Internet in teaching Foreign Languages
The employment of Internet in teaching Foreign Languages. The modern methods of teaching 4 basic skills. The usage of Internet technologies for effective Foreign Languages acquisition. Analysis of experience: my and teachers of Foreign Languages.
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Ministry of Еducation and Sciеncе of thе Rеpublic of Kazakhstan
L. N. Gumilyov Еurasian National Univеrsity
Faculty of Philology
Thеmе: Internet in teaching Foreign Languages
Major: 5B050119 "Forеign languagе two forеign languagеs”
Complеtеd by: Satysheva A.
Supеrvisеd by: Karmеlyuk A.V.
- 1. The employment of Internet in teaching FL
- 1.1 The role of FL and Internet nowadays
- 1.2 The modern methods of teaching 4 basic skills
- 2. The usage of Internet technologies for effective FL acquisition
- 2.1 Social nеtworking sitеs oriеntеd to languagе lеarning
- 2.2 Nеtiquеttе rulеs
- 3. My practical part
- 3.1 My experiment and experience; experience of teachers of FL
- 3.2 Analysis of experience: my and teachers of FL
21st century is named as an era of new technologies. Mobile phones, computers, Internet and gadgets have become indispensable part of our life. It is not a secret that technologies penetrate all aspects and fields of our life. And scholars more and more find ways how effectively use them in particular sphere.education is one of them. In my work I want to analyze how Internet used in modern system of education and also to emphasize the challenges of using of its technologies in learning foreign languages.
The topicality: It is impossible to imagine our life without those incentives which Internet provides our daily activities. Lets, analyze at least one of its products as an example which conquered the people's minds all over the world. Social networks acquire more and more popularity, for example 500,000 registered users of Facebook; are diverse: 250 millions of social networks; have easy access to join and require no payment. The new generation of peoples is defined by their reliance of media, their technological multitasking capabilities, and their propensity toward all things new. Virtual communication and connections are playing significant roles in people's interactions.
Internet has penetrates all aspects of life, one of them is education. In the era of globalization and internationalization the Internet becomes a dominant tool for adapting to the new environment. There are many options opened now for learning and teaching languages. Examples of foreign language learning sites that use social networking features include Palabea, Live Mocha, and Babbel. The main purpose of these online communities is to share and learn new languages through social interaction. Although many language learning websites using Web 2.0 social networking features are less than a year old, many already boast a large and active population of users who regularly log in to interact and learn from each other. One of the features of these sites, and possibly the most intriguing for language learning, is the opportunity for users to interact directly with native speakers through the use of video, audio, or text-based chat. This interaction between language learners can also be defined as "eTandem" and allows users to learn a new language and teach their native languages by using a communication tool. These language learning websites can provide the real-time, conversational aspect of learning a language that is sometimes only available when visiting or living in a foreign country. While language learning websites using Web 2.0 technology may offer great promise for foreign language education, there is a lack of research on how users currently use these sites for collaborative learning and social interaction purposes. There is also a lack of research on the pedagogical and technical usability of these sites and how potential language learners could use these sites to enhance their own language learning abilities.
Online interests groups influence language learning.
The aim: to analyze the opportunities and affectivity of using Internet and its tools such as Web 2 application - social networking/blogging.
to review literature on modern methods in teaching FL;
to explain Internet applications and to emphasize opportunities of these applications in teaching FL;
to present practically how Internet can assist in teaching FL;
to conclude the challenges of using Internet
The object: methodology of teaching Fl to explore the usage of Internet application in teaching FL.
The subject: Internet and its applications (blogging, social networks).
The scientific novelty: this research work is modern and convenient for FL learners because Internet application deals with innovative technologies, which are used nowadays in a learning process. The ability of the individual users to collaborate, create, and share content with other users may prove especially useful for learning languages. Social networks have generally been used informally for noneducational social interaction purposes.
The theoretical significance: the theory could be used for further researches in the field of modern innovative technologies.
The practical significance: Internet could be applied on the lessons and also recommendations will be used by teachers and FL learners.
