The development of profile education in Kazakhstan
Transfer to profile training of pupils of 11–12 classes of 12-year comprehensive school its a stage in implementation of differentiation of training. Approaches to organization of profile education and their characteristic, evaluation of effectiveness.
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Transfer to profile training of pupils of 11-12 classes of 12-year comprehensive school will become a new stage in implementation of differentiation of training. It is caused by a number of social and pedagogical factors: strengthening of requirements of the state and society to formation in system of continuous education of socially active, professionally competent and mobile personality capable to successful work in the chosen sphere; needs of seniors for satisfaction of various educational inquiries taking into account their interests, tendencies and professional intentions, but without educational overloads; the increasing requirements of higher educational institutions to the level of training of graduates of educational institutions; need of ensuring continuity for the contents, forms, methods and tutorials for comprehensive school and establishments of professional education.
Today the higher education of Kazakhstan carries out one of the main priorities determined by the President N.A. Nazarbayev in Strategy of development of the country «Kazakhstan - 2030». It has to provide a survival of Kazakhstan through the culture-forming, integrating mission, through quality, globalization and a humanization of knowledge .
According to the project of the state compulsory standard of 12 years' education training in high school will be based on the principle of profile preparation. This principle will allow to build an individual trajectory for each student. By 2015 methodological and technological support of individual educational trajectories will allow to develop programs with bases of professional education and use of information technologies. Profile preparation will allow to provide necessary unloading for self-education and additional education at the senior level of school. The new model of school education will proceed from competence-based approach where focus on practical skills and abilities of use of knowledge in own projects is applied. Profile education is directed on realization of the personal focused educational process. Thus possibilities of forming by the pupil of an individual educational trajectory significantly extend.
It is obvious that any form of profile training conducts to reduction of an invariant component. Unlike habitual models of schools with profound studying of separate subjects when one or two subjects are studied according to profound programs, and the others - at a basic level, realization of profile training is possible only on condition of relative reduction of a training material of the non-core subjects studied for the purpose of completion of basic general education training of pupils .
The theme of our course paper sounds as following: «The development of profile education in Kazakhstan»
The aim of this work: to reveal the features of profile education in the 12-year school.
Objectives of our work:
- To define basic principles of profile education
- To consider approaches to organization of profile education and their characteristic
- To define structure of the content of profile education
- To define preprofile preparation in profile education
The object of our work is the development of profile education in Kazakhstan
The subject of our work is the basic principles and technology of profile education
The hypothesis of the work is as following: we suppose that the use of information and communication technologies in the organization of profile education in comprehensive school will be success
The theoretical value: our investigation of the development of profile education can be used in scientific work and diploma
The practical value: the use of the most appropriate technologies of profile education in practice
In our course paper we used such methods of investigation:
a) Descriptive method
b) Contrastive method
c) Analytical method
The structure of course paper: introduction, theoretical and practical parts, conclusion, bibliography.
The introduction includes topicality, aim, objectives, object and subject, hypotheses.
The theoretical part includes: the theory of basis of profile education and concept realization
The practical part includes: The method of project in training foreign language.
In conclusion we have given the result of our work
The bibliography consist of 18 sources which we used in our work
1. Theoretical basis of profile education
1.1 The basic principles of profile education
education profile training
The ideas of concept of profile education allow to postulate and formulate educational principles on which it is built training.
Profile education - means differentiation and individualization of training, allowing at the expense of changes in the structure, content and organization of the educational process more responsive to the interests and abilities of students. «Obviously the proclamation of principles of individualization and differentiation.
Individualization of learning involves the organization of educational process taking into account the individual characteristics of students, allows to create optimal conditions for the realization of potential opportunities of each student, which corresponds with the main idea of updating of high school consisting in the choice of every pupil's individual educational programs, to designing and realization of individualized forms training activity.
The individualization of profile training is directed on self-knowledge of school students, identification of their true motives of a choice of a profile training, real educational requirements and realization educational program of training according to interests, opportunities and abilities.
Under the differentiation of training is understood as a form of organization of educational activity, which takes into account inclinations, interests and abilities of pupils, but it does not reduce the general (basic) level of general education. Expected to create on the basis of certain characteristics (interests, aptitudes, abilities, achieved results) of a mobile or stable learning groups that can make the content of training and requirements to be met by students significantly different.
