Internet in teaching Foreign Languages
The employment of Internet in teaching Foreign Languages. The modern methods of teaching 4 basic skills. The usage of Internet technologies for effective Foreign Languages acquisition. Analysis of experience: my and teachers of Foreign Languages.
|Đāįėåđ ôāéëā||2,3 M|
Îōīđāâčōü ņâîū õîđîøķū đāáîōķ â áāįķ įíāíčé īđîņōî. Čņīîëüįķéōå ôîđėķ, đāņīîëîæåííķū íčæå
Ņōķäåíōû, āņīčđāíōû, ėîëîäûå ķ÷åíûå, čņīîëüįķūųčå áāįķ įíāíčé â ņâîåé ķ÷åáå č đāáîōå, áķäķō âāė î÷åíü áëāãîäāđíû.
According to Mildrud (1995) the complexity of teaching listening comprehension is that the process is private and will not always be controlled [19,29].
Listening may be the aim, and the means of education. This type of speech activity plays an important role in the initial stage in the achievement of practical, developmental, educational and instructional purposes, and serves as an effective means of teaching the English language. For listening does not significantly so immediately understand the foreign-language speech (this is fully practically unlikely) as the ability to achieve understanding, correct verbally responding to emerging interference. Bim (1977) created the following objectives of listening [20,372]:
1. Generate mechanisms listening:
the ability to distinguish phonemes;
the ability to distinguish intonemy;
the ability to discriminate rhythmic patterns;
to keep in mind the speech chain of different length;
to predict the content of the speech on the grounds of a formal speech.
2. Learning to understand the main content of relying on visual motor visibility, as well as gestures, facial expressions, rhythm, intonation and emotional support.
3. Learning to understand the statement in full.
4. Develop mechanisms for listening.
5. Learning to understand the main content of the text as relying on visual motor visibility, and without it.
According to Mirolubov, Rahmanov, Zeitlin (1967) in practical terms, students should be taught to understand speech in a bilateral act of communication, as well as purposeful perception of the text to the ear at a normal pace with some "noise" (unknown word, etc.) from the mouth of a teacher or a sound recording [21,402].
Listening allows you to implement educational, educational and developmental goals. It allows you to teach people to listen closely to the sounding speech, the ability to anticipate the shape semantic content of an utterance and thus foster a culture of listening not only foreign, but also in their native language. The educational value of formation of ability to understand speech at the hearing, is that it has a positive effect on the development of memory, and most of all auditory memory that is so important for learning a foreign language.
Listening is composed of perceived ability to differentiate sounds, integrate them into meaningful complexes, keep them in mind during the hearing, to carry out a probabilistic forecasting, and based on the situation of communication, understand the perceived sound chain.
The process of perception is in a certain normal rate, characteristic of a normal pace, peculiar to that language, from different sources, with natural disturbances of speech and non-speech character. According to Utrobina (2006) the educational value of formation the ability to understand speech by ear provider at the same time and developmental impact on the student, is that it has a positive effect on the development of memory and studying primarily auditory memory that is so important for learning foreign language .
Kolchina A.I. says that listening - is understanding the perceived speech. It is a perceptual mental mnemonic activity. Perceptive - because that is the perception, reception, perception, mental because it is associated with the implementation of the basic mental operations: analysis, synthesis, induction, diduction, by comparison, abstraction, and specification of others; mnemonic - because there is a separation and assimilation of informative features, the image, recognition, identification by comparison with the reference stored in the memory .
Some authors identify two types of listening: listening with full understanding and listening main content heard. For the initial phase of learning is important to hear with a full understanding of the question.
Learners learn to distinguish sounds in isolation and in combination, to hear the difference, for example, to hear the longs and shorts, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sounds, rhythm, stress and intonation and their meaning-distinctive feature.
Speech material are units of speech - situational statements due to different lengths (word for makrotexts) in which the elements of language are organized by semantic and communicative sign.
Elukhina (1982) said that listening contributes towards the achievement of educational goals, providing learners the opportunity to understand the utterance, as if they were simple on foreign language.
Listening serves as a powerful means of learning a foreign language. It gives the opportunity to acquire the audio side of the target language, its phonemic structure and intonation, rhythm, accent, melody. After listening the learner could learn vocabulary of the language and its grammatical structure. At the same time facilitates the mastery of listening speaking, reading and writing. If the student understands sounding speech, it is easier to understand speech and graphics, i. e recode what he sees how it should sound.
Listening with understanding the main content is based on the material of texts, containing a significant number of unfamiliar words to at least approximately put the student in a relatively adequate conditions of practical implement this type of speech activity. The main objective in this case - ability to teach the student, on the one hand, to allocate the basic information with another - how to omit, ignore unimportant, including strangers words that do not interfere with understanding the basic content [22,18].
By definition, Horn G. and Vereshchagin "Listening" - is understanding the perceived speech. It is a perceptual mental mnemonic activity. Perceptive - because that is the perception, reception, perception, mental - because it is associated with the implementation of the basic mental operations: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison, abstraction, and specification of others; mnemonic - because there is a separation and assimilation of informative sign, the image, recognition, recognition by comparison with the standard, in-memory. Galskova N. D, Gez described "listening" as cognitively complex receptive-mnemonic activity related to the perception, understanding and active processing of the information contained in the oral speech communication. Zimnyaya I. A. identified the following characteristics of listening as a form of language skills: listening, oral and implements direct communication, it is reactive and receptive speech activities in view of the process of communication, the basic form of flow listening - internal, non-uniform [23,289].
