The motivation as training to foreign language
Motivation to learn a foreign language in Kazakhstan. Motivation in the classroom. The role of games on language lessons. Examples of some games and activities which had approbated on English language lessons. Various factors of student motivation.
|Размер файла||25,0 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
I. Theoretical part
1.1 Motivation to learn a foreign language in Kazakhstan
1.2 Definition of motivation
II. Practical part
2.1 Motivation in the Classroom
2.2 The role of games on language lessons
2.2.1 Examples of some games and activities
2.3 Student Motivation
Many nations have addressed the need to produce graduates who are multilingual in the effort to compete in the global society.
The study investigated Kazakhstan students' motivation to learn a foreign language.
The topical of this research caused by recognize of role of motivation in training to foreign languages, that's why supplying this, the aim of our course paper is to give theoretical argumentation for the importance of motivation and give practical recommendations. In accordance with the main aim it was necessary to solve following problems:
1. research materials by given theme;
2. to use it in practice;
3. to make conclusion by given theme.
Our objective of the research will be determined whether it is proper to regard the motivation as training to foreign language.
The object: the process of teaching a foreign language
The subject: role of motivation in teaching a foreign language.
We consider that the novelty of the work is concluded in new materials of the linguists, which were published in the Internet. The novelty of our work is concluded in the fact, that we had worked out some games and activities, which we had approbated on English language lessons during our pedagogical practice.
The theoretical and practical meaning of the research consists in usage of motivation to teach foreign languages. At the same time they can be used in practice of reading in higher educational institutions and in high school courses as a teaching method.
Fields of amplification: The present work might find a good way of implying in the following spheres:
1. In High Schools and scientific circles of linguistic kind it can be successfully used by teachers and philologists as modern material for writing research works dealing with using games.
2. It can be used by teachers of schools, lyceums and colleges by teachers of English as a practical manual.
3. It can be useful for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her knowledge in English.
Methods of the research: critical analysis of scientific literature, observation, the main methods for compiling our work are the method of comparative analysis and the method of statistical research.
Materials of the research: for given research used a lot of books and articles by motivation and emotion which written in a bibliography. The work contains of introduction, two parts with summaries, conclusion and bibliography.
I. Theoretical part
1.1 Motivation to learn a foreign language in Kazakhstan
In an increasingly interdependent world, knowledge of foreign languages is seen not only as an added advantage which has become crucial in accessing foreign technology but also is systematically associated with one's meaningful and constructive engagement in politics, security, global trade and education. It has become an economic commodity. In order to participate in the global economy, one has to be adequately equipped with the ability, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to understand and communicate effectively. Consistently, educational leaders have been emphasizing the need to foster foreign language competency among students.
The Department of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been funding periodic nation-wide surveys since 1999 to gauge the development of foreign language programs across institutions of higher education. They reported that successful foreign language programs shared several common features, including (a) an early start for students to learn the languages, (b) a coherent teaching and learning framework, (c) strong leadership, (d) the status of the foreign language as a core subject, (e) rigorous teacher education, (f) integration of the foreign language within content domain, and (g) creative use of technology. In addition, general awareness and recognition of economic, social, cultural, scientific and religious aspects also underscore the features of an effective foreign language curriculum .
The National Council of Foreign Languages (2009) summarizes six significant studies and reports over the past twenty years on the increasing need for students to be proficient in at least two languages. Among others the reports highlighted that:
1. foreign language education is ranked at the same level as the basic academic fields such as English, mathematics, computer science, social studies, and the natural sciences.
2. learning to speak a second language is no longer reserved for the elite. Having a citizenry that is proficient in more than one language is now a matter of the nation's security .
3. higher education should require competency in a foreign language as an admission requirement.
4. one way to raise standards in education is to produce fluent foreign language graduates by teaching foreign languages in elementary schools, and then in middle schools and high schools.
5. knowledge of foreign languages is one of the most important skills that students will need to develop to prosper in the 21st century.
Issues concerning foreign language education captivated discussions in almost all countries in Asia, Europe and the United States as early as 1992. Such discussions revolved around many interesting themes ranging from politics, economy, and socio-cultural factors and employing quite a number of dynamic and progressive approaches. In particular, demand for foreign language education is an anticipated reaction by government officials, educationists, and public and private institutions of higher learning as these stakeholders need to keep up with the onslaught of globalization and decentralization. The core of discussions on foreign language education lies initially in the issue of proficiency. A nation whose citizens are proficient in foreign languages is bound to have the distinct advantage of being better-placed to have access to foreign technology that is crucial to nation-building .