Differentiation of profile training aims to create choice opportunities for the realization of individual educational programs for satisfaction of interests, aptitudes and abilities of students taking into account their educational and corresponding to requirements for labor market in competent staff.
Advantages of profile differentiation:
· Development of democratic approach to a complete set of classes, at which interests and wishes of students are considered.
· Increase of interest in optimization of all educational process as
· teachers and administration, and parents and students.
· Creation of prerequisites for professional self-determination of students.
· Real growth of indicators of quality of process of training, especially on to profile disciplines.
The change of consciousness of teachers caused by need of team work and design of the various levels content.
There are two forms of differentiation:
· based on interests and abilities;
· on the basis of designing professions.
In the principles of an individualization and differentiation it is necessary to allocate the general and special (Figure 2). The general is the account individual tendencies, interests and abilities of students. Special are shown in realization of forms of education. The accounting of these two principles in education allows to pass to the personal focused system of training.
Principles of individualization and differentiation cannot be realized in the educational process without principles of variability and openness. The choice can be carried out by the students only in variable open environment.
Variability as the principle of profile training is characterized multi-levelness of curricula, educational programs, contents educations, use of various technologies, granting to the school student of a choice of freely studied disciplines, changes of kinds of activity, use of integrative approach in studying of obligatory subjects, active inclusion of the creative beginning in educational process.
The principle of openness is realized through ideas of integration and regional orientations of profile training: integration of profile training provides with society through educational tasks at each grade level different types of activity, social practices, social roles and promotes self-determination of seniors, acquisition by them certain social experience. At the same time regional orientation of profile training determines the specific regional features (ethnographic, historical, cultural, social, economic and others.) realized within the regional-national component of the curriculum with the aim of familiarizing students for the national values of the culture and transformation education in the real mechanism of social and cultural development of the various regions of the country in general.
1.2 The conceptual approaches to organization of profile education and their essential characteristics
According to SGES RK-2010 in a basis of the organization of process of training are put personal focused, activity, competency and health saving approaches.
Personal focused approach. The main strategic direction of the development of the education system is currently in addressing personal focused education, such education, in which personality of the student would be leading, because personality of student, his unique individuality constitute the main and priority values, from which all other units are projected educational process.
The personal focused education is especially actual for the new 12-year school, one of which task is preprofile preparation pupils of the main step and profile training at the senior step.
The modern interpretation of the personal focused education focuses attention to development of potential opportunities, to them free self-expression. «The personal focused education is not formation of the personality with the set properties, and creation of conditions for full manifestation and according to development of personal functions pupils» 
Personal focused education cannot be presented in usual traditional program and instructive form (i.e. discipline subjects and their contents), at the same time, it cannot be divorced from the procedural forms. Personal experience as a result of the development of personality features can acquired by students only in a basis the subject of the subject relations, educational life situations under construction, tasks collisions (a collision - clash of opposing views, aspirations, interests) that require:
• - comparisons of one value to other values;
• the dialogues assuming search of sense of the studied material;
• imitations of life situations, the role-playing games allowing to approve this value in operation and communication with other people, etc.
The main procedural characteristics of personal focused education are a learning situation - the leading component of teacher process that updates the personal features of students. Construction of such a situation may consist of three basic technologies: representation of the elements of educational content in the form of multi-level personal focused tasks, learning content in the conditions of dialogue, subjective providing communication, reflection, self-realization, imitation of social-role conditions for realization of personality functions in the conditions of internal conflict and competition.
So, one of the leading options of the personal focused educations it can be presented in the triad form: task-dialogue-game. It is obvious that also other procedural can be in practice developed options of the personal focused education, which, unlike traditional, «knowledge-orientation», characterized by the following regularities:
1. If the construction of the traditional teaching of the project activity is a fragment of the content of the training and the ways its assimilation (that know and be able, how to do it), at the personal focused education becomes a subject of design not fragment of the studied material, and the event in life of the personality giving it complete life experience, in which knowledge - part it.
2. Designing of training becomes a joint activity of the teacher and student. The dialogue here acts not as planned in the training lesson situation, as a way to vital activity of subjects in education (the teacher-student, the teacher - students).
3. The basic side between substantial and procedural is erased aspects of training: process (dialogue, search, game) becomes a source of personal experience.