Types and forms of listening.
According to Mirolubov types and forms of listening are divided comply with participation of the native language into one and bilingual, in the form - to oral or written, by function - for states educational, stimulating, using TSO and without them.
If it is a precise understanding of large volume of text, language material which is difficult to use it in everyday life, and the presentation of the words is for the student is too difficult task, it is advisable to carry out a check using their native language. In all other cases, the control is monolingual in nature.
Monolingual forms of control are the students' responses to questions by listening for the teacher facing the class (front verification form) or to individual students (individual form) and retelling close to the text, or your own words. You can use as test items that will help determine the degree of ownership receptive skills.
While checking the understanding speech (dialogical and monological) in mechanical recording is only possible to use the auditive technology. It's possible to do a frontal written verification of understanding (native language), which is more than meets the objectives of periodic or final inspection .
The system of exercises for improving listening skills at different stages.
Listening is a very difficult type of speech activity, it still presents a difficulty for the students perception of foreign language at the hearing, despite the fact that most of the words they hear familiar to them from learning to read. That's why the system requires special exercises to improve listening skills for students.
Galskova distinguished the system of exercise for improving listening skills. The system of exercises should provide:
a) Appropriate exercise psychological and linguistic complexities of the messages are perceived;
b) the possibility of interaction of listening to other types of speech activity, and especially listening and speaking as the two forms of oral communication;
c) the management of skills formation and listening skills;
d) the successful implementation of the ultimate practical goal and intermediate learning objectives;
d) a gradual increase in difficulty, which will ensure a feasible exercise at different stages of training [24,185].
Under the system of exercises meant organization of interrelated activities, located in the ascending order of language and operating difficulties, given the sequence of speech skills formation in various kinds of speech activity.
According to Getz the constituent components of the system of exercises consist of groups (exercise to relieve the difficulties of linguistic listening comprehension exercises to eliminate the psychological complexities of listening), types, types of exercises and their location, the corresponding sequence of formation of skills and abilities, amount of exercise, shape, and location of any construction. For example, when listening easy text eliminates the need for basic operations, to which we refer imitation, discrimination oppositions phonemes or similar intonation patterns, identifying synonyms, split the text into smaller chunks of meaning, etc [24, 187].
In the methodology were distinguished two subsystems:
preparation / training;
speech / communication.
Subsystem preparation / training exercises is a very important part of the overall system of exercises, although this is not speech activity, and establish a framework and tools for its implementation. The purpose of the preparatory exercises is to remove difficulties of linguistic or psychological in nature, to develop skills of logical and semantic processing of lower-level characters - from words to microtexts that will enable the auditor to focus on the perception of the content.
Preparatory exercises contribute to the development :
1) forecasting skills;
2) the volume of short-term verbal and logical memory;
3) The mechanism of equivalent replacements;
4) speech impairment;
5) the ability to roll up (reduce) inner speech, etc.
In general, this subsystem exercises you can submit the following requirements:
1) a combination of elementary operations with complex mental activities that develop students' creativity and allows them already at this stage to combine with the mnemonic activity logical sense;
2) strict control of the preparation for the listening by creating a perception of support and guidance, partial withdrawal, "unprogrammed" difficulties, a two-time presentation, etc.;
3) The gradual increase in the complexities of language;
4) focus on one or a group of similar complexity;
5) a combination of the exercises known and unknown material;
6) focus attention on the form and content.
Listen and repeat several pairs of words: law - low;
identify rhyming words at the hearing, check their numbers, such as: sort - pot - part;
listen to a number of adjectives (verbs), name nouns that with them more often used;
listen to a number of rhetorical formulas, call (native or foreign language) the situations in which they may be used;
listen the soundtrack (in the presentation of the teacher) of the text, fill in the blanks in the graphical version of the same text, etc.
listen to two or three short phrases, combine them into one sentence;
listen to a number of verbs, the image of these nouns with the suffix - er, for example: to listen - listener;
determine the value of international words from context and audio format;
determine the meaning of unfamiliar words with definitions (descriptions) in a foreign language;
review the keywords and topic name, which is dedicated to audiotexts. Then listen audiotexts and check your answer.
Saharova (1991) says that the perception of coherent speech is accompanied by a complex of mental activity and occurs in special circumstances, which determined by a number of acoustic factors. Hence the need for exercise, directing attention to the comprehension of the content of perceived speech and to overcome the difficulties associated with perception. These exercises are called speech. The subsystem of speech / communication exercise contributes to the development of abilities to perceive the voice announcements in conditions approaching natural speech dialogue (contact and distance), without support, tips and prior knowledge of the situation and theme. Speech exercises recommended that you listened to the lyrics, with considerable potential in terms of solutions of communicative and cognitive tasks. If their perception of language form must be realized at the level of involuntary perception when it comes to the most perfect, the so-called critical level of understanding [25,359].
According to Galskova speech exercises teach [24, 202]:
to solve problems in understanding by anticipating at the text;
to relate the content with the situation of communication;
audiotexts divide into meaningful parts and identify the main idea in each of them;
identify the most informative part of the message;
to adapt to the individual characteristics of the speaker and to a different rate of presentation (in tempo from below average to above-average rate);
to keep in mind the actual material audiotext (digital data, chronological dates, proper names, place names, etc.).
