Organization of foreign language lessons in kindergarten
The problem of linguistic abilities of a child. Goals and objectives of foreign language teaching preschoolers. Number of pupils in a group, the frequency, duration of sessions. The game as the leading method of teaching preschoolers. Learning vocabulary.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Possibility of preschool English
2. The problem of linguistic abilities of a child
3. Goals and objectives of foreign language teaching preschoolers
4. Number of pupils in a group, the frequency and duration of sessions
5. The game as the leading method of teaching preschoolers
6. Guidelines for teaching preschoolers
6.1 Learning pronunciation
6.2 Tutorials transcription
6.3 Training pre-school children to read and write
6.4 Learning vocabulary
6.5 Recommendations for the Organization of foreign language lessons in kindergarten
THE LIST OF LITERATURE
Over the past 5-6 years, the number of people studying English has dramatically increased. It is clear that without knowing English language a modern man can not do without. Changed and the age of the man. If technique relies primarily on schoolchildren, now parents seek to the earliest teaching foreign language. Besides, this preschool age is considered to be as the most favorable for this activity by the psychologists.
The changed situation creates an ever-increasing need for community educators. The lack of results leads to rather sad consequences. People can hardly speak the language basics, consider themselves to be able to teach preschooler as young children, this knowledge is enough. As a result, not just useless time is lost but also damages the further advancement of children in this area: the need to retrain themselves always heavier than teach and correct bad pronunciation is harder than put sounds with '' zero ''. But even when at the kids' place come people are good at language, it is not always possible to achieve the desired result: teaching kids is a very complex case which requires very different methodical approach than teaching schoolchildren and adults. Faced with methodically helpless lessons, kids can acquire an aversion to a foreign language for a long time, despairing in their potentialities.
The purpose of this work is to reveal basic options, shared the idea of organizing the teaching of foreign languages to children of pre-school age.
The main tasks of the study are:
-to identify opportunities for preschoolers in English.
-Open the main aims and objectives of learning a foreign language.
-Open the main methods of teaching foreign language.
Subject of research is that learning a foreign language.
The object of study is the game, as the leading method of teaching preschool children foreign languages in domestic and foreign technologies. The work consists of a theoretical and practical parts. In the theoretical part we identify opportunities in pre-school children learning English, open the main aims and objectives of learning a foreign language, also disclose the main methods of teaching foreign language pre-school children.
The practical part of this work are approximate pronunciation exercises to teach preschoolers, mastery of transcription, reading, writing, foreign language vocabulary and the advices on organizing the lessons are given
Theoretical significance of this work is that its results could contribute to the further introduction of learning foreign languages in nursery and solve many problems of children in a foreign language.
The practical value of this exercise is that these recommendations and many tasks and exercises can be used by teachers of foreign languages in nursery and primary school.
1. Possibility of preschool English
Readiness for pre-school education in recent years for learning foreign language is increasingly reduced. Typically, a child of four years is considered quite prepared for school, some parents want to give a child to a group for three years children . What age is the most suitable to begin training?
It is known that from an early age in mastering a foreign language speech is truly unique. Even K.D. Ushinskij wrote: '' Child becomes accustomed in a few months, so to speak a foreign language, nor can it in few years '[2;10].
Unique predisposition to a speech (as well as most-favoured-nation treatment in mastering a foreign language is age between 4-8-9 years), the natural mechanism of learning speech plasticity as well as a certain independence of the mechanism of action of hereditary factors linked to membership of a particular nationality,-all this gives the child an opportunity under appropriate conditions have foreign language. This ability with age fades. Therefore, any attempt to teach a second foreign language (especially separated from culture), older children tend to be associated with many difficulties.
Successful mastering a foreign language speech makes it possible for children because children (particularly pre-school) are more flexible and faster than in later stages, remembering the age material; the existence of a globally operating model and naturalness of communication; the so-called language barrier, the fear of causing discomfort to braking communication in a foreign language even if you have the necessary skills; experience relatively small voice communication in the mother tongue, etc. In addition, the game, being the main activity of pre-school children, allows you to make the communication with virtually any language units. All this enables early outstanding communication needs and possibilities of expression in a foreign language in children of this age, thus avoiding a substantial controversy, which occurs when a later start of teaching this subject between the communication needs of the trainee (desire to know and say a lot) and limited language and voice experience (ignorance, as many express low vocabulary). So, for how many years you want to start learning a foreign language? According to the author tutorial "how to teach children to speak English ' Sholpo I.L., the best way to start learning a foreign language. Learning six year children, in its view, of course, but counterproductive. Olds learn at a much slower pace than five years. Their reactions are emotions beat over the edge, attention constantly switches from one subject to another. Children this age not attending kindergarten, hard to do without the presence of their parents, they had not yet formed a sense of the ridiculous, and it is important to the learning a foreign language. In addition, olds was not yet sufficiently fluent language: they have not developed communication, not a regulatory function speech and internal it. Did not reach developed forms and RPG, which is the largest value in teaching preschoolers.