4. Education loses the traditional features of artificiality for it, and external regulation also comes nearer to the vital activity of the natural learner.
5. Accordingly, the interaction of participants in training activities loses its formality and functionalism and acquires features of interpersonal, intersubjective communication. In this case the teacher acts not as a functionary, not even as an organizer and as the personality, as his personal inner peace, professionalism becomes a part of content of education.
Thus, transition to the personal focused education it is connected with the solution of the synthesis knowledge-standardized and personal-variable education components, combination of the contents and pedagogical technologies. The basis of this synthesis must be equal partners - participants of the pedagogical process, students and teachers.
The activity approach. The theoretical basis of the activity approach is the idea of subjectivity in education, grounded by V.I Slobodchikova and etc. Subjectivity is understood as the social activity reformative way of life of the person. To become the subject of a specific activities, means to master this activity, possess it, to be able to her implementation and creative transformation. Man as a subject capable of transform their own livelihoods in the subject of practical transformation, treat yourself, to evaluate ways of working, monitor its progress and results, change its methods.
The essence of the idea of subjectivity in the process of teaching is that student as the subject of activity is developing in various kinds educational activities based on free choice, and cooperation creativity.
The concept of profile education proclaims refusal from such the organizations of training at which educational activity is reduced to process assimilation of disciplinary knowledge. Refusal of interpretation is necessary, thus, educations as the process which is reduced only to consumption and assignment knowledge. The doctrine in this area needs to be understood as activity not so much reproductive, how many productive, creative, during which not only knowledge and ways of their receiving are acquired, but also installation on creation becomes new knowledge, new socially significant experience.
The idea of profile education provides the organization of the various types of educational activity, namely educational, design, educational research, different types of social practice.
It is essential that all competence demand various types of action:
• Act autonomously and reflectively;
• Use a variety of interactive tools;
• To enter into social and heterogeneous groups and to function in them.
• The student, seizing any way of activity, gets experience integration of various results of education (knowledge, abilities, skills, values, etc.) and setting (or assignments) purposes.
Therefore, there is an understanding of process of management of the activity. Set the mastered ways of activity has to be socially demanded and to allow the pupil to appear to adequate typical situations. Such set is a subject of inquiry of employers (and other customers) and can to be corrected in connection with change of a social and economic situation.
Thus, the activity approach focuses not only on assimilation of knowledge, but also the ways of thinking and action on development cognitive powers and creativity of the child.
Competency-based approach. The basic purpose of competence education is a assimilation personality of 12 years of graduate school of social experience: contents of training it is directed not only on formation of «Knowledge Skill Skills», but also development functional literacy and finally - competence of students.
In SGES RK-2010 competence is defined as a student's readiness «Effectively mobilize internal and external resources to achieve the goal; readiness to successful activity in order to meet individual and social needs, constitute the social order to the education system.»
Such result forms the basis of formation of competence of the personality educations as the key competences which are expressed in mastering pupils certain set (menu) of ways of activity.
Competence are key if mastering by them allows to solve various problems every day, professional or social life.
Keywords competences have the following characteristic signs.
1. Key competences are multifunctional. They need to be seized for achievement of various purposes and the solution of various tasks in the various situations.
2. Key competences over subject and interdisciplinary, they applicable in various situations, not only in school, but also at work, at home, in the political sphere, and others.
3. Key competences require significant intellectual development: abstract thinking, self-reflection, determining its own position, self-esteem, critical thinking, and others.
4. Key competences are multidimensional, that is include various mental processes and intellectual skills (analytical, critical, communicative etc.), «know-how» as well as common sense.
It is also necessary to emphasize that key competence as integrative qualities of the personality are characterized:
· motivational aspect (desire, aspiration, readiness for its manifestation);
· cognitive aspect (possession of knowledge of the maintenance of competence);
· behavioral, procedural aspect (experience of manifestation of competence, possession of ways of activity);
· valuable and semantic aspect (relation to the maintenance of competence and to object of its appendix);
· emotional and strong-willed regulation of process and result of manifestation competence.
The offered approach to definition of key competences corresponds to experience of those countries in which in the last decades had occurred reorientation of the content of education to development of key competences (and it - practically all developed countries). At the same time this approach corresponds also to new values of the Kazakhstan education - orientation on understanding of a scientific picture of the world, on spirituality, on social activity.
