aerosols "Reseda 10" and "Reseda 10M" (the first is for the state paramilitary organizations). There is every reason to believe their most effective tools in this class. Feature "Reseda" is that it contains a mixture of two potent substances maximum allowable concentration of CS, which ensures stable operation of vessels under sub-zero temperatures, and IPC. CS tear as substance rozdratovuye painful and carries a powerful effect on the skin, and the IPC as kapsoitsinopodibna substance has suffocating effect. The combination of these two dissimilar action gives greater efficiency than the effect of each individual substance. Such combined systems are known and widely used abroad in police purposes only. their performance is better than aerosol sprays that this were armed with MVD. Naturally, the sale of such dispensers prohibited private individuals, and even security structures have no right to take without special permission. Working time balloon "Reseda 10" not less than twenty, "Reseda 10M" - not less than twelve seconds. Time content of aerosols per person up to thirty minutes.
At CIS markets supplied a wide range of gas pistols and revolvers of various companies in Germany. A variety of models is impressive: from the revolver contained in the buckle straps to revolvers style "Western" that replicate the original samples of military weapons during the Civil War. In addition to original designs, important element gas weapon based on such famous models as "Mauser", "Walter", "Browning", etc..
The main producer of gas weapons in RosiyskoyiFederatsiyi is the military-industrial complex, which produce small arms for the army, as well as hunting weapons. These companies currently include the following: Tula weapons factory, Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, Vyatka-Polyansky Machine Building Plant and Production Association Kirov Plant "Mayak".
In the Tula arms factory produced revolvers TOZ-101 "Badger" and TOZ-105. Revolver TOZ-101 has a 5.6 mm caliber, capacity drum - 6 cartridges, catapulting gaseous cloud at 2-3 feet. TOZ-105 - a more powerful weapon caliber 7.62 mm.
Relatively wide range of gas weapons manufactures state enterprise "IMZ". The most interesting is a series of gas pistols, developed on the basis of the well-known army staff Makarov pistol (PM). The series includes three options:
- 6P42 under gas cartridges of 7.62 mm;
- 6P42-8 under the gas ammunition caliber 8 mm (made in Germany);
- 6P42-9 during gas ammunition caliber 9 mm.
This approach makes it easier to adapt to the conditions of the gun already drawn ammunition market for gas weapon and widely used in the manufacture of gun available equipment and Snap. Automation gun works on the principle of free recoil grip. As the fighting, Makarov pistol equipped with a safety mechanism.
There is also an automatic gas pistol model 6P36-8 of the same enterprise. It is designed for active self-defense using gas cartridges caliber 8 mm made in Germany.
IMZ produces and gas revolvers WP-22. The mass of this revolver is about 385 g, small dimensions allow you to carry it as a woman's bag, and in a jacket pocket. Caliber revolver 5.6 mm provides reliable damage up to 3 meters.
Kirov Plant "Mayak" (Kirov) produces a fundamentally new piroridynnyy remedy called "Punch" bullets which filled active substance CS, the number of cartridges in the store -6. In his class he belongs to aerosol devices and for its acquisition, according to the Federal Law "On Weapons" is not required nor license nor permission MIA. According to specialists, it is much better than a gas gun:
- Firstly, shoots directed shock fluid of 5-6 meters, and at 1.5-3 meters, as a gas gun, removes from the ranks of "object" PA 15 minutes and weighs only 250 grams;
- Secondly, do not leave on their parts after shoot residues tear gas;
- Thirdly, similar to a regular cigarette case that does not provoke "object" to use his military weapons. [10, c.18]
Domestic production also digested gas production and multi weapons. This, for example, dvanadtsyatyzaryadnyy gun "Fort-12G", intended for shooting nine-millimeter gas cartridges; semiautomatic pistol model six-AE-790G - versatile, 9-mm caliber, meant for firing blanks, gas cartridges, rubber bullets and signaling missiles; gun "Fort-12R" - dvanadtsyatyzaryadnyy for firing gas cartridges, rubber bullets or similar characteristics missiles non-lethal. Also may be called gun to fire non-lethal ammunition (cartridges with rubber bullets, gas and noise) - Guns "TMR" (analog PM), "Erma 459-R", "Garant C27-1" and revolvers "Paper jackdaw" (similar to revolver «SMIT & WESSON»), «brigade commander," "Cornet-C" and so on.
It should be noted that despite the development of the gas market weapons still little information on its effectiveness, as well as the right to use it.