Theoretical and methodological basis of the thesis are based on the sources of my thesis. Authors of some of the sources of my thesis are: Gattegno, Hernandez, Starch, Filippov, Bourn, Savignon, Johnson, Kurland, Sparks, Ramage, Kahn, Kleinrock, Thomlinson, Postel, Davies, Warschauer, O'reilly, Leene, Pinkman, Kathleen, Haythornthwaite, Passov,Polat, Filatov, Bitsilli, Troubetzkoy, Budagov, Azilov, Milrud, Bim, Sadamova, Mirolubov, Eluhina, Lyakhovitskii, Galskova, Gez, Sakharova,Rogova, Kolker, Folomkina, Vaisburd, Kupriyanova.
internet teaching foreign language
1. The employment of Internet in teaching FL
1.1 The role of FL and Internet nowadays
Nowadays it's especially important to know foreign languages. Some people learn languages because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying foreign languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to make our outlook wider.
As Mr. Gattegno wrote: "The experience we all have in using foreign language for the expression of your thoughts, feelings, emotions, and perceptions is that words come by themselves, that we have at our disposal an extremely effective automatic system which demands almost no energy to function. Under such conditions, language is truly a vehicle; it carries to our satisfaction. As soon as we leave our own language an concentrate on acquiring a new one, however, we find that we are engaged in struggles, that our memory becomes so important, whereas in our own language it doesn't seem to play a big role. In fact we can no more say that we remember our language is a skill, not the memorization of statements, that it is ours as functioning. So much so that, in our conversations with our relatives and friends, we never attempt to retain the words we use and hear, once the meaning has been either expressed or understood” [1, 213].
Daniel Starch (2009) said that the value of studying foreign languages, aside from the direct use of the modern languages, had been very much overestimated in some quarters and perhaps equally underestimated in other quarters. The controversy over the amounts of pure intellectual discipline of the various branches of instruction had been the warmest in the field of the languages, particularly the ancient ones. As a matter of fact, however, the controversy could be just animated in the field of the sciences, when one recalls the distorted claims of discipline made for them in certain quarters [2, 152].
In modern society, due to the growing power of globalization, foreign languages are becoming increasingly important. Knowledge of foreign languages is a prerequisite for any specialist qualifications. Learning foreign languages allows a person to expand their communication capabilities, vision, improve the level of culture. English is still leading, which is associated with the creation of the world economic, informational, cultural space. No less popular is the German language, which is spoken by a large number of citizens of the European Union. Germany is a trading partner of the Russian and German continues to be relevant. From the modern citizen requires knowledge of several foreign languages .
According to the need to study the question of how to teach the language, what methods to use, how best to organize the learning process it is necessary to carefully examine the process of learning a foreign language, to identify the particular social and biological factors that influence this process, and to establish similarities or differences in the study of a foreign language and mother tongue, to compare the in vivo study and intentional learning. All this is the subject of research for many years and we can highlight the following points. To successfully mastering a foreign language prerequisites are [4, 606]:
· motivation to learn;
· linguistic abilities, socio-cultural, intercultural competence, background knowledge;
· linguistic environment, providing an opportunity to acquire and use knowledge.
New technologies offer great opportunities, provide tangible support, optimize the learning process. It is therefore necessary to turn to the experience of using electronic resources, multimedia abroad, to summarize the experience. Purposeful and systematic process of language acquisition should be based on the communicative approach, the form of the language person capable of cross-cultural interaction, must develop language skills, i. e. ability to fluently, spontaneously and correctly express thoughts in a foreign language.
Foreign languages facilitate international communication, display them on a qualitative level, promote economic development, cultural cross-fertilization, forming a tolerant attitude. Cross-cultural society needs a knowledge of languages and their teaching methods, need to continuously improve the knowledge, skills, competence program. Cross-cultural societies are products of globalisation and internalisatin process [4,608].