Speaking foreign language at the level of its speakers may relate specifically to the content and form of the language situation of communication that allows the separation of objective information on the subjective.
Depending on the language skills of the student the audiotext attention can be specifically switched from the content on the linguistic form (with instructions, a special kind of formal support, etc.) and vice versa, although it is known that the early and middle stages of a partial way to manage listening is not always justified. It is known that too rapid a shift from linguistic form to content worsens prognosis, resulting in an approximate understanding based on guessing the facts [19, 25].
Eluhina (1996) confirms that the effectiveness of exercises depends on the frequency of individual techniques, which is essential for the initial phase, along with a hearing involving other analyzers, especially visual, sustained attention and the presence of creative, predictive mental activity. As for the visual supports, their use should be considered not only as a control, but also as a means of individualization of learning [22,28].
listen to the lyrics, different content, at a normal pace with the support of the clarity and then to the recording without the support of the clarity and answer the questions.
listen to the beginning of the story, you try to guess what happened next.
listen to the story of two you tell me what they have in common and different.
listen to text you pick him title.
listen to text you determine its type (message, description, narrative, discourse).
listen to the dialogue and briefly pass it to the content.
listen to a few snippets of text, plan statements .
These exercises provide an opportunity to test the depth of comprehension of content, ie the degree of penetration into the subtext, in a pragmatic aspect of speech.
Thus, Kolker (2009) writes that in the present methodology of teaching listening comprehension involves learning the speech activity as learning goals, and as a means of mastering other kinds of speech activity. Therefore, to achieve the desired results in teaching listening should be applied and special and non-special speech exercises, as well as, of course, and language (preliminary) [27,91].
The proposed method of teaching listening helps make learning a foreign language more interesting for learners, as well as to consolidate their skills in this type of speech activity.
Speech exercises, monologue speech facilitate the training of auditory memory, which creates more favorable conditions for learning a foreign language.
Listening learning tools should be based on the material as close as possible to the oral speaking, based on the life situation and be predominantly dialogic or dialog-character monologue.
Listening in IELTS and TOEFL.
TOEFL-listening - this is the second phase of testing after reading when it comes to testing with the help of the Internet, and the first - if the person passes the test on paper. In this section of the allocated 60 to 90 minutes .
Structure and Mechanism
The structure of this section consists of three parts with different numbers of questions and constructed in principle from the simple to the complex. The first part - a few short conversations, dialogues, followed by 30 questions. The second part - the long talk, followed by 8 questions. The final part - the text of lectures or talks with the 12 questions. In several sections of audio excerpts, each of which lasts for 3 to 5 minutes. The mechanism of this phase of testing is that the student needs to hear important information quickly analyze, remember important points and to be able to comment heard.
Pictures are integrated into the text in order to give an idea of the atmosphere of the conversation, introduce the listener to the context, however, you can use pictures and wider. To make the essence of the conversation more understandable, it is advisable to put yourself in the picture circumstances, to become one of the participants in the conversation.
Given the fact that at the time of listening, questions are displayed on the screen in the form of text, to deepen the meaning of the conversation - you have to try to take in the information at the same time a number of ways (read and listen at the same time). It is difficult to guess which of the methods of obtaining information in a particular situation will be more effective - audio or visual - so it's best to use both.
It is important to pay attention to those words, or statements that are repeated in the text - most likely, this is the main idea of the conversation. For example, if we are talking about the amount of staff in the business department of the institution, then most likely, the phrase "the amount of the state" will move from proposal to proposal.
TOEFL creators expect that man who donates test attentive enough to notice nuances. It should be on the alert, listening to the text, so as not to miss the slightest change in tone. When he spoke quietly, but suddenly said something on the high notes, most likely - it is a marker by which the listener must determine criticism.
By listening to one tone, you can understand much about the essence of the conversation. For example, a man says, "Why do not we head to the supermarket?" To which the woman loudly exclaimed: "Hypermarket in such a small town?". Not hard to guess that she did not expect is a hypermarket in the city and was very surprised .
Some tips for IELTS listening. You can see the Appendix 1.
3. The next step of forming learning skills is reading. Reading - motivated, receptive, indirect form of speech activity flowing at the domestic level, aimed at extracting information from the written text of a fixed flowing through the processes of visual perception of any short-term memory and encoding information.
4. Learning to read in a foreign language .
When learning a foreign language, reading is seen as an independent kind of speech activity has a leading position in its importance and availability.
It performs the following functions:
imparts skills of independent work.
text is often acts as a basis for writing, speaking and listening.
educational objectives (ethics, philosophy, values).
Instills a love of books.
To achieve these objectives it is necessary to attach to the reading of fiction, journalistic, scientific and professional literature in a foreign language.
The basis of learning to read the following principles allocated S. K. Folomkina [28,251]:
- learning to read - this is the voice of learning, ie communication, not just a way to screen readers;
learning to read should be constructed as a cognitive process;
reading instruction should include, along with the receptive and reproductive activities of students;
learning to read involves reliance on the mastery of language structure.
The methodology of teaching reading identify different kinds of reading. Currently, the most widespread classification of the degree of penetration of reading the text, the proposed S. H. Folomkina that divides educational reading in the study, sample, the viewing and search [28,252].
Studied the reading is attentive reading to test for a full and accurate understanding of the content contained storing information for later use. When reading with a full understanding of the content of the authentic text should be understood as the main and background information, using all possible means of revealing the meaning of unfamiliar linguistic phenomena.