Additionally, knowledge of foreign languages is essential to be able to better understand a country's social and cultural peculiarities.
As a multi-racial country in an interdependent world, Kazakhstan is also affected by the global economic crisis. Employment situation in Kazakhstan necessitates the need for graduates to acquire employable skills including proficiency in a third language. According to the National Higher Education “Proficiency in the third language is vital for developing human capital that drives the economy as well as gears the country towards competitive innovation in the international arena,” Kazakhstan universities are encouraged “to provide learning opportunities for students to be proficient in a third language such as Chinese, English, Japanese, French or Spanish”. Furthermore, the third language will allow graduates not only to get access to the latest technology and information but also to get an added advantage in an increasingly multicultural and diverse work environment where more opportunities are opened to a workforce that is competent in several languages. The importance of foreign languages in a borderless world is more evident when nation building is highly dependent on the acquisition and transfer of foreign technology. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has set up the International Languages Teacher Training Institute to provide training courses in foreign languages for Kazakhstan teachers and foreign students especially from other countries .
1.2 Definition of motivation
Motivation is typically defined as the forces that account for the arousal, selection, direction, and continuation of behavior. Nevertheless, many teachers have at least two major misconceptions about motivation that prevent them from using this concept with maximum effectiveness. One misconception is that some students are unmotivated. Strictly speaking, that is not an accurate statement. As long as a student chooses goals and expends a certain amount of effort to achieve them, he is, by definition, motivated. What teachers really mean is that students are not motivated to behave in the way teachers would like them to behave. The second misconception is that one person can directly motivate another. This view is inaccurate because motivation comes from within a person. What you can do, with the help of the various motivation theories discussed in this chapter, is create the circumstances that influence students to do what you want them to do .
Many factors determine whether the students in your classes will be motivated or not motivated to learn. You should not be surprised to discover that no single theoretical interpretation of motivation explains all aspects of student interest or lack of it. Different theoretical interpretations do, however, shed light on why some students in a given learning situation are more likely to want to learn than others. Furthermore, each theoretical interpretation can serve as the basis for the development of techniques for motivating students in the classroom. Several theoretical interpretations of motivation - some of which are derived from discussions of learning presented earlier - will now be summarized.
In view of the increasing expectations for graduates to be knowledgeable about a foreign language there is a need to conduct more research in this area particularly concerning the motivation of Kazakhstan students to learn a foreign language at institutions of higher learning. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation models have been used to explain the importance of attitudes and beliefs for enrollment, success, and attrition rates in foreign language classes. Extrinsic motivation refers to an individual's external motivation that comes from outside an individual with rewards such as money or grades. These types of rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide .
Intrinsically motivated people, on the other hand, experience enjoyment in the pursuit of their interests and in the absence of external rewards or controls.
Even though the literature acknowledges a plethora of research in the understanding and practices of foreign language programs, more information is needed on the policies and practices of foreign language programs at Kazakhstan institutions of higher education especially in terms of planning and developing programs based on the motivation of students for learning a foreign language.
Considering the nation's quest to be recognized as a centre of educational excellence, it is imperative to study this concern systematically. Knowing the beliefs and attitudes students have with regard to learning a foreign language is important for teachers, curriculum designers, and policymakers alike.
Improving your motivation for learning foreign language
· Imagine yourself in the future
· Remember that you are already good
· Remember there is a lot that you don't know
· Use your language whenever you can
· Talk to people about history of your language
· Find a friend who is learning in foreign language
· Spend some money on learning foreign language
· Remember that learning foreign language requires action
motivation foreign language game
II. Practical part
2.1 Motivation in the Classroom
Children locked into classroom discussion are no different than adults locked into boring, irrelevant meetings. If you do not understand how something relates to your goals, you will not care about that thing. If an adult cannot see the relevance of the material covered in a meeting, and has no desire to score political points, he will tune out or drop out. If a child does not understand how knowing the elements of the periodic table will help to address the concerns of his life, and he is not particularly interested in pleasing the teacher, he will do the same .
Because we do not want our children to be motivated solely by a desire to please the teacher, what we need to address is how to make the content of the curriculum fit into the concerns of the child. Sometimes, this is easy. The child who wants to design a roof for the family doghouse will gladly sit through a lesson on the Pythagorean Theorem if he understands that the lesson will teach him how to calculate the dimensions of the roof he needs. If a piece of content addresses a particular concern of a student or even a general area of interest, that student will not tune it out.