Health saving approach provides the solution of problems of strengthening health of the students as personal and national value, formation healthy lifestyle.
Corresponds to the content and volume of training material, methods and forms educational cognitive activity age and individual to opportunities and abilities of pupils, the process valeologization allows training, keeping thus their intellectual and physical working capacity, forming valeological culture, promoting realization is more whole than training, development and education of the healthy personality.
Essence of the valeological ensuring education such subject consists in need of creation the information-educational environment, within which representation student of a freedom of choice of means of satisfaction of the basic requirements has to provide their self-development in initial classes, self-knowledge in to the main school, self-improvement and self-determination in the senior classes.
The main in solving the problems of valeologization of the educational process are the creation of an appropriate subject-developing environment and implementation of psycho-valeological accompaniment, as environment should is an adaptive and rehabilitation space for each learner.
The traditional pedagogies recognized only social essence the person from which followed that as the purpose of education formation acts socially significant qualities, developments of the person as member of society.
The valeological content of education is directed on the complete development of the person, namely it:
· natural abilities (health, abilities to think, feel, to work);
· social properties (to be the citizen, the family man, the toiler);
· properties of the subject of culture (freedom, humanity, spirituality and creativity).
Thus the development of the spiritual and the social, cultural and began carried out in the context of education, having a universal human national values.
One of the main means of development of a healthy personality and formation its basic culture serves the content of education.
The transition from a knowledge-oriented to personal focused and valeological education in the selection of educational content suggests adopted as the basis of such principles as the humanization and fundamentalization.
Humanization of education is associated primarily with the creation of conditions for active creative and practical development of pupils.
Now the possibility of increasing the volume and timing of training educational material are practically exhausted. Fundamentalization of content education requires the integration of human and natural knowledge, establishing of continuity and interdisciplinary connections that causes intensification and hence valeologization learning process, as students are exempt from the overloads of the educational information and receive opportunity for creative self-development.
The contents is most optimum realized through the technological aspects of an individualization and valeologization of training. Technology training process valeologization - such organization of educational process, at which the individual approach and individual form of education are priority for preservation of health. Valeologization and valeological approach as the principle is carried out in process in process training to some extent in all existing technologies, therefore the valeologization can be considered as «the getting technology» also.
In teaching and educational process, conditions are created for the individually harmonious development of students. For successful implementation of personal self-learners serves as a differentiated approach to learning, based on the principles of health-pedagogy, as a system of measures aimed at identifying, recording and development of typical individual abilities of students, including health.
One of the leading places in the problem of valeologization and individualization training takes diagnosing educational and psycho physiological opportunities for students. The main goal of the psycho physiological diagnostics students is an understanding of learning of individuals, their individual qualities and the formation of their stable motivation for learning.
Real planning taking into account individual qualities of the child, allows it is better to comprehend all process, to present it as in general, and separate stages, elements, procedures, deeply to penetrate in particular training each individual and effectively to predict each action of participants educational process.
Thus, if earlier the essence of work of the teacher consisted in broadcasts of knowledge and ways of knowledge, at modern school it is important to carry out function of design of the course individual and intellectual development of the student with preservation of its health. Into the forefront there are such forms of activity of the teacher as development individual strategy of training, educational and pedagogical and valeological diagnostics, individual consultation.
A very important characteristic of healthy content is the use of interactive teaching methods, the advantage of which consists in the fact that they allow for the particular education and processing new information specific to the different psychological types of students, representing thus an opportunity for each child to express themselves with best side.
1.3 Structure of the content of profile education
The content of profile training is realized within three directions of a profiling: naturally-mathematical, socially - humanitarian and technological.
The content of formation of the declared directions of profile training is defined with two positions.
First, by definition of profile training, the structure and structure of the content of education are directed on creation of pedagogical conditions for the accounting of individual interests and abilities of pupils of 11-12 classes.
Secondly, when determining the content of education within the directions possibilities of reduction of quantity of the obligatory subjects providing completion of basic general education training of pupils, optimization of number of educational and methodical providing subjects of the basic contents, the level of variable education which developed in the republic, etc. were considered.
The flexibility of the system of profile education is provided by the following subjects (courses): basic objects (invariant component), majors and compulsory elective subjects (variable components) Interest rates (student component).