Experiment would be inappropriate to start learning a foreign language in age, according to the author of the books received Z. Futerman, comparing in two groups of children, one of which began to be engaged in a four-year, and another in the age of five. Olds not only left behind five year in the first year of studies, but also for the second year was slower than in the first five-year period, allowing the teacher to conclude ' some negative impact of early learning a foreign language in the further education ''. The optimal age Z. Futerman considers a five-year; to the same conclusion comes from practical experience and E. Negnevickaya [5;28].
As to three year children, it is not necessary to tell about conscious learning in a group At this age the child only begins with an authenticated speech in their mother tongue, dialogue speech was in its infancy. Vocabulary child under three years of age is almost exclusively through the accumulation of words, and only after three years begins to grow rapidly through mastering the word-and shape laws. Neither the training nor the collective's work, they are not yet available. Experience has shown early child development (in particular teaching kids swimming), children under 3 years are able to learn anything only in close contact with parents. However, the author of an article from a journal '' Foreign languages at school '' No. 2 of 1997, '' English speaking children in the kindergarten ' Sebedina V.V., shares with the readers information on the successful completion of a four-year experiment in English kids age, held in 1994 in kindergarten No. 14 of Syktyvkar. The author concludes that, "now it is safe to say that children's early learning a foreign language speaking children in this age in a group is legitimate because it gives you the flexibility to move towards greater learning a foreign language at primary school, and deepen positive motivation study subject at school ''. The author notes that children of this age are very curious are inexhaustible need for new impressions, lust for studies and all of these physiological characteristics used by teachers to help educate English speaking. However, as it is to use all these features, the author of the article leaves the secret, but the author reveals another that each lesson was based on the communicative teaching that itself self evident, since article called ''English speaking children in the kindergarten. I would like to point out an interesting fact that every other month in the kindergarten interesting classes were held; different tales, kids sang songs, read poetry, and all such activities were recorded on video. We believe that teachers have created a new interesting for learning foreign language for babies, although the author sees a deeper meaning to use video, namely, '' Video allows them to see themselves analyze errors, point to their feats. ''. Again, the author has not specified how children of three years will analyze their mistakes. It is necessary to remember that children of three years take so-called ' crisis of three years '' hard that influences learning a foreign language. We can conclude that the author's claim that the three-year age is right for learning foreign language is not supported by facts, namely, are unsubstantiated. , Arkin provides a five-year age as the most appropriate (in both physiological and psychological sense) to begin any training activities [3;17]. At this age, the child is capable of more or less lengthy concentration of attention, it has sufficient vocabulary and speech models to meet their communication needs. Five -year children has a sense of the ridiculous, role-playing games are developed, complex. It is obvious that for a conscious learning all the requirements are generally sentenced to five years. Why parents have a strong desire to send children to learn a foreign language as soon as possible? Mostly, because of popular imitative theory of learning and the faith of many people in wonderful language obtaining at an early age.
But unconscious, spontaneous learning is, in fact, only in a context of permanent residence in the language. So dose the process of learning language mother tongue go, the same is with bilingual children, grown up in a bilingual families the child hears one language, and in the yard, on the street - another (for example, in the former Soviet republics). We know of cases of bilingualism in an artificial conditions, when the father spoke with his son, from his birth, and to five years a child spoke equally well as in Russian as in English. At the same is based the'' method governess '', but it requires many hours of the day to contact with the child in a foreign language. In a group of kindergarten, at home this method is not possible.. In addition, not all children can succeed in an involuntary remembering. Studies have revealed the existence of two types of students by Kabardov: communicative and not communicative [6;25]. If the first type is equally successful in an involuntary remembering then in the situations of involuntary remembering, 2 (30%, regardless of age) are capable to productive activity only when remembering with the help of Visual support and verbal material. Speaking about imitation, the acquisition of knowledge, we automatically include 30% children become unable to successfully master the language. But this is unfair: the same children may reach not less success than the communicative type if will be put into a situation of conscious knowledge.
Therefore, mastering a foreign language at pre-school age must take place in any game.. And children must be physically and psychologically be ready for it. And this usually comes to five years.
2. The problem of linguistic abilities of a child
Very exciting for both parents and is just as important for the teacher is the ability of the child to learn foreign languages. Are there specific abilities in this area, and if so, how they are related to other properties of the individual, and can be adjusted? How can one talk about linguistic abilities, as we're talking about the Endowment's musical or literary?
M.M. Gohlerner and G.W. Ejger emit the following linguistic abilities:
clear verbal memory;
quickness and easiness of education functional-language summaries;
speech simulation for phonetic and grammatical, lexical and stylistic levels;
the ability rapidly learn to new psycholinguistic perspective the objective world as you move from one language to another;
ability to formalize the verbal material.