Using tear of active defense, irritant action and throwing non-lethal projectiles are prohibited:
- Use of special devices without special training;
- Use of special devices valid for the elapsed;
- Use of special devices at a distance closer than that specified in the technical specifications (such as aerosol cans - no closer than 0.4 m, gas pistols - 1.0 m, under the ammo pistols equipped with rubber bullets - no closer than 3.5 m);
- Use special devices that have damaged the integrity of the casing (cracks, prym'yatosti etc.);
- Store special devices near sources of fire and electrical devices;
- Disassemble special devices;
- Cause mechanical impact on special devices;
- Meet the requirements of industry standards GATS 78-41-001-97, 78-4-003-97 GATS, GATS 78-41-009-2000.
When ingested the drug, which Curb spyetszasib:
the body - the skin should be wiped with alcohol or alcoholic solution or wash it off with the use of detergents;
eyes - rinse with plenty of water or 2% solution of baking soda or boric acid (CN), and in case of severe pain drip mixture of 3-4% solution of novocaine and 1% atropine solution in the ratio 1:1 (CS );
the respiratory system - hold your breath, get out of the clouds, take a deep breath and get some fresh air.
Rubber rods specially designed to repel the attack offenders crackdown and control of the offender. At the armed police are:
- PR-73, PR-73M units for foreign service officers, PR-89 - for departments of transportation, the PR-90 - for special operations units. PR-73 has dimensions: diameter 32 mm, length 650 mm, weight 730 g PR 73Mvyhotovlena of rubber at the top of the handle is pre-thickening, which protects the hand from damage knives, has dimensions: diameter 32 mm, length 600 mm , weight 820 g PR-89 has a flexible shock element and a convenient handle tough. With telescopic design it is convenient to wear. Dimensions: length - 450-595 mm, diameter - 30 mm, weight - 800 g forbidden strikes to the head, neck, collarbone, abdomen, genitals.
- Sticks like "tonfa" CPP-02. Tonfa consists of pen-mate (plastic or rubber) and a cylindrical handle, built into a distance of three-quarters of its length vertically, which allows us to provide movement around the mechanism. Dimensions: length 600 mm, diameter 25 mm. Prohibited baton blows to the head, neck, solar plexus, clavicular region, lower abdomen, genitals, kidneys, merlin.
On arms of law enforcement around the world is a police baton PR-24 side handle. First of all, it is used as a remedy for reliable retention offenders. Baton with side handle allows you to keep criminals away enough not to suffer stab wounds, knocked out of the hands of the attacker any weapon, helps to hold the offender, and, if necessary, quickly put it pas handcuffs. Moreover, PR-24 is designed so that it can not actually take away from the police (of course, good schooling). According to some, this product has the potential power that is nine times greater than the potential ordinary rubber batons, and only in the United States has been used for over 25 years. [9, c.25-28]
Handcuffs BR and RSB. Used to limit physical resistance. Composition handcuffs: locking device selector ring, key pusher. Dimensions: 245h86h 13 mm, weight 0.4 - 0.5 kg, the effort gap handcuffs -150 kg, the number of positives - 5000. The use of handcuffs requires periodic (at least 1 in every 2 hours), check the status of fixing locks.
Handcuffs "RSB-2" dvolantsyuhovi complete with two keys to the castle of increased complexity and fixation in a certain position.
Electroshock devices. In the world of stun devices or Electro long been known. They are used in animal husbandry for livestock and ohlushuvannya as "elektrohlysty" pastures. Many years ago they moved from there to the police arsenal. Instead of the term "electric shock" abroad used another: «stun gun»-literally "ohlushuvalna weapon."
Biophysical effect stun device (ESR) is associated not only with the pain of electric shock. Energy stored in the device, in contact with skin arc into a variable electrical voltage with specially calculated frequency that makes the muscles in the contact zone to shrink very quickly. This abnormal overactive muscles leads to instantaneous decomposition muscle sugar that feeds muscle. In other words, the muscles in the area of contact for a while lose capacity. Parallel current blocking activity of nerve fibers by which the brain controls these muscles. The result is a local paralysis, which, depending on various circumstances goes faster or slower.
As a self-defense weapon for citizens ESR allowed not everywhere. The prohibition contained, for example, the laws on guns UK, Germany, Hungary, New Zealand, Canada and the former Soviet republics - the "Law on the control of arms and ammunition" Republic of Lithuania (1996) and "Law on Weapons" Estonian Republic (1995 p.). In Moldova, the same, or in South Korea no such restrictions. In most of the U.S. ESR legal, but in some states they are completely banned in several states have limitations on their wear and use.