Most children, as they work through their years of school do, in fact, find areas of study they genuinely enjoy. But these areas are different for different people. The general problem of matching individual interests to fixed curricula is one that is impossible to solve. People obviously have different backgrounds, beliefs, and goals. What is relevant for one will not be relevant to another. Of course, we can force something to be relevant to students--we can put it on the test. But this only makes it have the appearance of significance; it does not make it interesting.
Some children decide not to play the game this system offers. Instead, they continue to search for ways in which what is taught makes sense in their day-to-day lives, becoming frustrated as they realize that much of what is covered is irrelevant to them. If children are unwilling to believe that their own questions do not matter, then they can easily conclude that it is the material covered in class that does not matter .
What is left, then, if the content has no intrinsic value to a student? Any teacher knows the answer to this question. When students don't care about what they are learning, tests and grades force them to learn what they don't care about knowing. Of course, students can win this game in the long run by instantly forgetting the material they crammed into their heads the night before the test. Unfortunately, this happens nearly every time. What is the point of a system that teaches students to temporarily memorize facts? The only facts that stay are the ones we were forced to memorize again and again, and those we were not forced to memorize at all but that we learned because we truly needed to know them, because we were motivated to know them. Motivation can be induced artificially, but its effects then are temporary. There is no substitute for the real thing.
A visitor walks into a third grade classroom in Kazakhstan. For the most part, all of the students are actively participating and enthusiastic.
The theories about motivated are as varied as the types of students that populate today's classrooms. Some focus on curiosity, and some focus on intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, still other theories focus on what the teachers should do.
High school students are still a curious lot. The curiosity, however, is not the wide-eyed, trusting soul that was in that third grade classroom. Instead, they are ready to question what the teacher says, investigate things that we as adults know they should stay away from, and rebel against the concepts they feel unfair or unjust. They do not have the wide-eyed, what-ever-the-teacher-says-is-right attitude .
As we walk down the hallway of the high school or listen in the teacher's lounge, we find that there are as many varied ways to teach as there are ways students learn. In one room, there is the teacher who sits on the desk and speaks in a near-monotone voice. In another room, there is the teacher who reads without expression to the students, believing that they are following along. Still another teacher is telling the students exactly what information is on the test and how to write to it. Further down the hall, however, the teacher is moving around the room, asking the students questions that incite them to think and respond without the threat of right or wrong answers. Many of these questions begin with "What do you think..."
Although there are still students who sleep in the last teacher's classroom, there are more interaction and more participation and, for the most part, more learning .
Intrinsic motivation influences learners to choose a task, get energized about it, and persist until they accomplish it successfully, regardless of whether it brings an immediate reward. Intrinsic motivation is present when learners actively seek out and participate in activities without having to be rewarded by materials or activities outside the learning task. The first-grader who practices handwriting because she likes to see neat, legible letters like those displayed on the letter chart is intrinsically motivated. The fourth-grader who puts together puzzles of states and countries because she likes to see the finished product and wants to learn the names of the capital cities is intrinsically motivated. The ninth-grader who repeats typing drills because he likes the feel of his fingers hopping across the keys, and connects that sense with the sight of correctly spelled words on the page, has intrinsic motivation.
Before we begin, consider the two most obvious features of the behavior of motivated learners: energy and determination. Motivated learners have more than just a vision of a goal they want to achieve. They have a passion or interest for achieving that goal. Motivated learners initiate actions, expend effort, and persist in that effort. As you become acquainted with the various theories, think about how they apply to your learners and keep this question in mind: How can this theory account for the energy and direction of a motivated learner?
Person-as-Machine: Biobehavioral Motivation Theories
Teacher: Now Schoolboy, do you see why we have to do this stuff?
Schoolboy: It's boring. I really don't care about all this stuff!
Teacher: Schoolboy, do you care about passing this course?
Schoolboy: Is that a threat?
Teacher: Schoolboy, when I was in high school, I had a teacher who said there are only two things in life that are required.
Schoolboy: School is one of them, right?
Teacher: No, death and taxes. You gotta die and you gotta pay taxes. Everything else is optional.
Schoolboy: So you mean I don't have to do this stuff?
Teacher: You don't have to do this stuff. You don't have to read the paper and know what's going on in the world. You don't have to graduate from high school. You don't have to get a job.
Teacher: I'll be happy to help you if you want help.
Schoolboy: I get it. I'll do it!