These statements aren't quite clearly right criticized A.A. Leontief, which makes a bold statement that '' capabilities to the language '' existent[8;76].
'' Overall language ability … from many components are usually non-specific, non-specialized '' believes the scientist. The unspecific abilities A.A. Leontief categorizes a common type of central nervous system, temperament, character, individual differences in the mental processes (memory, thinking, perception, imagination), as well as the specific features of the individual involved.
I.L. Sholpo fully agrees with A.A. Leontief, who argues that '' there are no restrictions, known as ' nature ', the ability of the child ''. However, I.L. Sholpo believes that talk about some specific abilities towards the language is still possible, it identifies the following key parameters that can be used to judge the varying abilities of the human language:
Speech comprehension supposes sensitivity to phonetic, rhythmic intonational speech. Language memory that allows you quickly recharge, acquire new vocabulary and grammatical structures forms, translating words from a passive to an active dictionary.
Lexical flair to communicate the meaning of the word and its form to other languages, feel the importance of individual word-building suffixes and prefixes, define the meanings when you select a Word from several synonimical. Grammatical (constructive) flair to create a harmonious whole of disparate elements common grammatical constructions, feel like the Web, and harmonizing how forming words per sentence.
Emotionally-push the perception of language that includes subjective evaluation of speech, the feeling of ' taste ', the language, its beauty connects words and concepts, fulfilling lives an abstraction.
Functional- stylistic language, which is right and wrong perceptions of his style and ability to assess the specific speech situation.
Important non-specific personality traits necessary for successful mastering a foreign language, are a positive, interest for life and culture of different countries, as a sign of any active interest in the world, as well as communicative person, i.e. the desire and ability to enter into communion with others and the ability easily adapt to different situations. Children five to six years have good hearing tenacious voice language memory. It is highly developed emotionally-push the perception of language. Form of the word, his sound shell, and Cadence speech, beauty and expressive sound for children in this age group is more important than lexical and grammatical completeness.
The word attracts them, especially their sound. Children five to six years are particularly sensitive to phonosemantic patterns. Experiments by A. N. Negnevickaya, Shahnarovich show, for example, that sound <e>is associated in the minds of the young and the <о>-with a large group of children are unaware that this kit were asked the question: "what more-Kit or a cat?": an absolute majority of the children replied that a cat is bigger. An absolute result showed the experiment in the process of which wooden figures of different sizes were divided into two groups - "BIM" and the "BOM". Associations of this kind are natural for the adult who consciously or unconsciously perceive phonosemantic patterns, but it does not produce a rapid and sure answer as a kid. For a child it is natural the same characteristic attitude towards lexical and phonetic value, that with great observation expressed in the poem I. Tokmakova Plim":
Spoon is a spoon.
Soup is eaten with a spoon.
Cat is a cat.
Do cats seven kittens.
Rag is rag.
Cloth clean the table.
Dressed up and went away.
I coined the word
Funny Word plim.
I repeat again -
Plim, plim, plim ...
That's jumping and jumps -
Plim, plim, plim,
Nothing Plim, plim, plim.
foreign language teaching preschooler
In fact, the word "phonosemantic characteristic plim" is given very precisely because the word "plim" really means "jumping and running.
'' Link things and words is base on similarity which a child watches between material Shell Word and material, sensually perceptible signs items ... so no child, and there are so many onomatopoeia and shaped words ' ' write Negnevickaya and M. Shahnarovich
Other skills: lexical and grammatical flair, functionally-stylistic language - are perceived in pre-school children at the formative stage and are not enough. The ability of this kind depends largely on the level of communicative practices. The more this experience (including mastering foreign languages), the more developed the lexical and grammatical flair, so each subsequent language pass easier.
The interpersonal skills and a good Setup, children between five and six years for the most part fairly to degree level and the many complexes and clips that are psychological hurdle for many adults learn foreign language as a means of communication (e.g. adult much more afraid of making a mistake); they are curious and eager for active cognition of the world; and this process direct cognitive is complemented by verbally.
In order to identify the level of development of language skills, you can use a simple testing.
Must be concluded that the capacity for language, like any others, are only relevant activities and because '' any normal child can and should learn a foreign language and to use them in communion "(Leontiev, A.A.), but will it or not - is largely dependent on the Organization of its activities, teacher of methodological approach to learning.
3. Goals and objectives of foreign language teaching of pre-school children
Technique of pedagogical work is defined by the object and purpose of the teacher. From the point of view, the main objectives of Sholpo in learning preschool language are:
provide basic social skills in a foreign language; ability to use foreign language, an expression of thoughts and feelings in a real communication situations arise;
creating a positive setting for further study of foreign languages; the awakening interest in the life and culture of other countries;
education for active and creative and emotional and aesthetic relation to a Word;
development of linguistic abilities of students age structure's of preschoolers; decentration of personality, that is able to look at the world from different perspectives.