In Ukraine stun devices taken up ATS since 1995 (Decree KM Ukraine on May 21, 1995 № 302). And since 1999, according to the order of Ministry of Ukraine from 11.08.99 № 624, decided to equip police stun device IP-4. Instructions on how to use a device approved by the Ministry of Ukraine of 13.02.98, № 101. Specifications IR-4 as follows: voltage between the electrodes - at least 45,000 V, the power of influence - 5 J / s, pulse repetition rate g-20 Hz, weight - 0.35 kg, dimensions (length, width, height) - 195x70x35 mm .
In the use of stun devices for the protection of public order and operational measures certain positive features are:
1. Application of Electro effectively inhibits aggressive offenders (criminals) in their apprehension.
2. Using Electro contactless way, as a means of intimidation, especially at night, provides effective psychological deterrent effect on offenders.
3. The presence of a stun device while on duty increases personal safety of police officers and allows in some cases to detain the offender (offender) without the use of firearms.
4. Electro - good alternative gas arms and rubber sticks indoors and crowded places.
The main parameter characterizing the properties of a stun device - is, of course, the voltage at the electrodes. In Russia, according to the accepted standard in 1996, ESR installed three groups: the first - with the open circuit voltage of 50 to 60 kilovolts, the second - with a voltage of 35 to 50 kilovolts, the third - with a voltage of less than 35 kilovolts. Electro third group - is likely chasib providing psychological impact than a real weapon. Most IIIIIP produced in Russia belong to the second group. Foreign manufacturers of stun device report that their stress is 200-250 kilovolts.
Electroshock devices come in two basic configurations: direct and D-shaped. There is no scientific evidence that mold better. Some prefer the D-shaped, because they think that such a device is easier to touch the opponent. Others choose direct that give maximum freedom of movement.
Recently, new models of stun devices - in a glove that is worn on the wrist or "diplomat" from the Shocker, who turned over distance and nature to strike the thief that stole the "diplomat".
A separate group of stun devices are "Air Teyzer" that shoot electrodes at a distance of 3.4 m police several U.S. states using such models since 1970, although ordinary citizens they became available in 1995. Power to the Shocker is on thin wires. The created "Teyzerom" signal, according to the company, is able to "break" mantle thickness of 5 cm Along with ejection electrodes "Teyzer" throws special identification marks that, if necessary, can help law enforcement officials to identify the owner of the unit.
Shot with "Teyzera" executed once, then it should either recharged or used as a regular pin electric shock. Excess stress "Teyzera" is 50 kilovolts.
Application of ESR should provide in contact with target of immediate withdrawal of the last down for the period from 1 to 20-30 minutes (bezruhist of deprivation conscious action) after shutdown ESR.
According to the decree of the Council of Ministers of Ukraine № 49-1991 g and Articles 12 and 14 of the Law of Ukraine "On Police", the decision to use special tools, as well as their type, time of onset and intensity determines the leader who is responsible for public order in a particular area, or head of a particular operation, taking into account the circumstances, the nature of offense and the offender. Chiefs and heads of operations written report to senior management on the use of special tools and also inform local authorities and prosecutors.
On the use of special tools (spray, batons, stun devices) police officer dimensional accordingly informs immediate supervisor. [7, c.45]
active defense special equipment
2.2 Personal protection
Personal protective equipment designed to protect the vital organs from possible injuries weapons and firearms. They are:
- Body armor;
- Shockproof armor and shields.
Helmet - hat designed for periodic use to protect the head from injury. According to industry standard GATS 78-004-97 protective structures helmets for resistance to weapons (pistols) are divided into three classes - 1, 1-A, 2.
To produce special helmets 1st class protection using titanium alloys or vysokotryvki steel. their weight - about 2.4 kg. In helmets 2-class protection using steel spherical element with a system of depreciation and fastening the helmet on his head and booletproof transparent visor. Weight of the helmet - about 3.5 kg. Perspective is the use of helmets protective elements of ballistic Kevlar fabric or TVARON.