Basic general education subjects are mandatory irrespective of the direction of education (science and math, social, humanitarian, technological). The list of basic general education courses invariant components include: native language, Kazakh language (in schools with non-Kazakh language learning) / Russian language (in schools with non-Russian language of instruction), foreign language, mathematics, Kazakhstan in the modern world, man and society, self-knowledge, natural science, physical education, Basic military training / Safety Basics life, information technology and systems.
The system of basic general education subjects recreates functional completeness of the maintenance of secondary education.
In general obligatory subjects as a uniform basis of the basic contents, define interests of the state, attach staffing of implementation of the content of profile training in the senior classes:
· - possibility of realization of idea of variability of education at the level of models of educational institutions, contents of education, training processes;
· - existence of the social and economic difficulties causing insufficient completeness of performance of all conditions of the organization of profile training including in small schools;
· - insufficiency of system preprofile training of pupils at the level of the main secondary education;
- development of social practice, the statement of new values in society, it is important to point to a number of problems which negative consequences need to be considered when designing model of profile education in the conditions of 12 years' education: of students to common cultural and national values.
Within this or that direction of profile education the educational institution will organize this or that profile of training. The maintenance of a profile of education is provided at the expense of specialist subjects, obligatory subjects of a choice of a school component and partially - at the expense of courses on interests of a student's component of the curriculum of the general secondary education. At the expense of a combination of specialist and obligatory subjects and courses on interests broad profile education can be organized».
Profile subjects define the direction of profile education of seniors. The naturally-mathematical direction is provided with the following structure of subjects: physics, chemistry, biology, geography, informatics. The socially - humanitarian direction of training includes literature, world art culture, social science, bases of the state and the right, rhetoric. The technological direction of profile training defines the following structure of subjects: physics, chemistry, biology, technology, graphics and design. Obligatory subjects of a choice enter a variable school component of the content of education. Obligatory subjects of a choice enrich general education preparation, thereby providing the expansions function of the content of education.
The student has an opportunity to choose two subjects from the list of specialist subjects of other direction of profile training offered by school. The structure basic, main and obligatory at the choice of general education subjects provides the level of the state obligatory standard of the general secondary education.
Courses on interests are realized at the expense of a student's component of the curriculum. Courses on interests allow to provide or applied character of specialist general education subjects, or satisfaction of individual interests of pupils beyond the scope of the chosen profile. The maintenance of courses is determined by interests within the existing training programs approved by authorized body of education or the author's programs considering possibilities of educational institution.
1.4 Forms of the organization of profile training
Objectives of profile education in grades 11-12 and the structure of the organization areas of study suggest the variety of forms of organization. The reason for the choice of the forms of profile training considered providing schools with educational resources. Profile training organized intra or - network form of training.
Intra-school form of organization of profile education. General educational institutions, depending on the educational needs of the students, staffing and teaching potential itself is determined by the direction of the profile with organized learning.
At a training monoprofiling (from Greek monos - one, only) the educational institution realizes one direction of profile training (natural and mathematical or public and humanitarian or technological).
At a training polyprofiling (from Greek polys - much, numerous, extensive) the educational institution realizes 2 - 3 directions of profile training (natural and mathematical and/or public and humanitarian and/or technological).
The network form of organization of profile education realization of the purposes and problems of profile training is carried out due to attraction of educational resources of other organizations of education by educational institution. Two main options of such educational cooperation are considered.
In the first option some general educational institutions unite in a network which center is an educational institution which is most provided with an educational and methodical, personnel and material resource. Educational institutions are defined in the mechanism and the list of the content of the education realized on a network: basic general education subjects, specialist general education subjects or obligatory subjects of a choice, elective courses.
In the second option the educational institution attracts additional educational resources of the organizations of additional, technical and professional, higher education. The pupil has opportunity to get the general secondary education within state standard of education not only in the «main» educational institution, but also in other organizations entering a network through remote courses, correspondence schools.
1.5 Preprofile preparation in system of profile education
To realize the goals and objectives of profile education in grades 11-12 provides for the establishment of purposeful pedagogical work on preparing students grades 9-10 to select the direction of high school, or other ways of continuing education
The system of preprofile preparation promotes self-determination of pupils of 9-10 classes in a choice of a way of continuation of education at the level of secondary education: or at 11-12 classes of general education educational institution, or in the organizations of technical and professional education.