4. Number of pupils in a group, the frequency and duration of sessions
Next, a very important concern is that of pupils/teachers. Z. Futerman, referring to the foreign language classes in kindergarten, insists on working with a group (25-30 people), arguing that children are accustomed to each other, as well as more efficient mass games in learning [9;48].
A teacher was not demonstrated efficiency classes in a division into two groups. However, I.L. Sholpo questions these conclusions and writes that perhaps kindergartens habit children each other really so strong that turns out to be a decisive factor, however, in the case of other structures, where groups are full of children, the lessons with a group of 25 persons are ineffective or even 15 people in a group is a serious test for teacher.
Sholpo I.L. recommends that create groups of not fewer than five and not more than ten people, on the grounds that a common conversation (as prescribed psychologists), organized by the joint activities are possible in the group, consisting of a maximum of 8 persons. But given the fact that in winter, children often get sick and drop, you can dial in group up to 10 people.
The next issue is the length and frequency of sessions. Z. Futerman argues that art classes should not last longer than twenty minutes, and for children six years of twenty-five.
This approval is also based on the results of the experiment, however, I.L. Sholpo believes that its results are linked to the previous condition: If the population groups in 25-30 people or teacher, or children are not able to deal with any longer.
Experience working in Group of H. Negnevickaya from 5 to 15 people and the experience I.L. Sholpo in 7-10 people, show that with so many children duration of thirty-five to forty five minutes (depending on age) do not tire of children, and they then unwillingness to leave complete lesson, which is rightly considered Z. Futerman, it is necessary for effective learning. It is important to only every five minutes to change activity move from mobile games to the round table; then for dance, charged; thereafter to singing songs, etc. A study finds I.L. Sholpo - twice or three times a week. Classes once a week, enormously helpful, children manage to forget stuff as well, for so many days, who has not received reinforcements.
5. The game as the leading method of teaching preschool children foreign languages
Vygotsky and D.B. Elkonin called game as a lead activity of pre-school children, but scientists are due to not having prevailed in his practice, to all other activities, and that's it for this period leads the development of pre-school children [10;13]. About English game is written a lot of ,the questions of its theory are so difficult that there is no single classification yet. I.L. Sholpo offers his version of the classification of educational games that you can use in learning foreign language of young children.
The author distinguishes between learning games for situational, competitive, rhythm-music and art. The situational role-playing games that simulate situations of communication on any occasion. They in turn are divided into reproductive games where children play on the model, the standard dialog, applying it to a given situation and with improvisational games requiring and modifying various models. Of course, can (and should) be smart when the reproduction is a game of improvisation.
To include the most competitive games for learning vocabulary and ratification. They wins best linguistic material. This is all sorts of crosswords, '' '' auctions, so games with language jobs, executing commands.
Rhythmomusical games is all kinds of traditional games like roundelays, songs and dances with the choice of partners that help to build communication skills rather than improving the phonetic and rhythmodynamical parties speech and language immersion in spirit, for example: '' Nuts and May ' '
Artistic or creative, the game is a kind of standing on the border between games and art whose path is to a child through the game. They, in turn, can be divided into dramatizing (placing small scenes in English); Visual games, such as graphical dictation, application, etc.; and verbally-creative (selection of rhymes, collective composition labels comics, collective writing little Tales).
On the border of situational games and creative dramatization an activity as … known tales, already lost in the well. For example, a game of "Turnip" or "Teremok", which, depending on the number of playing and learning a new language, new characters and replicas.
Selecting, or compose the game to be included in the lesson, you must follow the rules set out in the book BY H. Negnevickaya and A. M. Shahnarovich'' Language and children '' (m., 1981):
' 1. before you start playing, please answer the following questions:
What is the goal of the game, so it should learn child?
A speech by an: one of the ... action to the word or words-then what it is and what model?
Does the child knows how to build such a statement of whether there is additional difficulties, '' '' the pitfalls?
2. reply to these questions, a child and figuring out what the situation would be an interesting observation of this model.
3. think like a picture of the child to her immediately ...
4. will gladly play with your child! ''
In this passage reflects the main quality of learning games that are in its name: it must be educational and it should be a game. Soviet encyclopedia defines the game as a kind of unproductive activity, which is not the result of the process. This is a very important topic. Therefore, entering the game, her teaching lesson is important for the teacher, but can't be inspired by the children. The game is to change the style of relations between children and adults, who cannot impose: play, a child can only when he wants and when it's fun, and with those who he had sympathy. The teacher cannot be only the organizer of the game is to play with the child, because children have great pleasure in playing with older because atmosphere is crumbling under the gaze of the spectator.
Thus, educational game is oriented towards the zone of the nearest development game that combines the pedagogical purpose with attractive baby motif.