In ATS most common:
- Steel army helmet designed to protect against attacks with sticks, stones and debris. Area protection - 10 dm2, weight - 1.4 kg. Located on equipping agencies and units to full replacement shock helmet with visor (except units of internal troops);
- Shock-resistant helmet "Mask 2", designed for use by workers of police to stop the illegal actions of citizens. Protects head from the blows with sticks, stones and other objects. Area protection - 13 dm2, weight - 1.5 kg;
- Helmet shock ETC-307 is designed to protect against attacks during the riots. Protection Area - 18 square meters. dm, weight of 1.5 kg;
- Special titanium helmet "Sphere" and STSH-81 (4 titanium plates in the cover) is designed to protect against bullets from a distance of 25 m (grade 1 protection). Area protection - 10 dm2, weight - 2,5 kg. Continuous wearing up to 4 hours;
- Helmet booletproof ZPIM-2 provides protection for first class and the bullets TT pistol with lead core. Area protection - 12 dm2, weight-1.6 kg;
- Booletproof helmet with visor that is removed, "Mask-I", intended for use by employees of the police during the arrest of armed criminals. Protects head from bullets guns of all types (2-grade protection). Protection Area-18 dm2, weight - 4.5 kg;
- Helmet booletproof "Falcon-2C" provides protection for 2 class. Area protection - 16.3 dm2, weight - 4.5 kg. [6, c.99]
Development and release of personal body armor in our country and the CIS has been a lot of government and commercial enterprises. Prominent on the market occupied by body armor (PSU) - protection corps. Weed heads are much rarer. On the one hand, this can be explained by the peculiarities of the market: body armor used in various fields - "military", "police", "public". The protective helmet means more specific. On the other hand, head protection from firearms is a difficult task, and the head compared with the body is much smaller and more moving target. But falling into the body can cause injuries of varying severity - from mild to fatal. If you hit in the head almost guaranteed death, serious injury or concussion, in other words, sound output from the ranks. This is evident in the melee when lesions in the head is not much difficulty. Not coincidentally helmet or headband for a long time belonged to outfit soldiers who fought hand to hand with the enemy. Firearms not finished career helmets. If the armor to the XVIII century. went out of use, the helmets (helmet) survived as a means of protection against knives. However, they are more relieved and, in the cavalry and infantry to protect against saber blows. Increased interest in personal protection caused the First World War. However protykulovi helmets failed to construct then anyone. Steel helmets have become the most common way to protect your head from small fragments. These helmets sustainable development "protyshrapnel-them" helmets, which appeared at the beginning of the war. In this direction and develop helmets for decades. Continuous growth of the shrapnel ammunition in a number of weapons manpower contributed to this development.
Modern steel army helmet bullet penetrated the intermediate cartridge of 800-900 m, and rifle - from 1700 m Therefore, protection against light shrapnel still remains a major requirement for "viskovyh 'helmets.
Applying the "army" of police helmets, police or internal forces ineffective. Therefore, constantly developing new remedies head.
Helmet "Mask 2", developed by SRI CT Russia protects against attacks with sticks, metal rods, stone, has a variable damping layer (liner), lifting visor, wide strap, adjustable, with support for the chin.
Adopt plastic helmet domestic production SH-307 (PVP "technology", Kharkov) with a transparent visor with polycarbonate and bramtsi to protect the neck. It protects your head from the blows with stones, sticks and other heavy items. Has internal Damping equipment and recording system helmet on his head. Made two sizes to fit the head: 1-standard size - 56-60, 2nd dimension - 60-62. Area protection - not less than 13 dm2, weight - not more than 1.5 kg.
Enterprise "Air 2000" (Irpin) manufactures helmets 1-grade protection "Sphere" and "Helmet-1" and shock plastic helmet with visor "silos."
Already usual method of individual body armor has special titanium helmet STSH-81 "Sphere" (RI PT). Titanium elements "scope" are built into the fabric curved base plate. Overlapping one another vzayemoruhomi plate, allowing tight fit "scope" on his head. In general, law enforcement needed means that class as weapons during TT pistol ammunition from which STSH-81 protects, is by some accounts to half "barrels" that "walk" in the CIS.
Operational units and internal troops widely used helmet "Mask-1" (developed by SRI CT, Russia). Its basis is tsilnotyahnutyy steel dome, which is equipped with a thick layer damping and shvydkozyomnym mount provides protection in terms of grade 2 bullet pistol ammunition up to 7.62.
Titanium helmet Steel Institute (Russia) with hinged visor has three options with different classes of protection. The first weighs 1.4 kg and "holds" the ball pistol PM with energy 297 J (grade 1), the second - tovshyy 0.5 mm, weighing 2.1 kg, protects against bullets TT pistol with energy 534 J ( 2nd class). The third option has additional steel or ceramic plates and the weight of 2.5 kg, without breaks conventional Kulevi cartridges.