According to Philippov, education system has entered the 21st century in the reform process, which will see new realities, new opportunities, new challenges and a new call. First, it is a sharp increase in the rate of social change. Secondly, it is global and universal political, cultural and economic life, becoming more and more common, coherent and diverse human civilization [5, 92]. Global trends of recent decades is closely related to two phenomena: globalization and the internationalization of society. Both processes are in a zone close scientific attention and are associated with significant technological and social changes of the last quarter of the 20th century. Barlybaev (2008) said that the process of globalization is the emergence of a hybrid of world culture, a mixture of national traditions, strengthening cooperation among nations and is manifested in the harmonization and unification of various aspects of life of the people - their world view and outlook, requirements and work habits, political and economic, social life and production, science, education, arts and culture, religion and language, etc .
Globalization and internationalization - are two interrelated processes that lead to the transformation of society into new forms. Internationalization is based on crosscomminication and exchange between separated peoples. According to the definition adopted in studies of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the internationalization of education at the national, sectoral and institutional levels is commonly understood as a process by which the goals, functions and organization of the presentation of educational services acquire an international dimension . In contrast to the internationalization of globalization - is not a new phenomenon. The idea of cross-cultural collaboration in the arts, science and education originated in the 17th century. Currently, there are new forms of international cooperation. The internationalization of higher education today involves student and faculty mobility, reform programs and curricula, cooperation in the research field through networks and associations, open and distance learning without borders, regional cooperation and foreign educational institutions, where the premise is the language barrier.
Under the influence of globalization processes increase the number of models of social behavior, and one of the conditions of social mobility and successful adaptation in the social space becomes a command of foreign languages. With the development of international business relations, the development of new technologies and the intensification of international professional activities of close contact with foreign experts, as well as the prospect of accession to the WTO has especially increased demand for specialists who speak foreign languages [6, 4]. Barlybaev (2008) argues that the language of globalization comes from the fact that language is a means of human communication and the promotion of multilingualism .
At all times, from ancient times, people have studied a variety of foreign languages. It was not only the languages of neighboring tribes, peoples and nations, but also the more remote areas. For each time period can be distinguished foreign language that causes the greatest concern. In the 9th century, the most important foreign language for Russia was the Norse. With the adoption of Christianity, a foreign language is Greek. By the 13th century, it gives way to language of Turkic peoples - first Polovtzy then Tatars. Later, especially during the Troubles, the main foreign language to Muscovy is Polish. When Peter 1 main foreign language is Dutch. But soon after Peter 1 is German and remain in this role until the end of the 18th century, when he had to retreat under pressure from the French. French language in the 19th century was a pass to the high life, the most important component of the image of an educated and educated man .
By the early sixties of the 20th century, the main political direction changes again. Gains on English and the language becomes global communication and international communication.
The famous linguist Vorobyova said: "Foreign language is objectively a public good, so its inclusion in the program of higher education - the social order of society. Foreign language, as well as native, does not exist in isolation in society and can not live their own lives. It is closely connected to all spheres of social life: economics, politics, art, education, reflecting the mentality and culture of the country it represents” [7,174].
According to N. Nazarbaev policy, people should learn one obligatory foreign language - English. "Nowadays we take active measures to create conditions for our children to learn Russian and English equally as Kazakh language. This three language policy should be encouraged on a State level. We should work to breakthrough in learning the English language. Having this "lingua franca” of the modern world will reveal new and unlimited opportunities for each citizen of our country”. It means that Nazarbaev's message is a direct argument to learn foreign languages because Kazakhstan takes a high place in the world's table. Since 2011 Kazakhstan became an international state, when took part in OSCE, it was a big impulse for developing ours economy, policy and international relations. Therefore, Nazarbaev makes an aim to learn fl in a short time for the program 2015 .
According to the last statistics, English is an most-spoken international language. One and a half billion people around the world speak English. English is a native of 400-500 million in 12 countries and one billion-plus use English as a second language. Currently, among the most widely spoken languages in the world of English is a 3 or 4 position (along with Spanish) as their native language, and 2nd place in the total number of speakers .
English is the language of business and politics. This is one of the working languages ??of the United Nations. The world of information technology is also based on the English language. More than 90% of the world's information is also stored in English. This language is defined by the main language of the Internet, Radio and television broadcasting world's largest companies (CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC), covering an audience of 500 million people, is also performed in English. English produced more than 70% of scientific publications. In this language, sing songs and make movies.
