Image peculiarities of man in Sterna's novel "Sentimental Journey"
Sentimentalism in Western literature. English sentimentalism effect Stern's creativity. The main concept of sentimentalism in the novel "Sentimental Journeys". The image peculiarities of man in the novel. The psychological aspect of the image of the hero.
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Faculty of Translation and Foreign Philology
Chair of English Philology
Literature of the peoples of foreign countries
The theme: Image peculiarities of man in Sterna's novel "Sentimental Journey"
1. Sentimentalism in Western literature of the XVIII century
1.1 Poetics of sentimentalism in the XVIII century
1.2 English sentimentalism effect L. Stern's creativity
2. The main concept of sentimentalism in the novel "Sentimental Journeys"
2.1 The image peculiarities of man in the novel
2.2 The psychological aspect of the image of the hero
sentimentalism literature novel hero
The aim of this work is the study and analysis of image peculiarities of man in the novel "Sentimental journeys", reflecting the main factors which caused to the sentimental novel in that period of time.
In accordance with the purpose of the following tasks:
- To consider the form and methods of the main motives of the narrative;
- Define the narrative style originality and find the features of the poetics of sentimentalism;
- To consider the psychological aspect of the image of the hero.
Object of study is to examine the features and peculiarities of image of man in the Stern's novel "Sentimental journeys"
Subjects -L. Stern's novel "Sentimental Journeys"
Basic methods are selected in accordance with the features of research
1. Biography - helps to trace the extent and nature of the impact of the theme of scientific outlook on the transformation of the world and work of the writer.
2. Receptive - used to describe the perception of creativity L. Stern as a phenomenon of literature and culture.
3. Opinion - for understanding literature as a form of social consciousness and to reflect the historical trends, socially determined moments, action pictures economic and political laws, characters, closely related to the situation in the society in the age of the writer.
4. Method literary hermeneutics - to trace the understanding and interpreting images of the reader from the text of the work.
Theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the ability to apply the findings and research material in lectures and practical courses "History of World Literature" and "History of English Literature", in special courses on various aspects of L. Sterns creation, as well as seminars on foreign literature.
The structure of the course work: consists of an introduction, two chapters, conclusion and bibliography. Text part consists of 30 pages, bibliography includes 21 references.
In the introduction the relevance of research topic, formulate goals and objectives defined by the object, subject, research methods, theoretical and practical significance, and novelty.
The first chapter is devoted to the study of the theoretical foundations of the study. It clarified the concept art image from the point of view of modern research, identifies the main features of the Sentimentalism in Western literature of the XVIII century, Poetics of sentimentalism in the XVIII century and the effect of sentimentalism in Stern's creativity.
In chapter II examines the writer's works, mainly the features and peculiarities of Stern's work "Sentimental journeys".
In conclusion, takes stock of the main conclusions of the study and analysis.
Creativity Stern is an extensive bibliography, but in general modern regional geography pays more attention to the first product of Stern "Tristram Shandy." Serious study of creativity Stern began only in the twentieth century. R. Brissenden gave more detailed interpretation of "Sentimental Journey". Sentimental novel from Richardson to Sade, "in which the author in a controversy with A. Cash advocated in this novel priority feelings, rejecting the concept of A. Cash" Stern rationalist XVIII century. The origins of the English novel criticism dealing with the problem in the light of the contribution of Stern's aesthetic and ethical- philosophical quest. One such popular theme is the analysis of non-traditional solution to the problem of a novel time. One of the major problems is also the problem of correlation of the author and the narrator. It is in light of this problem arising more and more critical reading "Sentimental Journey." Some critics prefer to combine human - Stern, Stern's writer and narrator conditional Yorick. Others, however, argue that the author does not share sensually pathetic position of the hero - narrator, accusing Stern of insincerity, the desire to write needful sentimental mood of the public. E. Dilworth in the monograph "unsentimental journey Laurence Sterne" dispelled the myth of "sensitive Stern." A. Cash in the monograph " Comedy of Moral Sentiments in the works Stern " in the controversy with the data pin puts forward his interpretation of the " Sentimental Journey " on the basis of statements compare to Yorick text sermons Stern, concluding that Stern opposes spontaneous sensitivity Yorick virtue stable of characters such as monk, an old French officer, master donkey, and it is difficult to accept, because Yorick - not less than virtuous.