Turn again to the age of psychology.
'' Nature of children's game is in a role and to create a new position '', wrote to j. Celli. D. B. Elkonin felt role and related actions of the central point of the game. Watched the role-playing game for preschoolers, scientist noticed that at the outset, the perception of the role which could be reduced to an external sign (costume, tools), then the role is beginning to impose certain actions, and finally in decorative situation involving other children by requiring compliance with the rules of the road corresponding to the given situation.
Thus, the foundation of any roleplaying game. Child in role-play can act as himself, English child or adult, a fabulous character or animal, exudes a subject and so on - the possibilities here are endless.
His partner may become another child, a teacher, a doll, an imaginary hero, an assistant-actor or a second teacher, always playing the same role.
While summing all the above, we can draw the following conclusions:
In our view, the optimum age for foreign language studies is 5 years.
The average length of sessions - 35 minutes for five-year-olds and 45 minutes to 6-year-olds in groups of less than 10 people. Sessions are designed to run at least twice a week.
Methodology of conducting lessons need to take into account the age and individual patterns of linguistic abilities of children and their development.
Training foreign language teachers should be understood as a part of the overall development of the child's personality, connected to its sensory, physical, intellectual education.
Preschool Learning a foreign language must be communicative in character, where a child learns a language as a means of communication, i.e. not just eat some individual words and speech patterns, but learning to construct expressions known models in accordance with emerging it communication needs.
Communication in a foreign language must be motivated and focused. You must create a positive psychological fitting on or belonging another language. The way to create a positive motivation is the game.
Games in the lesson should not be occasional or isolated. A pass-through methodology, combining and integrating the other activities in the process of learning the language.
The methodology is based on an imaginary game situations and the adoption of a child or teacher of a particular role.
6. Guidelines for teaching preschoolers
6.1 Learning preschool pronunciation
In this part of the work an approximate pronunciation exercises to teach preschool-age children using playing technique are given.
There are a huge number of variations in pronunciation learning preschool-age children using playing technique. One game in the country. Every sound is a resident of this fantastic country or delivers any sounds, or busy with any work of producing sounds, for example: '' this is early in the morning, Mr .Reed wakes up and jump out of bed. As cold in the House! That's because most cool overnight fireplace. Mr .Reed shivers from cold. Find the cusps of upper teeth. When Reed shivers, the impact of these cusps Tip: [d], [d], [d]! But suddenly he hears from bath such sounds: [t t t t]! This drips water from the tap, which he closed the evening. Tip of the tongue hits bumpy for upper teeth as drops on the bottom shell: [t], [t], [t]!
Guys follow for teacher sounds, not letting the idea that they are trained by pronunciation. Each lesson to added new sounds-heroes, the new adventures of sounds. The conditions necessary to ensure that children continue to enjoy told history: the base remains intact tales conditional points for fidelity where pupils are zealously, recalling teacher refers to correcting errors; on the other hand the story every time is something new, so the tale does not bother, and continues to be of active interest.
Of particular interest are the exercises to learn the pronunciation of sounds that do not have analogs in Russian, for example: [k].
When we are making this sound language like frog, wants to jump out a breath. But it does not permit the lower teeth for which he is a tip. Hard stressed language into the lower teeth … usually half of children incorrectly puts language because no motor habit. But this problem is easily corrected, '' Mr .Reed from the window of his house wanes, to see what kind of outdoors weather and bails out, but is for the windowsill. Lower teeth is a windowsill, and lips during tales have harped on the curtains. Except for hanging is holding If you are not the lower teeth catches on language-sill, Reed will be rolled out of the box and hurts.
The tale is like a snow ball, surrounded by new heroes and subjects, but a tale shall not only grow and shrink, otherwise it becomes too long and cumbersome and bore children who require frequent changes. Spent and not too complex sounds gradually switched from fairy tales, along with their related anecdotal moments. This happens gradually , starting this episode becomes shorter, sets out in more concise, schematic form, without the details, and then completely disappears. However, from time to time, is coming back to already spent points, because without training spent sounds easily forgotten, and the pronunciation is in English.
Better mastery of phonetic language is also coming from accompanying the process of delivering sound movements of hands and the whole body, in fact, a child, according to the American teacher Elizabeth Klejr, learns all of your being. Benefits of physical activity for the assimilation of language material noticed for a long time, so that there is such a great number of '' finger games '' English and Americans.
6.2 Teaching preschoolers transcription
The examination of transcription at an early age is one of the most controversial. Not all believe it is both possible and necessary.
Logically, the transcription icons - symbols of sounds - should be absorbed before letters. In addition, such a course from the transcription of audio via helps students to easily overcome the inherent differences between English pronunciation and spelling.
Children transcription allows them to lead a glossary and actively use it much earlier than is possible with study mentions: indeed, in a letter to each sign transcriptional is the only sound.