English is common in the world, but there are countries who speak the English language, in which it recognized as an official. Some of them are: Australia, Bahamas, Botswana, Gambia, India, Nigeria, Ireland, Cameroon, Canada, Kenya, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Pakistan, Guinea, Singapore, United States, Fiji, the Philippines, South Africa, Malta, etc. England (or Great Britain), English as their native country, we do not call. This is a partial list of countries that speak English. There are states in which the language, though not recognized as an official, but it speaks much of the population. English as a second unofficial language is in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Belorussia, Czech Republic, Latvia, Denmark, Germany, Austria, etc .
The spreading of a FL among the population of a country is very often caused by internal policy to promote a country, for example different international events are hosted by them. For example, in 2017 the Expo will be held in Astana. At the moment, there is an active training for this event. World Fair or Expo (Expo) - International Exhibition, which is a symbol of industrialization and open platform to demonstrate the technical and technological achievements. An international exhibition EXPO-2017 in Astana is one of the key projects in Kazakhstan. The initiative to organize such a big event in our nation's capital belongs to the President. Subject EXPO-2017 - "Energy of the Future" - will attract the world's best energy-saving technologies, new technology development and use of existing alternative energy sources such as solar, wind, sea, ocean and geothermal waters. Astana can be an effective platform for showcasing the best of world developments and trends in the industry. The exhibition will give a powerful impetus to the system of economic diversification and technological upgrading of production facilities and the country's science base. Holding of such events would give a new impetus to the development of serious small-and medium-sized businesses. The exhibition will attract significant private investment in the construction of exhibition venues and infrastructure of the capital. Expo is a good impetus for economic development, tourism and new perspectives. In order to realize the goals that must be 4 years 70% of the population took possession of foreign languages. Now the Ministry of Education organizes special courses for the service sector, such as catering and transport. In fact, foreign languages contribute not only to the worldwide fame of our country, as well as the transition to a new stage of development .
Thus N. Nazarbaev mentioned that foreign-language education as a component of the overall national education system can not be considered outside the context of the environment in which it operates and develops. The expanding integration processes, the growth of professional and scientific exchanges, deepen international cooperation and collaboration in the past decade, spurred ongoing development of foreign language education .
The methodologists all over the world under the influence of reforms try to find the ways how eefectively teach FL and spread the language to the mass. And the Internet which has already entered our ordinary life facilitates here a lot. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.
The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a message was sent over the ARPANet from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), after the second piece of network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) .
In late 1966 a famous programmer Roberts went to DARPA to develop the computer network concept and quickly put together his plan for the "ARPANET", publishing it in 1967. At the conference where he presented the paper, there was also a paper on a packet network concept from the UK by Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL. Scantlebury told Roberts about the NPL work as well as that of Paul Baran and others at RAND. The RAND group had written a paper on packet switching networks for secure voice in the military in 1964. It happened that the work at MIT (1961-1967), at RAND (1962-1965), and at NPL (1964-1967) had all proceeded in parallel without any of the researchers knowing about the other work. The word "packet" was adopted from the work at NPL and the proposed line speed to be used in the ARPANET design was upgraded from 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps.
The historian Barry M. wrote that in august 1968, after Roberts and the DARPA funded community had refined the overall structure and specifications for the ARPANET, an RFQ was released by DARPA for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP's). The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by Frank Heart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) .
Due to Kleinrock's early development of packet switching theory and his focus on analysis, design and measurement, his Network Measurement Center at UCLA was selected to be the first node on the ARPANET. All this came together in September 1969 when BBN installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected. Doug Engelbart's project on "Augmentation of Human Intellect" (which included NLS, an early hypertext system) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) provided a second node. SRI supported the Network Information Center, led by Elizabeth (Jake) Feinler and including functions such as maintaining tables of host name to address mapping as well as a directory of the RFC's [40,254].
In 1982, Elizabeth Feinler said that the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was standardized, and consequently, the concept of a world-wide network of interconnected TCP/IP networks, called the Internet, was introduced. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET) and again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations.commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic .
In October 1972, Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. It was also in 1972 that the initial "hot" application, electronic mail, was introduced .
Ray Tomlinson (1962) at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software, motivated by the need of the ARPANET developers for an easy coordination mechanism. In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages. From there email took off as the largest network application for over a decade. This was a harbinger of the kind of activity we see on the World Wide Web today, namely, the enormous growth of all kinds of "people-to-people" traffic [41,490].
Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)"phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet's takeover over the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.
The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangebly, however, the internet and World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a vast hardware and software infrastructure that enables computer interconnectivity. The Web, on the other hand, is a massive hypermedia database, a myriad collection of documents and other resources interconnected by hyperlinks. Imagine the World Wide Web as the platform which allows one to navigate the Internet with the use of a browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Follow the Internet Timeline below to see how the Internet has evolved over the years and take a glance at what lies ahead in the future as the Internet continues to change the world we live in .
John Postel (2002) wrotes that the Internet has changed much in the two decades since it came into existence. It was conceived in the era of time-sharing, but has survived into the era of personal computers, client-server and peer-to-peer computing, and the network computer. It was designed before LANs existed, but has accommodated that new network technology, as well as the more recent ATM and frame switched services. It was envisioned as supporting a range of functions from file sharing and remote login to resource sharing and collaboration, and has spawned electronic mail and more recently the World Wide Web. But most important, it started as the creation of a small band of dedicated researchers, and has grown to be a commercial success with billions of dollars of annual investment [42, 12].
Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.
According to Polat (2008) desire for integration in education, as one of the most evident trends dictate the need to go into a single global educational environment. Hence, such an interest in all countries of the world to the new information technologies and, in particular, to computer telecommunications, which open a window into this world space [43, 272].
Polat also said: "Internet - is a global network of people which consists of different organizations, government agencies and private companies, as well as private users. The prototype of the Internet was an experimental network of the Ministry of Defense. Now the Internet is common throughout the world, and its users has reached more than 40 million people. Over the past few years there have been dramatic changes in the approach to the use of computer programmers telecommunications (CPC). Features and functions of the CPC become much more powerful scope, particularly in pedagogy, is dramatically expanding. There is a strong trend of educational activities with the use of CTC as online publications. Almost any result obtained by students during the school project or just in the classroom, in a matter of minutes can be published on the Internet. In fact, any learning activity with the application of new information technologies can now not only considered, but really to be a network" [43, 276].
In the last 2-3 years in teaching practice are actively included the term Internet education. Informatization of Education is a priority for education. The task of the school that exists in today's society, to prepare their students for the possibility to navigate in the information space, the ability to acquire information culture. There is now no doubt about the need to use the Internet in the school process. And in almost all areas of school education space really harness the power of the network. 
According to Daniel Lynch thus information technologies allow:
- organize various research collaborations of students, teachers, students, researchers from various schools, research centers and one or in different regions or even different countries. Project-based learning makes it possible to organize it in a truly creative research or purely action-independent application partners using the variety of methods and forms of self-cognition and practice of creative activity;
- provide operational advice to a wide range of learners of science resource centers;
- create a network of distance education and training of teachers;
- the rapid exchange of information, ideas, plans on issues of interest to the participants, topics of joint projects, thus broadening their horizons, raising their cultural level;
- taught how genuine research, modeling the work of the scientific laboratory, art studio;
- develop the ability to extract information from diverse sources, process it using the latest computer technology to store and apply for as many long distance at different points of the planet;
- create an authentic language environment (in terms of compatibility of international telecommunications projects, regular teleconferences and audio - video conferencing, chat) that contribute to the natural need to communicate in a foreign language, and hence - the need for learning foreign languages;
- promote cultural, humanitarian development of students on the basis of initiation to the widest information of cultural, ethnic, humanistic plan.
These benefits of the Internet are becoming apparent while using it directly to the student or the school auditorium. Ideal conditions for such work is the presence of a computer class with an Internet connection. Using the Internet in class should not be a goal in itself. In order to properly determine the place and role of the Internet in learning a foreign language, first of all, you need to find a clear answer to the questions: who, what, when and to what extent it should be used. 