In Soviet literary touch on many aspects of creativity Stern. Shklovsky one of the first regional geography drew attention to updating Stern techniques of the novel: "In general it pedaling very structure of the novel, his awareness of form by breaking it is the content of the novel." Problems outlook Stern were affected Vertsmanom I. and M. Tronskoy and A. Elistratova in the introductory article for publication in a series of Stern "Library of World Literature " for the first time turned to his genre specifics, noting that if " Tristram Shandy " was a parody of the classic novel XVIII century, the " Sentimental Journey " was no less blatant parody of the traditional genre of travel - one of the most established and respectable then- genres of literature."
1. Sentimentalism in Western literature of the XVIII century
1.1 The Poetics of sentimentalism in the XVIII century
"Sentimentalism in Western and Russian literature - a literary movement, appeared in XVIII and early XIX century. Counterbalance the dominance of the so-called unilateral pseudoclassical theory. It plays a key place subjective effusions and psychological analysis, contrasted the majestic and sublime touching and sought in the face of some of their representatives to awaken in the hearts of the readers understanding of the nature and loves for her with the humane treatment of all the weak, the suffering and persecuted.
"Natural" man becomes the protagonist of sentimentalism. Sentimentalist's writers believed that man, being a creation of nature, from birth has the makings "natural virtue" and "sensitivity"; determines the degree of sensitivity of human dignity and importance of all his actions.2
Sentimentalists, unlike the classicists, not interested in historical, heroic past: they were inspired by everyday experiences. Place the hyperbolic passions, vices and virtues took all the familiar human feelings. The Hero of Sentimental Literature is an ordinary man. Mostly it comes from the third estate , sometimes low position ( the maid ) and even rogue ( thief ) , according to the riches of his inner world of feelings and purity of not conceding , and often superior representatives of the upper class .
Appeal to the inner world of man allowed to show his sentimentalist inexhaustible and contradictory. They refused absolutism of any one character traits and uniqueness of moral character interpretation inherent classicism: sentimental hero can perform as bad and good deeds experience as noble and low feelings; sometimes his actions and desire can not be monosyllabic evaluation.3
Cult feelings led to a high degree of subjectivity. For this direction characterized by an appeal to the genre, most fully enable to show the life of the human heart - an elegy , novel in letters , travel diary , memoirs , etc. , where the story is told in the first person . Sentimentalists rejected the principle of "objective" discourse, involving removal of the author from the subject image: reflection on the author described them becomes an essential element of the story. Structure works is largely determined by the will of the writer: it is not so strictly follows the established literary canons, shackles imagination, and rather arbitrarily builds composition, generous with lyrical digressions."
Sentimentalism powerful waved swept across Europe XVIII century. It was home to England. Name was given to him by Laurence Sterne, calling his journey through France "sentimental ", showing the reader a unique "journey of the heart."
Writer's sentimentalists made in literature a significant contribution. Their work is significantly different from the works of the classicists, pathetic tragedy which sang mainly hero and heroic. Outstanding people, outstanding events, outstanding passion were that the material of which was built tragic story. In place of the sublime and majestic as it was in the classicists, sentimentalists have made to literature touching.
They built a cult of feeling and sensitivity - in the moral and aesthetic principle. Lighteners took sentimental principle of sensitivity to their weapons. Voltaire laughed and taunted in "Candide," but cried " Merope " or " Zaire " , Diderot slyly amused in " Indiscreet treasures " or " Jacques the Fatalist " but exuded tears in his dramas . Rousseau cried and grieved. Beaumarchais was laughing, but he paid tribute to tears (drama "Eugene", the fourth "Memoir").