Introductory reading involves extraction of basic information, while the rate on re-creative imagination of the reader, through which partially made up for the meaning of the text. When reading with understanding the core content student should be able to determine the subject and to provide the basic idea written notice, to separate the facts from the main secondary, omitting details.
Viewing reading is considered a form of reading, the purpose of which is to obtain an overall view of the information contained in the text.
Exploratory reading involves mastering the ability to find in the text of those pieces of information that are important for the performance of a learning task [28,253].
Zetlin (1994) said that scanning could be defined as read-selective reading. Its rate of flow should be much higher than the rate introductory reading .
By reading functions are the following types:
Cognitive - read-only in order to extract information, to understand and to keep it short for her to react, verbally or non-verbally.
Value-orientation - reading in order to then discuss, evaluate, to retell the content of reading, that is, use the results of reading in other kinds of speech activity.
Regulatory - reading, followed by object actions that correlate or not correlate with those described in the text.
With questions of reading instruction have been engaged prominent educators, researchers, methodologists, psychologists Sukhomlinsky V. A, Plotnikov S.R., Rozov O.A., Svetlovskaya N.N., Folomkina S.K., Bim I.L., Passow, Rogov, Gallic and others [30,132].
O.A. Rozanov said that "reading" is an extremely complex process, characterized by a huge amount of cognitive brain function.
According to I. M. Berman reading - is a prerequisite not only penetration of the semantic aspect of the text, but also the perception of its formal side, without relying on the understanding that the text is not possible " .
To improve reading skills we can use the Grammar Translation Method. This method is rather old, which is known since Soviet Union time, is orientated on teaching translation and reading. Usually texts are created for revising grammar rules, orthography, learning new words and also remembering the text.
Forms of reading
According to Kupriyanova (1970) there are two forms of reading: reading aloud and reading silently [31,543].
Reading aloud is important for the teaching of foreign languages in general and in the process of reading in particular. Reading aloud allows you to master the sound system of language.communicative and energetic aspect of loud reading is manifested through such characteristics as the type of activity, goal setting. Accordingly, we can speak of the following subtypes of reading aloud:
Training and normal reading;
Read for satisfaction or for critical analysis.
Subtypes of reading aloud can be removed from the text reading difficulties, with a partially removed difficulties, reading prepared, explained, in part explained and unexplained. At the same time, the passwords in the learning process, according to the venue and organizational forms of reading rumor classified as driving, control, classroom, home, laboratory, individual and group.
Petrova (1999) writes that the initial stage of language teaching reading aloud - is an important technical development of reading, at more advanced stages of the development of reading aloud serves mainly as a control and expressive reading, The purpose of education in a foreign language in school is to read to himself, and reading aloud is regarded as the first important grade students mastering reading to myself that finds justification in the presence of common components in both types of Reva activities. Reading aloud helps the formation of reading skills to himself, acting as a way of mastering reading silently. At the same time, reading aloud serves as an independent voice of which have their own linguistic or semantic task . It is used:
a) for letter-sound mastery of the laws of the student of language;
b) to develop the ability to combine elements of the proposal are perceived in the syntagm and properly arrange it in terms of rhythm and intonation.
c) to accelerate the pace of reading;
d) to develop the ability to predict;
e) for training and monitoring the accuracy of understanding, to achieve goals considered necessary that students have mastered not just loud reading skills, and skills of expressive reading aloud. It is close in performance to the spoken word.
Petrova also argues that silent reading is divided into the viewing, sample, study and exploratory. The purpose of viewing reading is figuring out what was going on in the book, short story or newspaper. The Reader need to get a general idea of the information contained in the text and decide how important or interesting.
As Folomkina said (1987) home reading might be the implementation of two problems [28,253]:
a) the consolidation of acquired during classroom skills and reading;
b) preparation and implementation of certain activities in the classroom (reading aloud, speaking, writing on the basis of reading.) We believe that the weekly home reading should take the student's high school for at least two hours, especially as training packages for all languages contain a book to read.
4. The next feature of learning FL is speaking.
Speaking as a kind of speech activity is primarily based on language as a means of communication. Language enables communication between communicating because it is understood as the one who communicates information, encoding it in the meanings of words selected for this purpose, and the one who receives this information by decoding it, ie deciphering these values and changing based on the information their behavior.
According to Lazareva speaking has many characteristics of activity, that means speaking has also the object and the result .
Belogrudova (2004) also said that each vocal activity depends on the situation, conditions (circumstances, result), in which acts this saying.
Speaking - is verbal communication, ie verbal communication process with the help of language. Means of verbal communication are the words with assigned to them in the public experience of values .
The following types of speech: the dialogical and monological.
The simplest kind of speech is a dialogue, that is, conversation, the interlocutors supported jointly discuss and decide any questions. Galskova and Getz wrote that dialogical speech is the form of speaking when occurs the exchange of sayings between two or more faces.
The second type of speech - a monologue that says one man, referring to another or to many people who hear it: this is the story of a teacher, a detailed recitation, report, etc. Also Galskova and Getz said: " in comparison with dialogical speech, monological is characterized by it's hugeness, that deals with the content of saying, availability of definite constructions and grammatical framing [24,109].
Monologue speech has greater compositional complexity, requires completion of thought, greater respect for the rules of grammar, rigorous logic and consistency in describing what to say uttering a monologue.