According to Davies J. (1996) internet-based technologies can be an extremely useful resource for learners of foreign languages.
· Various innovations (including Google-assisted language learning and concordancers) have revolutionized the approaches to teaching foreign languages.
· New technologies and applications allow students to become increasingly autonomous in learning foreign languages, as well as gaining more intercultural literacy .
Kelsen B. (2009) said that the proliferation of Internet-based software over the past decade undoubtedly had transformed the way foreign languages are taught. And yet, while educators increasingly exploit these pedagogical tools, the real story seems to be the way students use them to acquire foreign language competency. The literature seems to suggest that students increasingly rely on mobile-assisted language learning independently of, or asynchronously to, more structured learning, but other factors have also received the attention of researchers. This brief literature survey highlights some of these issues .
Note that in the following discussion, computer-assisted language learning (CALL), mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), Internet-based language learning (IBLL), online language learning (OLL), Google-assisted language learning (GALL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) are different forms of technology-based language learning (TBLL).
Warschauer (2008) wrote while computers had been popular among language teachers since the 1960s, their usefulness had amplified by the development of Internet-based technologies. In particular, the advent of Web 2.0 technologies and applications has been hugely successful in allowing students to learn independently or collaboratively through the media - from listening to language files to watching YouTube videos to using specific language-instruction software [46,7].
Over the past several decades, studies analyzing the relationship between technology and foreign language learning have tended to focus on several key issues, including motivation, reading and writing, research, and mobile-assisted language learning.
Importantly, all of this scholarship points to the advantages inherent in electronic communication, including the democratic nature of the modality that allows students to express themselves freely, comfortably, and creatively in learning a second language. A few researchers have even suggested that some students prefer to learn a new language through electronic technology than face-to-face in the classroom. Practice and confidence are cornerstones in learning a foreign language. Internet-based language learning provides learners opportunities to practice with confidence. They use Skype, chat, and instant messengers, including Google Talk, Trillian, Pidgin, and Rediff, to improve their speaking and comprehension skills by talking with native speakers of the language they are learning. Similarly, Twitter and Facebook can be helpful in learning a foreign language.
Reading and Writing
Many researchers as Read Gilgen, Conroy have noted the role technology plays in developing reading and writing skills. Early in the millennium, Adina Levine, Orna Ferenz, and Thea Reves identified that in order to develop critical literacy skills for foreign language learners, computer-based technologies were more useful than the conventional method of reading. Several years later Subhadra Ramachandran supported this finding, propounding that judicious use of technology in the classroom helped students in their literacy development. From the point of view of students' writing skill, he also determined that using this kind of technology in the classroom helped students write better and improved their collaborative writing skills. Likewise, Read Gilgen described that personal digital assistant and laptop devices were considerably more effective than traditional modalities, creating a mobile language-learning environment for students. Recent scholarship concurs with these findings, although it tends to recommend using a combination of web-based and traditional writing instruction rather than a single approach .
Many analyses of the use of technology in foreign language education have emphasized the importance of search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and Bing. Some authors have even suggested that simply browsing on these search engines - aside from using their associated translation tools - actually improves foreign language learners' writing skills. Similarly, Google-assisted language learning (GALL) has been identified as being especially beneficial for language learning. Google can translate in many languages, and maps, images, and videos can be downloaded for language teaching purposes. It is useful not only for teachers but also for students. Both can Google a lots of material related to language teaching and learning [46,9].
The use of corpus-based language learning has led to the development by scholars at the Universite de Quйbйc а Montrйal in Canada of an online concordancer, a type of search engine designed for language study. Here, the Compleat Lexical Tutor analyzes linguistic similarities and patterns among several Romance languages in a large database of texts .
Studies indicate that students introduced to these kinds of resources were more apt to use them independently at a later date. In the same way, there is some evidence that writing blogs helps students learn independently while also developing intercultural knowledge and linguistic skills. In this way they not only improve their writing skill but also obtain understanding of the culture of the target language.