Classicists did not notice nature; in the works of nature Sentimentalists won an honorable place. Contemplation of her beauties, peaceful communion with her simple, gentle people - that is the ideal sentimentalists.5
Sentimentalism - a complex and contradictory phenomenon. It can not be equated with the Enlightenment as a whole. In some cases, sentimentalism is a crisis of Enlightenment thought (in England) and contained flawed motives that are alien to the historical optimism of the Enlightenment. However, in various European countries its colors were different. In England sentimental works combining a critique of social injustices preaching gentleness, idealism, mysticism and pessimism (" Vekfildsky priest ", "The Abandoned Village" Goldsmith, "Night Thoughts" Jung and others).
In France and Germany sentimentalism largely merged with educational literature, and this has significantly changed its appearance compared with sentimentalism English. Here we find already and call to fight, to the active and resolute actions of the person, here notes idealization feudal antiquity manifest vigorous materialist worldview.
However, in German and in French literature sentimental direction was not without ideas related English sentimentalism. Goethe's novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther " imbued materialistic outlook , but no stranger known idealization of passive suffering.
In the works of Jean- Jacques Rousseau's revolutionary protest combined with criticism of the idea of ??progress and civilization.
In each country, the literature had an obvious national character, depending on the identity of the historical development of the nation, its national characteristics and national traditions.
However, for all the best literature of the XVIII century European countries have general anti-feudal, liberation direction.
Thus, the following features of the poetics of sentimentalism:
- Cult feelings (all people, regardless of position in society, equal in their feelings);
- Appeal to the inner world of man;
- Appeal to the genre, most fully allows showing the life of the human heart - a diary, travel, writing;
- Compassion, empathy hero to all that surrounds it;
- Interest in the smallest details, a detailed description and reflection on them;
- The ability to draw conclusions;
- Lyrical digressions.
These features are present in the poetics of sentimentalism novel L. Stern" Sentimental Journey."
1.2 Sentimentalism effect to L. Stern's works
Stern gave name to a literary movement that arose in the XVIII century - it became known as sentimentalism after the publication of his novel "Sentimental Journey."
Sentimentalism gained international importance and it is accompanied by his pen such famous names as Schiller and Goethe, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Diderot, and painting - Chardin and Greuze.
However, the first in the history of sentimentalism, perhaps, to be called Richardson. He first raised the sensitivity to aesthetic principle. He opened his astonished gaze contemporary readers that the main content of the narrative may not be events like the age-old tradition asserted, and the feelings and the vicissitudes of the senses. Writers and poets, enthusiastic success of Richardson and demanding readers feel endearing sweetness of tears, went on the feet.
Sentimentalism acquired social dimension, it sounded political CCIP. Compassion is not at all to the person and to the poor. And the moral principle of compassion became a political principle. Poor and socially oppressed and unfortunate man became the subject of public attention. The contempt that had surrounded him, replaced by a feeling of pity for him, and this revolution in the moral consciousness of society has made literature.
"Sentimentalism was born in England. His appearance was due to social reasons. In a country in the XVIII century there were major economic changes on the value amounting to revolution - agricultural and industrial revolutions. If from 1700 to 1760 Parliament adopted 208 acts, then from 1760 to 1801 such acts have been adopted in 2000, which led to an almost complete dispossession of the English peasantry. Villages emptied. Weights beggars filled roads and towns.
Sentimentalism was the world in response to the reorganization of the bourgeois social system. England in the XVIII century was the only country in which this conversion took place with all the intensity, the first led to the destruction of the fantastic countryside. Therefore sentimentalism carried trends and was full of sorrow for the lost idyll of village life and the beauties of nature.