Preprofile preparation objectives:
1. To develop a broad range of cognitive and professional interests of students, contributing to informed choices in determining the future professional activity
2. To give psychology and pedagogical help to pupils in acquisition of ideas of the vital, social values including connected with professional self-determination.
3. To develop abilities at pupils to make the conscious decision on a choice of the further direction of education, a way of receiving a profession.
The structure of preprofile preparation includes a number of the directions of pedagogical activity: information, diagnostics, consultation, selection. Achievement of the objectives and problems of preprofile preparation is provided with possibility of creation of an educational network which will include the most different types of the educational organizations possessing necessary resources: schools, organizations of additional education, technical and professional education, higher education institutions.
Preprofile preparation is realized at 9-10 classes through the maintenance of elective courses of a variable component and the individual occupations determined by a student's component of the curriculum with a total amount of 4 hours a week. Besides, preprofile preparation is realized and by means of the maintenance of general education subjects of an invariant component.
Preprofile preparation involves the creation of a portfolio as a form of accumulation of educational achievement (personal «portfolio of educational achievements») primary school students in time limit and in extracurricular activities.
The portfolio shows a variety and persuasiveness of materials, quality of the presented works, focus on the chosen training profile; gives an idea of dynamics of educational and creative activity, an orientation of interests, nature of preprofile training of students.
1.6 The terms of concept realization of the developing of profile education in Kazakhstan
This Concept is developed according to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About education»; «The strategic development plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2010», the State program of a development of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2010, the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «Kazakhstan on the way of the accelerated economic, social and political modernization», Meeting of Ministers of Education of the European countries in Bologna, recommendations of UNESCO about continuous education.
During an era of the highest dynamism, globalization, intensive development of means of communication which change a way of life, communication and thinking, and also methods of achievement of welfare, intelligence of the person, his ability to reformative, creative activity become fixed capital of society.
In these conditions of one of actual problems of the Kazakhstan society formation of the competitive personality ready is not only to live in the changing social and economic conditions, but also actively to influence the existing reality, changing it to the best. In this regard to the forefront there are certain requirements to such personality - creativity, activity, social responsibility, possession of the developed intelligence, high level of professional literacy, steady motivation of cognitive activity.
Realization of the main ideas of the Concept of development of profile education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is possible at creation of necessary conditions, including:
· - developments of new funding mechanisms for system of profile training
· - updatings of standards of the higher and postgraduate professional education on preparation for pedagogical activity in the conditions of preprofile preparation and profile training of level of secondary education;
· - developments of scientific and methodical ensuring educational process of profile training;
· - development of the Plan of measures of MES RK on the organization of profile training in model of 12 years' education and to its introduction;
· - training of heads, experts regional, Astana, Almaty, city, regional departments of education, institutes of professional development and retraining of pedagogical shots to understanding of the purpose and contents of the Concept;
So, we considered the basic principles of profile education that the idea of concept of profile education allows to postulate and formulate education principles on which it is built. The personal focused, activity, competency based and health saving approaches help students to apply the formulated approaches and performance of a creative task and tasks for the independent works. The content of profile training is realized within three directions of a profiling: naturally-mathematical, socially - humanitarian and technological. There are two forms of profile training: intra and network forms. Preprofile preparation is considered as system of psycho-educational, informational and organizational activities of the teaching staff.
2. Technology of profile education
2.1 General characteristics of profile education technologies
The concept of profile education is connected with system changes in educational process. It is quite obvious that transition to profile school is innovative process and it can be considered as large-scale innovation which involves system changes in the purposes and tasks, in the content of education, in the organization of training, in system estimations, and also in nature of the used technologies of the educational process.
The basis of the organization of profile education laid down ideas of personal focused approach. personal focused training provides inherently differentiated approach to learning with the accounting of level of intellectual development of the school student, his preparation on to this subject, its abilities and inclinations. For realization of this approach it is important to decide, first of all, on priorities in the field of the pedagogical technologies.
Among the various trends in the field of pedagogical innovation, traditionally used in the secondary education system, the most appropriate to the goals are:
• «Cooperative learning
• The method of the projects;
• Multilevel training.