Of course, language course for pre-school children should be predominantly oral. You can navigate To transcription when foundations Phonetics in academic and children ready to literacy.
But is it possible to assimilate the transcription in the age of five, if even schoolchildren and adults, know its really bad. Probably why American textbooks for early learning a foreign language teaching is not a phonetic transcription of signs and symbols. In this technique, using phonetic symbols, all instruction is easier to write phonetic characters does not constitute a challenges, as well as phonetic symbols correspond to write English letters. For example: a - a -  [ei], a , a-[a:], e [e], e [I], er-, [I], I-o [ai]- o, [u], o-[l], oi-[I] OU [au], u-u -[u], u-[u:] u [ju]. Therefore, students quickly learn writing those characters being written using these characters. After this, we came to the conclusion that it can be productive only in a foreign, because on the one hand the guys of course faster writing, but later they will have to go to school and enjoy ordinary dictionaries where pronunciations written transcription characters. Therefore, it can be concluded that this is an essential part of learning Ruby pre-school learning a foreign language and this part of the training you need to pay attention.
I.L. Sholpo offers original teaching transcription using manual-colored '' Hello, Mr. Tongue! '' . It is a logical continuation of the game and makes learning study Phonetics pronunciation keys easy, interesting and fun experience.
The principle underlying the allowance is very simple. Every sound is represented by the three pictures. The first is a subject that the teacher associates with that sound. The second picture was with the stylized, Schematic of the same subject. This is how the transition form in which the visible features, first as a specific picture and abstract phonetic symbol. And finally, the third picture shows himself a transcription icon.
This idea is based on the study of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in transition and hieratic For example, the character ' ' pitcher ' first look like a detailed image of the jar containing even the pattern; then as its outline, then both the schema and finally turned into the hook-it is an example of which is hard to find some similarities with the object. The same happens in a coloring book. Thus, the child there is a link between a fairy tale about sounds told by the teacher mnemonic image and transcription, which allows it to remember most easily and quickly.
Here are some stories now in short, with which you associate a picture of the Sound [u]
Mr Reed is lying on the floor and got bored. And he decided to start charging from boredom. "Up!" - and he is inclined upwards. '' Down! "- and again placed on the carpet.
Sound [^] (A) in the yard of Mr. Reed lived Duckling. He was quite small, but the mere catching carried. Open your mouth and swallowed them up. Black fly were too big, so it was hard to swallow. [?] is a deep sound, he lives deep in the neck.
Sounds [I] Mr. Reed while charging, separated the button. He chose her sew. Picked up a needle … But poorly managed to sew up the tongue, so all time and crying: [I]! A thread took too long. In the end needle overeat letters put on weight Vaughn it became the thicker!
Finally, Mr Reed sew on button and include a TV set. A circus show on TV. Mr Reed immediately ceased to Tut. Acted Clown, who played the harmonica. It will stretch, scale down. And his mouth to ear, even srw up knots.
But not always has her mouth to ear. When we say [e] slightly open and sound live near the lips. As dog, Mr. Reed is guarding the house.
On the previous page we got acquainted with [e]. And what's happened here? He was in a hurry to guests ... and stumbled. Stumbled, rolled was upside down. Wanted to say its habitual [e] ... but how much can you say, standing on his head? That's sound is an - short and indistinct?
Sound [a] Drove as Mr .Reed and his friend Stekol?chik into the forest. Walking through the Woods and took to the clearing. And there was a big Green Frog and catching the mosquito. Tongue as a frog, wants to jump out, catch a mosquito. But frog's nothing has happened. It is time for a rear double catches on tussocks and couldn't jump up to mosquitoes. [ k]! [ k]! [ k]!
Sound [r]And mosquitoes and are not afraid of frogs. Fly yourself , tease frog, language it shows: '' [---], all, all! ''
A day of mosquitoes, so a frog tease evening and itch can no longer, ohripli. Want to say '' w-w-w '', '' p-p-p ''. But language still show: [w] [w] [w].
This frog blew and how to jump from all forces! Kicking it became tangled, but not before on mosquitoes and still jumped fell its side. Side, lie not angry-angry, and says so displeased by: [p]!
It is important to maintain motivation study transcription, immediately find a practical use in game situations: for example, received a mysterious message or you want to decipher inscriptions on '' the pirate map ''. And, of course, immediately make vocabulary, which draw objects, animals and sign icons.
The following techniques to make shaped perceptions of sounds is proposed in article by Vereninova j. b.: '' when describing and making vowel sound is more emotional assessments, as if it has been the subject of animate. These assessments can be both qualitative and comparative plan. In turn, each may contain estimates for vowel ('' fast '', '' proud '', etc.), as well as multiple color presentation ('' green '', '' pink '', etc.). Assessment of the plan are to find comparisons with different objects and phenomena of nature, animals, etc. ("Borodino '').