Writers, poets, always ready to respond to the people's suffering word of sympathy, could not respond and now that their eyes brought these calamities of ordinary workers. They responded phenomenon sentimentalism, which incorporates all the advantages of their hearts and all the weaknesses of their political and philosophical thought.
They began to glorify the old days, the charm of the patriarchal village, draw idyllic pictures of peaceful nature, the silence that destroys progress.
We do not find in Sterne excited and pathetic descriptions of nature , like Rousseau , but admiration village life felt in his book " Nature pours his wealth into the hem of each ", " Music beats clock work, and all his children with glee collect bunches " " Peace be with you , noble shepherd ! ... happy your hut - and happy one who shares it with you - and happy lambs frolicking around you." This is not only a delight, but also ironic. For Stern sensitivity above all, he called it "a great sensorium world" and in fact pointed out humanity to the country where she can escape from all the social ills that are not able to get rid of any other way of forgetting the country, where rich and poor find solace by drinking the nectar of divine feelings. "Dear sensibility! Inexhaustible source of all precious in our joys and all the sublime in our sorrows! You're chained to his martyr straw box - and you lift him to heaven - the eternal spring of our senses! - I am now going in the footsteps of your - and you have what "god" that moves me.". First in the history of sentimentalism was Richardson, but after the publication of the novel L. Stern "Sentimental Journey" in the name of a literary movement emerged - sentimentalism. Stern went in the footsteps of many writers and poets: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Schiller, Goethe, and Diderot.
2. The main concept of sentimentalism in the novel "Sentimental Journeys"
2.1 The image peculiarities of man in the novel
Central protagonist of "Sentimental Journey" - Pastor Yorick. Name Yorick Stern borrowed from Shakespeare's tragedy "Hamlet." It is symbolic in itself. It combines extreme poles: buffoonery and a reminder of death. But the name still reminds Yorick and Yorkshire. This is a caricature of the character of its own and unique self-parody. Yorick - the village priest, to which constantly seek help. And he does not deny anyone.
In "Sentimental Journey" (1768), this image is changing dramatically and becomes extraordinary complexity and contradictions. Here the story is told in the first person. Narrator speaks Pastor Yorick. It consistently held the main principles of aesthetics writer deepens view of the world that gets reflected in the first novel.
No wonder Stern makes his hero Pastor Yorick. Sensitive man, tractable impressions, it becomes the seat of the most contradictory feelings, thoughts and feelings. Stern shows the tiniest nuances of their experiences, their modulations and modifications, sudden mood swings. It shows how a particular situation arises in the soul Yorick struggle between stinginess and generosity, nobility and baseness, courage and cowardice. And noble sentiments do not always prevail in this fight.11
Stern builds character protagonist in accordance with the theories of Hume and Smith, in which the main ethical category is sympathy for his neighbor. But at the same theory he finds Hume and the rejection of its peremptory. Skepticism perceived philosopher and his followers. Stern doubts in the eternal virtues of man and his quest for the charity. He knows all too well how many other hidden feelings of human nature. This causes destruction of sentimental canon.
Yorick - typical sentimental hero and at the same time it did not. His feelings are always mild and painted irony in relation to reality, to others, to himself. Sensitivity Yorick has a subtle shade of skepticism.
He is impulsive and often begins to act on a sudden impulse of the soul. But to each such exposure feelings he mingled certain amount of selfishness. And he immediately pulls himself sharply.12
Committing an evil action, he often tries to justify it by resorting to the rationalistic arguments.
But they quickly crumble under the pressure of the senses. However, his feelings are themselves uncertain. So, Yorick mind understands that he must be merciful and noble, but sometimes it is the nobility is purely cerebral character. He starts acting under duress because morally "as needed." And only when it wins sincerity, empathy, compassion, character Stern transformed.