These technologies are provide the basis of their individual and differentiated approach to the training and education of students. The ideology of these technology involves the extensive use of research, problem methods, the use of the knowledge acquired in the work on the project in a joint or individual activity, the development of not only self-critical thinking, but also the culture of communication, the ability to perform a variety of social roles in joint activities. The latter fact is important for achieving success in life and the ability to get out of sometimes difficult situations.
However, despite popularity and relative prevalence, use of these technologies at traditional school does not have the mass character, is most often limited individual or after-hour activity. In the conditions of cool and fixed system, domination authoritative style in pedagogic to realize these ideas of these technologies in relation to it is absolutely impossible for each student.
The last circumstance does not mean the desire for revolutionary transformations in pedagogy. We can talk only about the evolutionary process that takes into account the needs of today, about changing priorities ready assimilation of knowledge in the classroom for independent active cognitive activity of each student taking into account its features and opportunities, activities which not always is keeping within system of a lesson.
Revision of positions, change of priorities in approaches and the organization educational process need, first of all, creation of the special conditions, and also the innovations providing achievement of the purpose of an average educations in general and profile in particular.
Creation of necessary conditions which guarantors are norms of SGES RK-2010, and also innovations regarding technological support profile training are carried out in the directions:
Indeed, according to SGES RK-2010 on the educational process senior stage, unlike the primary and secondary, has features:
• - The process based on the depth profile differentiation, including through individual educational programs;
§ The balance of the reproductive and productive activity of students is 50%: 50%.
As for the university education technologies, in accordance with the SGES RK 2010 at the senior level at the senior level use of such technologies, as is supposed:
• credit technology;
• remote technologies of training.
Thus, from the point of view of innovation degree, presented the technology can conditionally divide into the following two groups.
All listed technologies are urged to provide realization of personality - oriented, activity, competence-based and health saving approaches in educational process of the senior step of the general secondary education.
2.2 Method of projects in training in foreign languages
The method of projects arose in the 1920th years in the USA. It drew attention of the Soviet teachers innovators at the beginning of the XX-th century, and in 1931 was forbidden because of insufficient reasonableness. And at foreign school I continued to develop actively.
The method of projects is a way of achievement of the didactic purpose through detailed development of a problem which has to come to the end with quite real, tangible practical the method of projects is always focused by the result issued in one way or another on independent activity by the pupil: individual, pair, group which they carry out during a certain interval of time. Ability to use method of projects testifies to high qualification of the teacher. The method of projects can be individual and group, but if it is a method, it assumes «a certain set of educational and informative receptions which allow to solve this or that problem as a result of independent actions of students with obligatory presentation of these results».
This technology includes set of research, search, problem methods, creative in essence. The method of projects can be used at lessons of a foreign language within program material practically on any subject. The main thing it to formulate a problem on which students will work in the course of work on a topic of the lesson.
The list of the main requirements to use of a method of projects:
• existence of the significant problem in the research, creative plan demanding research search for its decision;
• practical, theoretical, informative importance of estimated results;
• independent (individual, pair, group) activity of pupils at a lesson;
• structuring substantial part of the project (with the indication of stage-by-stage results and cast);
• use of research methods: definition of a problem, research problems; promotion of a hypothesis of their decision, discussion of methods of research; registration of the end results; the analysis of the obtained data, summing up, adjustment, conclusions.
Technique of work on the project
1. To choose a project subject, type, number of participants.
2. The teacher thinks over possible options of problems which are important for investigating within the planned subject.
3. To distribute tasks of small groups, to discuss possible methods of research, information search, creative decisions.
4. Independent work of participants of the project on the individual, group tasks begins.
5. Intermediate discussions of tasks are constantly carried out.
6. Protection of the project, opposition.
7. Collective discussion, examination, assessment, conclusions.
At protection of the project it is necessary to consider the following items:
• quality of the provided material, composition;
• depth of penetration into a problem;
• attraction of knowledge from other areas;
• intersubject communications;
• activity of each participant of the project;
• collective character of the made decisions;
• nature of communication and mutual aid in group;
• ability to reason, draw conclusions;
• standard of speech;
• use of evident means;
• esthetics of registration of results of the project;
• ability to answer questions of opponents.
· Practical - to stimulate interest of pupils in this subject, intensifying use of the studied lexical material, and through the design activity providing the decision concretely an objective to show practical application of the gained knowledge.