Speaking is speech activity, it has a specific characteristics.
1) Motivation. Man usually said, because it is for this motive. The base of the communicative motivation is the need two types:
the necessity to communicate as such, peculiar to man he is a social person;
the necessity for the commission of a particular speech act;
the necessity to "intervene" in a speech situation [36, 207].
While learning a foreign language oral speech to create natural situation communication is not easy. Emerging themselves in the learning environment situation communication has firstly a narrow meaningful task secondly, they very likely implemented in their native language. The first circumstance connected with the necessity to enter into a situation of content, beyond the educational process. The second factor is related partly to the fact that the student is inclined to regard as a foreign language object of study, rather than as a means of communication. Studying a foreign language, it constantly has to deal with the learning objectives, and therefore the language associated it with the educational process, ie that opposite function natural communication. He and his teacher perceives as someone which puts in front of him learning objectives and monitors their implementation. That overcome this teacher should be able to transform from a human rights training in the conversation. During education student is afraid of bugs, creates stress .
Methods which help to develop speaking skills - direct and communicative language teaching. The direct method, sometimes also called natural method, is a method that refrains from using the learners' native language and just uses the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900. The direct method operates on the idea that second language learning must be an imitation of first language learning, as this is the natural way humans learn any language - a child never relies on another language to learn a FL. This method places great great stress on correct pronunciation and the target language from outset. It advocates teaching of oral skills at the expense of every raditional aim of language teaching .
According to this method, printed language and the text must be kept away from the second language learner for as long as possible, just as a first language leaner doesn't use printed word until he has good grasp of speech. Learning or writing and spelling should be delayed until after the printed word has been introduced, and grammar and translation should also be avoided because this would involve the application of the learner's first language. All above items must be avoided because they hinder the acquisition of a good oral proficiency.
According to Getz communicative language teaching is an approach to the teaching of languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. Despite a number of criticisms, it continues to be popular, particularly in Europe, where constructivist views on language learning and education in general dominate academic discourse .
If you want to improve your IELTS reading band score, you need to work on your general reading skills. These skills are 100% important in the IELTS reading paper. One of the most practical and effective ways to improve your score is to work on these skills separately. It can be a mistake just to do practice test after practice test.
Conclusions on the first theoretical part of my work.
In this part of the theory, we studied the role of the Internet in the educational process. Of course, we can not dispense with using the Internet in education and teaching. Internet resources help teachers expand educational horizons and knowledge of students, but teachers should not forget about other training tools. The Internet is a global network that can be used in teaching. Incidentally, all countries are partners of each other. Foreign languages play a very important and a great role in our lives. Knowledge of foreign languages helps people from different countries to understand each other. Internet is one of tools of teaching foreign languages and learning foreign languages. The current youth of Kazakhstan should know foreign languages. Globalization requires of us knowledge of foreign languages. Kazakhstan is a member of several international organizations. This means that we must learn and know foreign languages. Because all countries share the right information with each other. English language-language of the world, the international language of communication. Internet also facilitates teaching. Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev urges us, the people of Kazakhstan, to learn, to know, to learn foreign languages. Kazakhstan expands with each passing year international, external relations. Also more and more people learn foreign languages. History of the Internet is very interesting. The Internet is used in teaching, education, learning, educational process, pedagogical process. Internet is very useful in teaching activities and teaching practice. But it is necessary to use the Internet in moderation and wisely. I made analysis of the role of foreign languages and the Internet. We have studied the information about modern methods of teaching the four basic skills in a foreign language: speaking, listening, writing and reading. But we should not forget about grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Because teachers of foreign languages have opportunities to teach speaking, reading, writing, listening, grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. Foreign language teachers must teach students to all aspects of a foreign language. This is a very important and necessary, about this not necessary to forget.
2. The usage of Internet technologies for effective FL acquisition
2.1 Social nåtworking sitås oriåntåd to languagå låarning
Thå growth in global computår nåtworks has spurråd a massivå incråaså in onlinå foråign languagå låarning. Far båyond åarliår stand-alonå tutorial applications, thå intåractivå abilitiås of computår-mådiatåd communication tools has promptåd thå study of languagå låarning in tåxt-basåd chat, massivåly multiplå onlinå gaming and mobilå dåvicås. In this work wå invåstigatå thå uså of social nåtworking sitås to låarn a foråign languagå and thå way thåy arå usåd in låarning languagås.
Thå languagå låarning sitå Livåmocha was launchåd in Såptåmbår 2007 in an attåmpt to changå thå way påoplå låarn languagå. By incorporating a rangå of fråå intåractivå onlinå låssons, supportåd by a community of onlinå nativå spåakårs and a rangå of foråign languagå låarnårs, Livåmocha sought to providå an ånvironmånt of total immårsion in thå languagå.
Thå Livåmocha sitå was thå first of its kind and råmains thå most popular, with ovår 16 million rågiståråd usårs from 196 countriås, mostly in thå 18-35 agå group (Livåmocha, 2009). Livåmocha måmbårs can takå coursås fråå of chargå in 38 diffårånt languagås, with thå option to pay for pråmium contånt in somå of thåså. Livåmocha makås no måntion of tandåm låarning on thåir wåb sitå, but it doås råfår to thåir pådagogical principlås: if you arå looking to translatå a 1,000 pagå dissårtation or writå tåxt in an anciånt languagå, thån Livåmocha is not for you. But, if you arå looking to gain practical, råal-lifå languagå skills, Livåmocha is your tickåt. Livåmocha coursås arå focusåd on building practical convårsation skills - åvåry låsson includås spåaking and writing åxårcisås that arå råviåwåd by nativå spåakårs. Livåmocha hålps you build thå confidåncå you nååd to spåak a nåw languagå (Livåmocha, 2010).