Protecting the head from bullets intermediate, and the more rifle ammunition difficult. And it's not only a concussion. Extremely vulnerable place is the neck. Helmet, stopping the ball, gets most of its momentum. And it happens in a split second, and the impact force is transmitted head is so large that can not withstand the cervical vertebra. The same happens if the ball hit with rifle 12 or 16 caliber. Damping of layers and fasteners is not enough. One could weaken the blow, "stretching" it in time and gradually absorbing energy balls. But just look at the modern kuleulovlyuvachi to understand - the size of the helmet will be completely unacceptable. In any case, the question head protection requires a balanced approach and take into account all features of the actions of police in ensuring law and order. In some cases, leave the head open fighter - means simply substitute it under the ball. In addition, it is generally a psychological role of body armor - a fighter that he feels his protection, acting more decisively and calmly, which itself reduces losses.
Body armor designed to protect the body from impact, firearms and bladed weapons. [8, c.21]
As protective qualities, then personal protective equipment in the world characterized by ambiguous. Thus, in a criminal practice U.S. and Europe use Army small arms is very rare. First of protection must be provided on Short-arms ammunition which should lead bullets. It provides a soft body armor ballistic fabric.
Today, with the agenda set by the problem better, more sophisticated equipment and units of the Interior means protective equipment that meets international standards on arms come from soft body armor, which are made of organic synthetic fibers and Kevlar TVARON. The most promising for use in the MIA of Ukraine is kevlar body armor, known worldwide as an extremely lightweight, comfortable, rich and reliable protection.
Kevlar broneodyah work, grabbing the ball in multilayer snare layers of fabric. Fibers that made contact with the ball, absorb and dissipate the energy collisions, transferring it to other fibers of fabric material. This energy transfer occurs in the "intersections" fibers, where they are intertwined. The rest of the energy absorbing other layers broneodyahu, thus lowering the amount of energy transmitted from a bullet to the body and that can cause a "blunt trauma." Such fabric materials are strong enough to cope with the task, and at the same time, they provide an additional advantage as comfortable while wearing.
In addition, body armor with Kevlar extremely durable due to the inherent stability of this fiber to mechanical, thermal and chemical effects. The results of tests conducted by police in Germany and the U.S. have shown that resistance to 10-year Kevlar vests firearms is the same as in the new. According to experts, armidne Kevlar fiber showed impeccable service (over 20 years) in operational work.
Study questions safety of law enforcement officers shows that approximately 42% of deaths that occurred during clashes with criminals, could have been avoided if these workers were hidden soft body armor. More than 94% of police officers, whose lives could have saved a clothing needed to protect their body from the shots. They fired a weak or average power handguns, rifles with ammunition side battle on 22 caliber shotgun. Thus the average number of shots in each of the incidents battle was less than two.
Among the weapons that are specific to local conditions and Russia dominates the ball with steel core pistol PM, TT, Kalashnikovs and knives, real protection against any under soft armor practically excluded. Therefore, for the manufacture of body armor protection using high grade composite materials - aramide fabric (Kevlar) and ceramics, aramid fabric and metal materials.
Of the many types and models of body armor for police and other law enforcement agencies most interesting are protykulni and those that protect against knives. [8, c.22]
In ATS apply:
- Lightweight vest concealed carry "bark-3" protects against bladed weapons (daggers, stilettos, "zatochok") with a special class of protection. Area protection - 43 dm2, weight - up to 3.8 kg;
- "Module-BB" - body armor for open and semi-open wearing a special class of protection. Area protection -23 dm2, weight -1.9 kg;
- ZHZL-74 - lightweight protective vest provides protection from shock and cold (cutting, stabbing) weapon (special class). Area protection - 47 dm2, the mass-to 3.8 kg. Time-continuous wear up to 8 hours;
- Bulletproof vest "Lotus" protects against firearms (grade 1). Area protection - 43 dm2, weight - 3 kg. Continuous wearing - up to 8 hours;
- "Module-PM" - wearing body armor to open the 1st class protection. Area protection - from thirty dm2, weight - 2.8 kg;
- "Sentinel TT" - bulletproof vest for concealed carry 2-class protection. Area protection - 7.8 dm2, weight - 2.9 kg;
- ZHZT-71m - titanium protective vest protects from shock, cold and fire (PM, rifles) weapons (2 classes). Area protection - 40 dm2, weight - 10.5 kg. Continuous wearing - up to 6 hours;
- Kulezahystna jacket "Mirage" protects against cold and Firearms (2 classes). Area protection - 60 dm2, weight - 12 kg. Continuous wearing - up to 4 hours.
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