• Educational - to teach pupils to work in microgroups, respecting opinion of accomplices of the project, showing interest in the performed work, and to perceive business of all group as the personal focused activity.
• Developing - to promote development of memory, imagination, processes of cogitative activity, creative thinking and approach to performance of an objective.
• Educational - to acquaint pupils with features of preparation of national dishes, with customs and traditions of the countries of the world through cookery area.
Objectives of the lesson:
• to repeat lexical material on a subject of» Meal in an English Family»;
• to achieve from pupils of the correct pronunciation of the listed words and expressions on a subject;
• to organize and carry out work on creation of the Cookery book project;
• to provide necessary conditions for productive work of pupils;
• to carry out protection of the prepared projects;
• to sum up the occupation result, to discuss «pluses» and «minuses» of work at a lesson.
Type of lesson: combined.
The proposed lesson consists of four interrelated steps:
Step 1: repetition.
Time: 20 minutes.
Forms of work: steam, front.
Contents: the repetition of lexical material studied by performing a variety of tasks.
Step 2: Create projects.
Time: 40 minutes.
Content: The preparation of a certain section of the project on a given topic.
Step 3: protection projects.
Time: 20 minutes.
Forms of work: group, a collective.
Contents: implementation of the protection of their works included in the compilation of the overall project on the topic; each participant can ask questions to the speakers.
Step4: Summing up.
Time: 10 minutes.
Forms of work: group, front.
Contents: holding talks on progress, identifying positive and negative aspects of the work on the development of projects; identification of the most liked protection project.
Homework: create a single project called «Cookery book» of the finished chapters.
• English-Russian and Russian-English dictionaries,
• copies with words and expressions on a subject,
• album sheets of the A-4 format,
• scheme of drawing up project,
The offered tasks for work at the first stage
On a board the most difficult are written (from the point of view of a pronunciation) words. Several times all students say them chorus for the teacher, and then the teacher asks one of students to read all words, erasing from a board by one word, starting with the first. Students read words, saying also that word which on a board is already not present. Thus, the last pupil says all words on memory.
Students close the books and on one leave to a board. Their companions in Russian ask the translation of various words on this subject. If standing at a board is at a loss with the translation of words, has to translate the word the asking. The class shares on two teams. The teacher calls words in Russian. In turn participants of both teams approach a board and write down the translation of the word into English. If the previous participant made a mistake at the translation of the word, only following it can correct its error, and then writes down the word. That team, which participants allowed the smallest quantity of mistakes, it is considered won.
Lexical material on the subject «Food»
Meal - еда (трапеза)
Delicious (= tasty) - вкусный
Dish - блюдо Recipe - рецепт
Fish dish - рыбное блюдо
Green peas - зелёный горошек
Boiled egg - вареное яйцо
Rice - рис
Beer - пиво
Porridge - овсяная каша
Tongue - язык
Cornflakes - кукурузные хлопья
Sausage - колбаса
Noodle soup - суп из лапши
Ham - ветчина, окорок
Oven - духовой шкаф
Mutton chop - баранья котлета
Vegetables - овощи
Roast meat - жареное мясо
Poultry - домашняя птица
Fried fish - жареная рыба
Pudding - пуддинг
Roast beef - ростбиф
Plate - тарелка
Sour cream - сметана
To consist of - состоять из
Course - блюдо
Soup - суп
Chicken broth - куриный бульон
Pie - пирог
The first course - первое
Dessert (= sweet dish) - десерт
Stewed fruit - компот
Bacon - бекон
Biscuits - печенье
Fruit juice - фруктовый сок
Marmalade - мармелад
Taste - вкус
Hard-boiled eggs - яйца (вкрутую)
Soft-boiled eggs - яйца (всмятку)
Scrambled eggs - яичница
Buckwheat - гречка
Semolina - манка
Strawberries - клубника
Raspberries - малина
Gooseberries - крыжовник
Currants - смородина
Apricots - абрикосы
Nourishing food - питательная еда
To fry - жарить
To roast - жарить (на открытом огне)
To stew - тушить
To boil - варить
Olives - оливки
Fowl - птица
Goose - гусь
Turkey - индейка
Chicken - цыплёнок
According to the typology of this project can be attributed to:
• Practice and orientation (as dominant in the project activity)
• Mono project (in one subject);
• International (recipes peoples of the world);
• Short-term (within one training session).
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