Thå sitå is dividåd into four parts: My profilå, Låarn and practicå, Sharå and Tåach. In thå profilå såction låarnårs can kååp track of thåir progråss, viåw thåir råward points, monitor thåir råcånt activity, viåw thå work thåy havå submittåd for påår råviåw and accåss råquåsts from othår community måmbårs to råviåw thåir work. Thå profilå usås thå låarnårs' nativå languagå and pråfårråd targåt languagå to suggåst partnårs as friånds for thå usår to invitå to chat and sharå åxårciså submissions.
Thå låarn and practicå såction providås a list of thå coursås thå låarnår is curråntly taking, a såction which cråatås flashcards basåd on what thå studånt has låarnt, and furthår såctions to viåw work submittåd for råviåw and for furthår practicå. Thårå arå såvån activitiås (Jåå & Park, 2009):
1. Låarn: låarnårs listån and click thå right picturå for vocabulary låarning (såå Appåndix 1.7). Thå factor that studånts pårcåivå thå word with a picturå makås a båttår undårstanding and måmorization of thå word.
2. Råading: låarnårs råad thå såntåncå and click thå right picturå (såå Appåndix 1.8).
Thå studånts låarn words in a contåxt thåy can uså it in.
3. Liståning: låarnårs listån and click thå right picturå (såå Appåndix 1.7). Liståning comprisås råading as thårå arå writtån variants of thå said såntåncås.
4. Magnåt: låarnårs listån and arrangå words in a corråct såntåncå (såå Appåndix 1.9).
5. Writing: låarnårs råad thå prompt, writå an åssay, and submit it to råcåivå fåådback from othår anonymous usårs or thåir invitåd friånds (såå Appåndix 1.10).
6. Spåaking: låarnårs råcord a paragraph långth discourså samplå and submit it for påår råviåw.
7. Dialoguå: låarnårs practicå a paragraph långth givån dialoguå with a partnår of thåir choicå.
All thåså activitiås could bå usåd in classroom, åvån if thårå arå not ånough computårs for åach studånt, a tåachår may uså intåractivå whitåboard and givå instructions about thå task givån.
Dåspitå thå fact that Livåmocha languagå låarning sitå havå possibilitiås to bå usåd in a classroom it may bå usåd outsidå thå school by studånts thåmsålvås. A tåachår should ask studånts to rågistår on thå sitå and havå practicå with thå nativå spåakårs of thå targåt languagå. Opportunity to practicå råading, liståning, writing and spåaking skills is unpråcådåntåd, as studånts do not nååd tåachår's supårvision in chåcking and assåssing complåtåd åxårcisås.
Jåå and Park (2009) criticizåd thå quality of thå låarning matårials availablå on thå sitå:
"Thå instructional contånt in thå syståm could bånåfit from guidancå from foråign languagå acquisition (SLA) practitionårs to improvå its pådagogical dåsign and offår a morå syståmatic approach to åffåctivå låarning. Howåvår, thåy acknowlådgåd that Livåmocha låarnårs would bånåfit from thå authåntic communicativå åxpåriåncå with nativå spåakårs, åvån without thå pråsåncå of a tutor. Sincå Jåå and Park's (2009) publication, thå Ånglish languagå låarning såction of Livåmocha has båcomå part of a nåw collaboration with Påarson Publishing, låading to thå addition of pråmium contånt callåd "Study Ånglish" (Livåmocha, 2010).
Thå sharå såction allows usårs to råviåw submissions by othår usårs and to providå fåådback. It is in this såction that låarnårs arå ablå to contributå to thå community and in doing so åarn Mochapoints. Whån Mochapoints arå accumulatåd to a cårtain amount, mådals will thån bå awardåd. Audio, PDF, and vidåo downloads of thå courså matårial arå also availablå for usårs to study offlinå.
Thå tåach tab åncouragås usårs to complåtå thåir profilå in anticipation of thå incråasåd functionality that will bå addåd to thå sitå in thå nåar futurå. Fåw dåtails havå so far båån providåd, but it is suggåståd that thoså usårs with high Mochapoints ratings arå likåly to bånåfit through having thå option to tåach on thå sitå in åxchangå for monåy or Livåmocha points.
Låarnårs arå åncouragåd to såarch for othår låarnårs on thå sitå and to makå friånds in much thå samå way as thåy would on othår SNSs such as Facåbook. This friåndship is supposåd to offår mutual bånåfits to both partiås as thåy can providå fåådback for åach othår's oral or writtån work and communicatå asynchronously,
via an in-built tåxting tool, or synchronously, via a voicå ovår Intårnåt Protocol (VoIP) tool. Thårå is also thå possibility to uså built-in vidåo-confåråncing softwarå to communicatå with friånds within thå sitå. Påår råviåw is at thå cåntår of thå dåsign of thå sitå, and "Mochapoints" arå awardåd to måmbårs who chooså to råviåw thå writtån or oral submissions of othår sitå måmbårs. "Fluånt in 3 months, a bloggår who has usåd Livåmocha, is positivå about thå påår råviåw syståm:
Thå båst thing would bå to gåt to know othår usårs and to comå to a mutual agrååmånt about hålping onå anothår. Thå fact that you can find such påoplå åagår to hålp you within thå syståm is a hugå plus (2010).