These are the episodes of the first chapters of the book relating to the history of the monk from Calais. Yorick wants to give him alms, but avarice Beach top. The second meeting with the monk happens when Yorick is pretty ladies in society. The writer shows the complex world of passions that beset hero. He fears that the monk complains stranger, and simultaneously adjusts itself to the traditional for the British distrust of the Catholic Church. Here are detected and cowardice and hypocrisy, and hypocrisy. Finally, Yorick takes monk alms, explaining that there is an exchange of gifts. Miser defeated, and yet this victory is accompanied by the most contradictory feelings.13
Often he analyzes his actions and feelings accompanying them. It is noteworthy that such an analysis is never rationalistic. Rather, it is a tender sensitivity alloy, narcissism and a sly mockery. And all this is colored humor with which the author comments described. Before the reader opens the human soul is in the process of lived experiences and what he saw. Such a description of the "inside" appears in the English prose of the XVIII century.14
However, the hero often judges themselves superficially. More precisely, Yorick does not always want to judge them as "conscience." After all, his actions are contrary to the ideal which he alleges. So, his puffy chastity constantly comes into conflict with the temptations encountered him on the road. And in fear of the Bastille he is willing to stoop to flattery noble lords. Yorick himself sometimes feels these contradictions. "I would not like - recognized sentimental hero - if my foe looked into my soul when I'm going to ask someone patronage "... " How low vile treatment plans piled on the road my servile heart! I deserve the Bastille for each of them! "
Superficiality introspection at Yorick explained not only by the fact that the hero lies to himself, trying to sound better than it is. Stern sometimes deliberately not fully investigates the causes of behavior, allowing the reader to solve this or that complex psychological problem.15
So, in the book there is a kind of subtext. What motivates Yorick when he throws angry diatribes about freedom in the form of the caged starling?
The author does not give an answer to such questions, and the reader is not always able to answer them. The answer may be twofold. And this ambiguity lays in the decision in advance the nature of the hero. It does not exist extremes - good and evil. But the truth is he too is relative. Stern forever waives approval educators that people - being wise to solve their problems.
Yorick sees the contradictions of human nature as something inevitable and unchangeable. Seeing the limitations of human capabilities and even more limited ability of human cognition, it can only laugh bitterly these contradictions, but do not try to fix anything. Unnecessary and unproductive and he believes satirical ridicule reality. Hence there is acceptance of good and evil, immorality demonstrative.
It becomes the protagonist Yorick pastor whose behalf and wrote a book. The narrative is in the first person in the memoir form with a complex relationship between the author's position and that of the heroes. About memoir and not a diary form shows a fairly large gap between the time of action and time to describe them. So , when meeting with the monk Yorick immediately mentions his subsequent death , and more about his present attitude to information received from it snuffbox : " ... I keep this snuffbox par with cult objects of my religion that it contributes to the elevation of my thoughts. .. "16
However, this actually does not belong to the genre of autobiography, nor to the usual memoir nor travel notes. It can be called ironic spying for him.
Yorick is spying forbidden in all sorts of things that are not going to commit them. Stern sex scenes themselves are a variant indiscreet peeping through a crack. Yorick is all playing in immodesty, retreating into the most exciting moment. Subject deviations manifested not only in the external formal deviations from the plot, deliberately retarding effect, but also in constant hero. Yorick, making unusually bold move immediately if backtracking. And it's not only in the gaming moment joke, deliberately fooling the reader unexpected trick consisting in the absence of the expected, in a vacuum, white sheets of paper, the plot constantly palmed off Stern instead of a planned and regular development activities - Stern turns on its head the very pattern of life and plot structure, switching attention to meaningless trivia, minor details.17
On the significance of time M.Sokolyansky says, noting that " in the spatio-temporal organization of the work dominates time, open time, it is far more important than the space being opened Yorick"
Stern is not violating the order itself the passage of time and temporal processes, creating an intricate tangle of times - in the "Sentimental Journey", leaving the passage of time apparently linear, it violates its scale, continuity and regularity. Time Sentimental Journey moves uneven, irregular, often it does not move, which is manifested in the imaginary change of the same titles of chapters, like stuck in a time warp. Erotic scenes themselves embody break time coinciding with the end of chapters. Between stages Yorick shoes maid in "The Temptation. Paris " and innocent parting with her ??to her room at the beginning of the next chapter "Victory" hidden break time, a piece in which the scene is expected could happen , so that the message is likely to be about Yorick won by victory and his decorous satisfaction from the mere awareness of it may entail not only the original game with the reader and his frustration, but also hint at the time gap occurred , of which the hero does not consider it necessary to narrate.