According to Lee L. (2011) on the whole, while student satisfaction surveys confirm the continued success of Internet-based resources in the teaching of foreign languages, a growing body of literature suggests these technologies are encouraging students to become increasingly autonomous in their learning of foreign languages, as well as more interculturally competent. This trend supports the larger concept of lifelong learning, especially with respect to learning foreign languages in or out of the language classroom.
1.2 The modern methods of teaching 4 basic skills
According to Filatov (2004), effective language training includes all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. All of them are important and can not give preference to only certain types when learning a foreign language. But it is an aid in the capture of oral language and reading. It should be borne in mind that when we talk about writing as an independent form of speech activity, then it is about writing. The purpose of learning to write in this context - to teach students to write in a foreign language are the same texts that an educated person is able to write in their native language, and any text written by the author - is the expression of ideas in graphic form [11,275].
1. The main skill of FL learners is writing.
A writing system is an organized regular method (typically standardized) of information storage and transfer for the communication of messages (expressing thoughts or ideas) in a language by visually (or possibly tactilely) encoding and decoding (known as writing and reading) with a set of signs or symbols, both known generally as characters (with the set collective referred to as a 'script'). These characters, often including letters and numbers, are usually recorded onto a durable medium such as paper or electronic storage/display, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing in sand or skywriting .
William Casllon (1727) said that a writing system would typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader would have the meaning of the intended message accurately preserved [12,3]. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms, ideograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a full range of thoughts and ideas. The invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BCE, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner that was not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, it provided a reliable form of long distance communication. And with the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication. Secure written communications were also made more reliable with the invention of encryption. Writing came to around 3300 BC in Sumer, in 3000 BC in Egypt by 2000 BC China. In all regions, this process was the same pattern: pattern - the icon - character - alphabet (the latter came from the Phoenicians in the 1st millennium BC) . Hieroglyphic writing has led to particularly thinking of the East, the ability to think in symbols. Character does not transmit sound words, and conditionally shows an object or an abstract sign - the symbol of the concept. A complex character consists of more simple elements, endowed with its own value. Moreover, these values may be several.
The inscriptions found on the walls of the Tombs, on bricks, clay tablets, parchments. Egyptian papyri, sometimes reaching 30 - 40 m length. In the ruins of ancient palaces are whole libraries. During the excavation of Nineveh found 25,000 clay tablets belonging to the Assyrian king Ashshurbanipalu. This is a collection of laws, reports of spies, decisions on judicial matters, medical prescriptions .
Bicilli (1997) wrote that writing in Greek culture XXII-XII centuries played a limited role. Like many people of the world, the people of Greece first started making records picturesque, well-known in the second half of the III millennium Every sign of pictographic writing meant the whole concept. Cretans are some signs, however, few have created under the influence of Egyptian writing ierograficheskogo arising in IV th gradually forms are simplified characters, and some has come to signify only syllables [13,55].
Such a linear letter syllabary, formed as early as 1700 called the letter A, which is still not solved. After 1500 in Hellas has developed a more convenient form of writing - syllabary V. It included about half of the syllabic signs the letter A, dozens of new characters, as well as some signs of ancient picturesque writing.
In the middle of the first millennium AD, the Turkic-speaking peoples have used their own writing system, called runic writing. The first information about the runic inscriptions appear in Russia at the end of the XVIII century.russian and foreign scientists have copied and posted some samples of ancient Turkic runic inscriptions.
According to recent studies, the runic writing was born before our era, perhaps in Saka time. In the III-V in, BC, there are two options runic - Hun and east that existed on the territory of Zhetisu and Mongolia. In the VI-VII centuries. based on the latter develops ancient Turkic writing, called Orkhon-Yenisey .
Trubetskoi said that hun runic script was the basis for the development of Bulgarian and Khazar writing, and writing and Kangars Kipchak. The main material for writing in Turkic-speaking peoples were wooden plank [14,60].