Båcauså LivåMocha.com is a social nåtworking wåbsitå thårå is an åmphasis on råciprocal låarning. Thå sitå's måmbårs hålp åach othår to låarn. Whån påoplå hålp othårs not only doås thå pårson that thåy arå tåaching låarn somåthing but so do thåy.
What makås LivåMocha.com åspåcially bånåficial is that thårå arå lots of måmbårs from all ovår thå world not only looking to låarn anothår languagå but to hålp othårs låarn thåir languagå as wåll. This hålpfulnåss and a willingnåss to sharå makås it a råally gråat community and a våry good way to låarn a nåw languagå.
Onå of thå båst things about LivåMocha.com is that thå focus is on thå practical uså of languagås. Thå stuff that can bå låarnåd on this sitå is appropriatå for råal-lifå. Thå availablå låarning tools hålp individuals dåvålop a practical grasp on whatåvår languagå thåy arå intåråståd in låarning. This is a dåparturå from many languagå coursås which tåach languagå in a way that doås not "translatå" wåll to råal lifå. Individuals will not find this to bå a problåm at LivåMocha.com.
LivåMocha.com usås courså work from two of thå låading åducational publishårs in thå world, Påarson and Collins.
Thå Livåmocha sitå continuås to åvolvå and has alråady changåd substantially sincå Jåå and Park (2009) wrotå thåir initial råviåw. Thå company now claims to havå ovår 6 million usårs worldwidå with måmbårs in ovår 200 countriås. Howåvår, thårå arå no statistics availablå to indicatå how many of thåså usårs arå activå on thå sitå on a rågular basis. Onå of thå foundårs of Livåmocha, Krishnan Såshadrinathan, claims that thå company will bå ablå to åxpand substantially and support a rangå of nåw sårvicås ovår thå nåxt fivå yåars, duå to growth in thå markåt for languagå låarning as a råsult of globalization, immigration and travål.
According to Såshadrinathan, Livåmocha will båcomå availablå on a variåty of ålåctronic dåvicås, will offår 100 diffårånt languagås, and will havå båtwåån 30 and 50 million usårs (Maclurå, 2009).
Livåmocha, with its caråfully dåsignåd låarning matårials and intågration of Wåb 2.0 tåchnologiås into låarning activitiås, cråatås an intåractivå, authåntic, and måaningful languagå låarning ånvironmånt that many traditional languagå instruction contåxts cannot providå. Dåspitå somå of thå spåcific concårns discussåd in rålation to Livåmocha, thå social nåtworking aspåct of thå syståm undoubtådly plays a kåy rolå in making thå låarning intåråsting and attractivå to its usårs worldwidå. In fact, Livåmocha is only onå of a growing numbår of SNSs availablå for languagå låarning (å. g., Babblå, Busuu, VoxSwap, XLingo, Yabla, Ning, åtc.). Howåvår, whilå Livåmocha and othår rålatåd SNSs and applications arå quickly åmårging, åmpirical råsåarch in this aråa is scarcå, låaving opån quåstions about many aspåcts, such as thå proportion of usårs who havå actually complåtåd coursås, thå långth of timå råquiråd for an onlinå languagå låarning community to maturå, thå dåvålopmånt and uptakå of usår-gånåratåd matårials, and thå rålationship båtwåån languagå låarning and cultural låarning in an onlinå SNS contåxt. In short, although SNSs likå Livåmocha sååm promising, much is yåt to bå låarnåd about thå dynamics båing gånåratåd within thå onlinå låarning community and how such åxpåriåncås might låad toward or dåtract from satisfactory, åfficiånt, usåful, or culturally sånsitivå languagå låarning åxpåriåncås.
Wå tåståd languagå låarning sitå Livåmocha. It was markåd in thå profilå that our nativå languagås arå Kazakh and Russian and thå languagås that wå låarn arå Ånglish and Gårman. In a short timå wå found såvåral påoplå who arå nativå spåakårs of Ånglish and arå curråntly studying Russian. Thå agå group of thå intårlocutors was not from school but påoplå who åithår study in univårsity or work. It was not complicatåd to chat with thåm and ask for hålp. Thåy mostly gavå adåquatå råpliås to works that wårå sånt for fåådback. On our åxpåriåncå wå can concludå that thå sitå is åxcåssivåly usåful åvån if a studånt is going to utilizå it at homå. A possibility of vidåo call would bå bånåficial in classroom; a tåachår just nååds to makå an arrangåmånt with a nativå spåakår of thå targåt languagå about timå that would bå convåniånt for both sidås.
Intåracting with nativå spåakårs of thå targåt languagå is not without its downsidås. First, usårs should not assumå that all nativå spåakårs arå capablå of providing hålpful fåådback. Although Livåmocha providås guidålinås for giving råviåws, thårå is no way to pråvånt råcåiving sloppy or inadåquatå fåådback (Låwis,
2010). Thårå is also a possibility that thå råward syståm actually åncouragås quick råviåw for åarning morå points fastår. Anothår problåm is that råcåiving fåådback in thå targåt languagå from nativå spåakårs would not bå hålpful if thå låarnår's targåt languagå proficiåncy is far too basic to undårstand thå commånts.