So, in our view more successful is teaching pronunciation through a fairy tale. Composing his tales of the following guidelines:
Enter the sounds slowly, going from simple to more complex.
Work with each sound built in three phases: a) presentation of sound with a detailed description of the action of the tongue, the speech; b) docking, practicing sound, the guys talk about the speech, teacher) reproduced only repeating the sound and started to give game, but on speech. Connect audio from playing his spell, as based on onomatopoetic and similarity. For example, in a fairy tale sound [f] is associated with a broom, because the movement of teeth and lips reminded the Sweeper sex .
Enter the tale only English words that include familiar sounds, or those who are close to the Russian and do not require explanation.
So summing up all over, once again present the guidance to be used in lessons, phonetic language: party
Conscious work on sound, even at a very young age.
Gaming approach to Phonetics; inclusion is an engaging storyline, workout in the game played out as a teacher with students.
Escort sound-conducting movements of hands and body.
An emotional relationship to the sound.
6.3 Training pre-school children to read and write
During the development of different techniques to teach children to read there have been two main directions:
whole-word approach, i.e. reading, based on the perception of the entire words without the exploded his letters and syllables;
phonic sound approach, method based on the selection of sounds in the word.
The advantage of any of the methods is not proven, but how can you catch from your reading further, we are closer to the second track.
Secondary school Teacher in the Azov district ZadonskayaT. I. Izogin offers interesting teaching kids to read by playing '' Country '' Bukvlandiya. Each letter in that country is not just the letter, and any fairy tale character, based on the inherent children shaped memory and associative thinking, teacher, together with pupils Menlo Park images-legends of all letters and letters, combining all the fabulous storyline.
Here are some examples of fabulous stories: '' there are two thieves were crucified Bukvlandiya c and g they pranksters and bullies, every time they meet humpbacked grandma was a little girl I, e, u, or small snail begins with brigand hissing like a snake: [s] [s] [s] and prankster g, begins to buzz like a hornet: [d], [d], [d]. The police of a Hunter and u want to punish the militiaman pranksters and all the consonant letters agree. But with a brigand and a prankster g with a u and consonant letters are hidden from them, putting on a mask of Trinity-gnome, plaintively showing: [k], [k], [k] and [g], [g], [g].
An interesting example of learning to read words from non pronounced consonants can be found in the book '' Kids ` stuff, this book covers a variety of drills to teach children reading, writing, etc. in the book to write a few words from non pronounced consonants, then read to children letting their fantasies and come up with a history of sleep, why these consonants. The teacher first allows installation that these letters are sleeping, and that is why they sleep, invent already children.
This book is an example test that defines how much learned to understand transcription characters and read. This work will involve children and older. We know that children 5-6 year old loves to paint and draw, so all you need to do for children, that is right, then read the word in a transcription sign associated with this sound and paint color (corresponding to the transcriptional character) limited scope corresponds to the word. As a result, the child will enjoy the received picture mystery. In this example is a pretty big picture, but if you prefer, a teacher might reduce the number of scopes and keywords.
Note the phonetic symbols to which we referred in '' Learning transcription '', we propose that in ordinary characters.
Find a Word. Teacher pronounces a word, and students will find it in the list of multiple words. Who's faster?
Pick a label to the image. Teacher divides people into multiple commands. Each team produces ten pictures and ten inscriptions. Three, the team that quickly takes text to pictures, receives a prize.
' Confusion '. Night wind is confusing the plates at the Zoo or in cages a store on products, etc. need to clean up.
If you acquire their mother tongue, first of all, wants to learn to read, then the English language this motive is not a host: too small as long as the vocabulary of children. Therefore, you should rely more on the desire to write children's vocabulary, your name, write a letter to the doll, which speaks only English, or English children of the same age; read the English label, the names of these chocolate and candies.
The complexity of the English spelling has a large number of teaching theories of literacy in English-speaking countries.
Reading and writing goes hand in hand, email is the main activity of that concept and folding words from cards, magnetic whiteboard or patterned cloth. Start learning letter should have letters, font styles that match the style of transcription characters. This is d, t, l, n, b, p, m, w, f, v, h, k, g, s, z, r, i.e. most consonants.
Please note that the most difficult for children are those letters, font style, which coincide with the Russians if designated their sounds. Here we can help special games.
Read the word in English and Russian. Are words that are made up of letters that are common to the two languages. Some will have meaning in both languages (WHAT CDS, MOUTH, MAT), others only one.
Sports relay. Two groups Compete. Each receives '' waybill '' commands written in English, for example: ' Run to the wall! ' and so on number corresponds to the number of participants to each in turn gave the word, and action. Winning team that finished first.
After reading all the above, with regard to letters, we asked ourselves, and how to teach children to write about? Reading in five years, taught many children, and we know how they teach, but much harder to teach children the letter.