A. Budagov (1975) defines a theory of writing - written speech. Written speech includes two types of speech activities: productive (writing) and receptive (reading). Written speech has no means of sound and intonation. Writing and written speech act primarily as a means and a goal of teaching, while learning a foreign language.
Written speech is also a basic form of existence of speech in the scientific, journalistic, formal, business and artistic styles [15,4].
Veretennikova A.E. (2007) distinguishes several types of writing based on research in the university of Southwest Louisiana. The first type of writing is used when there is a need to think about anything or share a personal experience with someone. It includes journal, diary, memories, writing. The second type is associated with the need to share information about famous people, places, events. This type includes interviews, reports, eyewitness stories, poems. The third type is represented creative aspects, such as stories, poems, jokes. The fourth type - is reflective writing, which presents some experience writing. It includes creative essays, editorials, commentary. The fifth kind of writing is to perform various tasks on a variety of subjects, which are considered as the most effective way to prove to themselves and the teachers that the subject understood and became part of the author's thinking. Business written speech - is the sixth form of writing - suggests the possession of writing skills, which are necessary for business communication and includes a business letter, statement .
The steps, which include the development of written speech: writing the first version, review, review of written, editing, score.
Asimov (1999) identifies three stages of training of writing: the first - is mastering the graphics, and second is the development of structural models, models of the sentences, and the third - is the mastery of written speech as a medium of communication [16, 65].
Today letter - is written text messages sent to that someday. This is one of the means of communication between citizens, institutions, organizations and enterprises.
Now, the writing does not always and not immediately begin to use to solve macro goals. It can also be used to address more specific micro goals purely academic value.
Boris Unbegaun formulated a term of written language. Written language is a kind of speech activity, the purpose of which is to present ideas in writing.
According to the theory Passov E.I., writing is as a means of learning which plays different roles at different stages of training. Thus, at the initial stage of training is the main task of teaching writing, because in this period there is a formation of calligraphy skills and abilities associated with audio-letters correspondences [9,115]. These skills are a prerequisite for the formation of reading and writing. At the middle stage of the center of gravity in the above letter is transferred to spell due to the accumulation of new language material. At the same time develops the written word as a means of encouraging the formation of skills and oral communication skills. Finally, on the senior stage acquired earlier writing skills are improving, along with the same perfection of speech. Designated takes and work on spelling in relation to the new linguistic material. In addition, the written word becomes another important role - it becomes an aid to the independent work of students of the language, particularly in the form of annotations and drawing up plans to read texts. Here we can use analytic method. This method was created by E. K. Trann in 1778. Analytic method - is a holistic method, study begins with perception of images, words and short sentences. In this method he defined the connection between sounds, letters, syllables and sentences .
At the moment there are two types of checking writing. They are IELTS and TOEFL. IELTS and TOEFL exams to determine the level of English proficiency. The main difference from the TOEFL and IELTS is that the TOEFL conducted on a computer on-line, while IELTS is a paper test. This is particularly important in the sections of the test writing. Indeed, in a paper test will need to write an essay by hand, words are illegible will not be counted. If the work will have to type on a computer must also take into account your typing speed in English (another point to be taken into account in the preparation), unfortunately there will not be a regular function checks the text, which we used to use in Microsoft Word .
In both tests, the written section consists of two parts, but one of these tests is very different, while the second part is very similar. In the first part of the IELTS is a graph, chart, table, diagram or illustration. At the writing of this section is given only 20 minutes, the required number of words from 150. The description should not be very detailed, it should display basic information, and carry a little analysis. In the TOEFL essay is integrated, that is, in this section will be to listen to the text and the text for reading, and essay should be to give a joint opinion on the two texts. For writing this essay is given 30 minutes. On the IELTS for writing an essay on any subject (the second task Writing) is given 40 minutes .
2. Listening is the main goal of learning. In accordance with the requirement to base line language skills, work on three types of listening:
a) listening with a full understanding of the text perceived by ear (listening for detail);
b) listening with a total coverage of content, i. e, with only a basic understanding of information (listening for the main idea);
c) listening for becoming desired or information of interest (Listening for specific information);
Listening - a complex process of perception and understanding of speech by ear.
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