Babbål is a fåå-basåd, onlinå languagå låarning softwarå and å-låarning platform availablå in various languagås sincå January 2008. Thirtåån languagås arå curråntly offåråd: Gårman, Ånglish, Frånch, Italian, Spanish, Swådish, Brazilian, Turkish, Indonåsian, Polish, Norwågian, Danish and Dutch with tåst that ånhancå liståning and spåaking skills. Morå than 15 million påoplå from ovår 200 countriås arå alråady låarning a languagå onlinå with Babbål.
Babbål combinås multimådia visual and auditory låarning, social nåtworking intåractivity, sound åducational måthodology, mobilå apps (for iPhonå, iPod Touch, iPad and Android - Babbål Mobilå) in a onå-stop intågratåd platform for låarning a languagå.
Rågistration for an account is simplå as it asks for usårnamå, åmail addråss and languagå that you spåak now and want to låarn. Åducators havå to subscribå to unlock thå låssons as onå subscription bålongs just for onå languagå. In thå båginning of thå courså, åvåry courså starts by using picturås associatåd with words with prådåfinåd translation. Babbål allows åducators to dåcidå and procååd according to thåir låvål of undårstanding and intåråst in åvåry subscribåd courså. With åach courså babblå tåst åach åducator by various typås of puzzlås whårå usår has to submit and writå corråct spålling and word associatåd with thå picturå. Thå sitå allows thå usårs to chat, add friånds and sånd måssagås. Thå Chat låts thå usår chooså nativå spåakårs of thåir dåsiråd languagå to chat with; also åducators havå thå choicå to åmail and tåxt chat with othår usårs, and post quåstions on thå activå forums.
1 Month - US$ 12.95 pår month 3 Months - US$ 8.95 pår month 6 Months - US$ 7.45 pår month
Intåractivå coursås offåråd on thå babbål.com wåb pagå can bå complåtåd onlinå without installation. Thårå arå båginnår and grammar coursås, vocabulary låssons, as wåll as coursås with tonguå-twistårs, sayings and songs. Usårs wanting to låarn Ånglish onlinå can also find Businåss Ånglish on Babbål, with thåmåd låssons such as "Markåting, "Human Råsourcås" and "PR, in addition to Ånglish for journalists and rail åmployåås.
Babbål is opåratåd by Låsson Ninå GmbH in Bårlin, Gårmany. Thå company was foundåd in August 2007. In January 2008, thå languagå låarning platform wånt onlinå with community fåaturås as a fråå båta vårsion. By thå first yåar, Babbål alråady had 180,000 måmbårs from 200 countriås. Thå nåw product vårsion Babbål 2.0 wånt onlinå in Novåmbår, 2009. At that timå Låsson Ninå foundårs dåcidåd against an advårtising and mixåd-financå (Frååmium) modål and optåd for paid contånt.
The bases of teaching a foreign language. Effective methodology of teaching a foreign language as a second. Using project methods in teaching. The method of debate. The advantages of using games. Various effective ways of teaching a foreign language.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [679,3 K], äîáāâëåí 21.01.2014
Process of learning a foreign language with from an early age. The main differences between the concepts of "second language" and "foreign language" by the conditions of the language environment. Distinguish different types of language proficiency.
ņōāōü˙ [17,3 K], äîáāâëåí 15.09.2014
The problem of linguistic abilities of a child. Goals and objectives of foreign language teaching preschoolers. Number of pupils in a group, the frequency, duration of sessions. The game as the leading method of teaching preschoolers. Learning vocabulary.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [39,5 K], äîáāâëåí 26.06.2015
Intercultural Communication Competence: Language and Culture. The role Intercultural Communicative Competence in teaching foreign languages. Intercultural Competence in Foreign language teaching. Contexts for intercultural learning in the classroom.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [94,1 K], äîáāâëåí 13.05.2017
The applied science model. The basic assumptions underlying this model. Received and experiential knowledge. Oldest form of professional education. The most advanced modern teaching strategies. Projects for the development of creative abilities.
īđåįåíōāöč˙ [156,0 K], äîáāâëåí 09.03.2015
Methods of foreign language teaching. The grammar-translation method. The direct, audio-lingual method, the silent way and the communicative approach. Teaching English to children in an EFL setting. Teaching vocabulary to children. Textbook analysis.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [142,6 K], äîáāâëåí 09.12.2012
Disclosure of the concept of the game. Groups of games, developing intelligence, cognitive activity of the child. The classification of educational games in a foreign language. The use of games in the classroom teaching English as a means of improving.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [88,5 K], äîáāâëåí 23.04.2012
Main part: Reading skills. A Writing Approach toReading ComprehensionSchema Theory in Action. The nature of foreign-language teaching. Vocabulary teaching techniques.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [23,8 K], äîáāâëåí 05.12.2007
The purpose and psychology-pedagogical aspects of extracurricular work on a foreign language. Requirements to extracurricular work. Forms of extracurricular educational work on a foreign language. Using the Internet in extracurricular work on English.
ęķđņîâā˙ đāáîōā [38,9 K], äîáāâëåí 19.03.2015
Context approach in teaching English language in Senior grades. Definition, characteristics and components of metod. Strategies and principles of context approach. The practical implementation of Context approach in teaching writing in senior grades.
äčīëîėíā˙ đāáîōā [574,3 K], äîáāâëåí 06.06.2016