" .. Then I lifted her other leg, to see if everything is okay in there - but did it too suddenly - pretty fille de chambre could not keep his balance"
Anticipating the next delights Stern in his novels started a fight with a great time.
The result of this fight is the allegory of his chosen name Yorick as the title character and his journey (from death) to nowhere, and the fluidity of his movements of the soul , which he tries to stop making available analysis, dismemberment , fixing as the sum of constant mini gust ; fiasco that he suffers in this , is the semantic core of the novel.
The protagonist of the novel is an author. His image is complex and dynamic. Identity of the author defines the tone of the narrative. The author not only mocks the characters of his novel, he speaks with "astute " readers and laughs at them . Subjectively lyrical work in Stern plays an important role; so it will be later and the Romantics.18
The novel is not completed. Italian episodes Stern had no time to write.
Novel "Sentimental Journey" continues the main line of creative research Stern. Already in the title of his artistic program formulated writer. Travel by Pastor Yorick Frantsii1 - a journey "sentimental ", and therefore it would be vain to seek in his description of the exact facts or specific events. Stern transmits the movement of psychic life of his hero - receptive and sensitive nature.
"Oh, honey sensitivity! - Exclaims Stern. - An inexhaustible source of all precious in our joys and all the sublime in our sorrows! "Main area of interest Stern novelist - the image of the world of the senses. Paramount importance is how Yorick sees what he saw, what he creates associations or that meeting or that experience.19
Image Pastor Yorick, who went from the novel " Tristram Shandy ", becomes " Sentimental Journey " basic merging with the image of the author. Yorick's name appears in the works of Stern is not accidental, it has a certain literary tradition: the name of the deceased jester from Shakespeare's "Hamlet." Yorick has the gift of biting ridicule, and yet he - jester entertains people. Natura Yorick contradictory feelings they experienced varied. Stern traces the pride reacted with caution, as hypocrisy covers greed, curiosity wins over prudence and selfishness prevails over everything else. Any sense originated and developed in the shower Yorick for Stern significantly. At the same time, this approach entails manifested in the novel truly desires to bring down big and important to the level of a minor. Subjectivism becomes the main principle in the approach to the phenomena.20
2.2 The psychological aspect of the image of the hero
Researchers repeatedly emphasized dynamics mutual transitions "high" and "low" consciousness of the hero, his sarcastic, sober and keen introspection, sometimes bordering on self-flagellation and painful reflection. Thus, A. Elistratova notes: "Mysteries" occupying Stern - artist - is primarily a mystery person's spiritual life , riddles conflicting mutual transitions from one mood to another , the intention to act opposite him . Stern psychological analysis to some extent anticipates the attainment of the "dialectic of the soul." Pushed to the forefront of the narrative sentimental attitude toward life. Yorick, in the preface listing the different types of travelers, classify themselves as sentimental travelers. He really cares only their feelings, whether caused by reasons.21
One of the prevailing characterizations image Yorick becomes sensitivity. In "Sentimental Journey" generosity and goodness hero often act perspective posturing , posture " crafty rascal ", and the Yorick sometimes pathetically plays a social role philanthropist .
Stressing the inconsistency of human nature, Stern makes his hero carrier simultaneously extreme sensitivity, emotional subtlety and selfishness. Yorick often sheds tears and proud of it: "I'm as weak as a woman, and I ask readers not to smile and feel sorry for me! Oh, honey sensitivity!"22
Emotion is always a hero and painted mild irony in relation to reality, to others, to you. Sensitivity Yorick has a subtle shade of skepticism...