In this paper we offer teaching letter children in kindergarten, as described in the book '' HBJ HANDWRITING '', author Betty Johnson. This technique involves teaching children how to four or five or six years of age. Teaching letter was tested in the following cities: Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Houston, Kansas City, etc.
Primarily this method focuses on teaching children notions related to the direction and coherence as: left, right, up, down, over, around, at first, then, in the end, after the red, yellow and green. Students learn to identify the same or different kinds of objects, the position and size of items. This method is called a "Stroke and Letter Formation ', it uses simple vary colors by point check box and the system switches to teach children to write in block letters. Green, yellow and red dots are helping children identify the starting position (green), where the line is interrupted or suspended (yellow) and the place from which to write the letter ends with (red). Arrows indicate the direction work together with green, they help children to determine the direction of the line
So, in order to begin learning the letter you want to do some exercises to consolidate in children following associations: green - yellow - beginning of the road; stopping, but followed by continued; red roads. To achieve the desired result, we offer some of the exercises described Betty Johnson. For example, play in traffic rules, using a large picture of traffic lights, explaining children that the red color means, that path is closed, and yellow warns that you need to wait, and green indicates that the path is free and you can move forward. Thus, children will be a set of data. You can then use the following tasks, which will help children to draw a line from red to green dot, with the following exercises will help consolidate the concept of children such as: guidance from top to bottom , from left to right; as well as being able to define the shape of the object , and miscellaneous items , high and low , to determine position: top, bottom, middle , in a circle , define the shape of a circle, as well as row labels and letters (high, low, '' ) . Once students understand what all this means you can start to write lines and letters
Of particular interest is the discipline of children to recognize the top bottom and staging lines is offered to children of piecing together with these lines, as shown in Figure . Children should call lines on the basis of a form object (the star, circle, square). Then, children are invited to draw the lines high and "tailed ' animals. But we are certain that they'll be, therefore, propose to use pre-made dolls of colored paper that children could hang. Previously the children it is recalled that superior animals shall be placed on the bottom line to the top or the head it should abut the ceiling (top line) and legs to stand on the bottom line. Low animals should paws ' stand ' at the bottom line, and head rests in the middle line, because they are low. In turn, the tailed beasts should sit on the bottom line (' head ' or ' the Hill '), and the tail is down below. This exercise will prepare children to writing letters.
In the next exercise, children are encouraged to talk about animals and compare them with letters, determining what letter is similar to what animal. Then guys call letters are high, low and '' tailed''.
The following exercise, you guys write straight lines in the line starting with a green point to red , so the kids go to write the first letter-l . In the following exercises students draw circles and straight lines in the line , and then go to writing letters b and c .
6.4 Learning vocabulary
Teaching preschoolers Explore for the vocabulary means that any word you enter must firstly be communication relevant to child health; secondly, to semantic and grammatical relationship with other words. As stated by E. I. Negnevickaya, '' just after typing a shift to action it '', and '' speech Act means building speech ''. But the speech is already in the grammar. Consequently, the development of vocabulary in isolation from the grammar.
In terms of exploring grammar following natural path of development meant that by imposing a the material, it is necessary to consider the communication needs of children, and his relative difficulty.
Having studied the different material about requirements for selecting vocabulary and his organizations, we've made this conclusion that a huge role when the lexical units are associative links, so if a new vocabulary '' … you give is not isolated to scattered words in the text, not words and share student song immediately with a group of words denoting a piece of reality … '' and '' … a couple words of proven Association (foe - a friend table-Chair, etc.) is much better than a pair of unrelated words, and, most importantly, better than these same words, figures in isolation. (Negnevickaya E.I., Shahnarov A.M. language and children s. 77).
I.L. Sholpo offers some rules to guide the introduction of a new language should not be at the same time: more than 10 words.
To input the words must be several pairs of sustainable associative relationship.
Introduction vocabulary that semantic group must be motivated and is caused by the communication needs of children.
If the group is made up of words semantically the same part of speech, it must be linked with a repetition of the words of another group, belonging to another part of speech to a shortcut item is an object-specific subject matter.
You need to consider the order of words within the Group: some words are consecutive, other '' hooks '' for them associatively.
Never ask children '' to ''. A new vocabulary to establish themselves in the mind of the child gradually, through judicious step by step exercises.
Here are examples of some of the exercises on finding out the words:
Who's faster? Teacher refers to objects in the room, pictured on the walls of the patterns hang, colour, part of the body. Children up to the subject (s) faster, clip art, finding an item for that color, and so on, and won.
Lotto. When you play Lotto that children love, a teacher takes not of the image, and text boxes that indicate items drawn on pictures from students. The teacher asks, "Who has a cat? Who has a wolf? ''. The picture on the card is needed, says: ' I have '. Lotto should be topical.
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