"It is remarkable that such an analysis is never a rationalist. It is rather a fusion of a tender sensitivity, narcissism and a sly mockery. And all this is colored humor with which the author comments described ... This description from the "inside" appears in English prose XVIII century. Firs ... ".
Doing the basis of his narrative image slightest shades experiences of the hero , their modulations and modifications , changes of mood and combat contradictory feelings , thoughts and feelings , Stern deliberately bring the image to the absurd , self-parody . This is especially noticeable in the scene description Yorick meeting with a girl gone mad with love: "I sat down beside her , and Maria let me wipe my tears with a handkerchief when they fell - then I moistened his own tears , then tears of Mary - then his - then again wiped her tears them - and when I did , I felt a indescribable excitement that can not be explained by any combinations of matter and motion ."23
Stern tries to sympathize with the hero: "Indeed, it was impossible to say much in his favor - but something still could ; and when quite a few words to help the unfortunate out of trouble , I hate the person who they stingy . "
"Soul "sentimental traveler " - writes A.Elistratova , open not only sublime , but the most frivolous and impressions ; tears and sighs ... interspersed with frivolous anecdotes , and sometimes even such gestures and actions, which the author prefers to designate only a hint , giving the reader the rest of shrewdness ."24
And Mr. Yakovlev clarifies that " ambiguous portrait of the hero, but psychologically accurate. Yorick sees the contradictions of human nature as something inevitable and unchangeable. Seeing the limitations of human capabilities and even more limited ability of human cognition, it can only laugh bitterly these contradictions, but do not try to fix anything. Unnecessary and unproductive and he believes satirical ridicule reality. Hence there is acceptance of good and evil. "25
Yorick 's novel " Sentimental Journey " is trying to uncover the mysteries of mental life and classify themselves as "sensitive travelers ." This is typical of the sentimental hero. Introspection in Yorick is always mixed with mockery of them, and the hero's feelings are always colored irony in relation to reality, to others, and to themselves. This story appears in the literature of the XVIII century for the first time.
"Sentimental Journey" L. Stern Review on the content side refers to the psychological novel of sentimentalism. Form he gives to his work is a form of free-flowing literary process unrelated story, rules of the organization structure of space-time and other canons, however, this form is a fiction. Organization of narrative structure and composition work Stern subordinated own strict logic caused internal task: to bring the image of the narrator is subjective.
In his novel Stern attaches particular importance to the theme of "skate" , arguing that only eccentricities fully human will : "When a man gives himself the power of the ruling passion of him - or , in other words , when his horse chews the bit - Farewell then a sober mind and discretion ! ". Stern sure that not being able to see the human propensity , his " skate " , it is impossible to understand and to draw his character traits.
The main goal of the product - the destruction of the existing canons according to the personal strict logic that prints the image is subjective narrator. "Sentimental Journey" can be called conditional backdrop of moral experience: the diagnosis of the human "I" and the range of its sentimental. Selecting the facial features of the protagonist is getting into the "top ten": a pastor is called to lead a pious and serious lifestyle; but the character of the jester - is it possible to apply the irony and expose thin seams hidden human flaws.
Destroying literature canons of classical type, Stern draws man with all its contradictions and weaknesses. Such a person appears for the first time in the world literature. Loosening the literary form he prepared platform for a new literary trend - "stream of consciousness ".
Stern - the man who was trying to understand life and themselves in this life. At Stern opens roads in the literature, for which no one had gone a human leg ... Book Stern tries to talk about what we are afraid to say to others: it unravels nodes that have not yet been unraveled.
Thus, "Stern opened new perspectives narrative art; and many of the conclusions of the writer finds were made not only by his younger contemporaries, but much later - also romantics and realists later time. "
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