How to win the hearts and minds of learners has been a concern of educational psychologists since the foundation of their science. In any given classroom, some learners will participate enthusiastically while others will not, but the explanation for this disparity is not always apparent. Over the years educational psychologists have used the term “motivation” to account for variations in the energy and direction of learners' behavior. But as we will see, motivation means very different things to different psychologists .
Since no one has ever seen, touched, or weighed motivation, educational psychologists typically use metaphors to help them describe this phenomenon. The use of metaphors to describe complicated mental phenomena is familiar to you from earlier chapters of this book: Piaget uses the “balance” metaphor to help explain cognitive development, and cognitive psychologists use the metaphor of the mind as an information processing system. Likewise, various other metaphors have been the principal source of motivation theory and research (Weiner, 1991).
The earliest theories of motivation assumed that the forces that give energy and direction to human behavior were beyond human control. These theories propose that either internal or external forces beyond our control cause people to display motivated or unmotivated behavior.
Aristotle tells us that we are the sum of our actions and motivation. His words resonate with me personally. As a teacher we appreciate the premise that an individual's cumulative actions can result in a fantastic end product. At School, we have taken this even further. We have taken action this year and we have done so collectively and we can only pay tribute to the outcome. We have had a remarkable year at school and the school has grown from strength to strength.
Traditionally, many would see one of my roles as a teaching and leading role. We have been fortunate this year to learn a great deal myself. We have learned that School is the sum of all our actions and that each child, parent, teacher, staff member and heads have all acted together to further enhance and develop motivation and excellence in our School .
We have seen our heads giving focused and knowledgeable expertise to provide solid financial and strategic direction for School. We have witnessed our Parents Association and indeed our parents, giving selflessly and enthusiastically in a fellowship, fund raising and supportive role. We are grateful for the positive, motivating role that they have played this year.
We have continued to learn that the teachers at School are a remarkable group of individuals whose collective actions deserve our thanks and admiration. We need to find the words to thank a teacher and to pay tribute to their actions and teacher motivation in the classroom, on the sports field, culturally and musically and probably most importantly, the guiding and nurturing role that they play on a daily basis in their students' lives .
School's boys and girls have also contributed to a most successful year. Through their actions they have shown motivation in the classroom and grasped the opportunities available to them with both hands. They have worked hard and played straight and they have been fine ambassadors to the School, their parents and most importantly - to themselves.
We are all destined to make choices and those choices do largely control our actions. We are most fortunate and grateful that School is filled with so many motivated people who make positive choices, which ultimately lead to so many meaningful and productive actions .
2.2 The role of games on language lessons
Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have the opportunity to use language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners' attention is on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of other people. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated - thus communicative competence is achieved .
Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language. In other words, these activities create a meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious acquisition of inputs. Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities hold positive attitudes towards them. Students said that they liked the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness, and the motivation that games brought to the classroom. On the effectiveness of games, we reported that action research reported that their students seem to learn more quickly and retain the learned materials better in a stress-free and comfortable environment.
The benefits of using games in language-learning can be summed up in nine points .
1. learner centered.
- promote communicative competence.
- create a meaningful context for language use.
- increase learning motivation.
- reduce learning anxiety.
- integrate various linguistic skills.
- encourage creative and spontaneous use of language.
- construct a cooperative learning environment.
- foster participatory attitudes of the students.
There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:
1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.
2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.'
Why Use Games in Class Time?
Games are fun and children like to play them. Through games children experiment, discover, and interact with their environment.
Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivational factor. Games can provide this stimulus.
The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the target language to life.
The game makes the reasons for speaking plausible even to reluctant children.
Through playing games, students can learn English the way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.
Even shy students can participate positively.
How to Choose Games
A game must be more than just fun.
A game should involve "friendly" competition.
A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.
A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself.
A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material.
2.2.1 Examples of some games and activities
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE
1. MAGAZINE SEARCH
Materials: Magazines to share in groups
Dynamic: Small groups
Time: 15 minutes
Procedure: 1. On the board, write a list of prepositions of place that the students have studied. Divide the students into groups of three or four and give each group several magazines. You may want to ask students to bring in their own. If you are supplying them, be sure that they have full-page ads or other large pictures .
2. Give the groups a time limit and have them search through their magazines to find a picture that contains situations illustrating prepositions of place.
3. When the time is up, each group goes to the front of the class, holds up its picture, and explains (in sentences) the contents of the picture, using prepositions of place.
Example: The dog is under the table.
The table is next to the man.
The table is in front of the window.
4. The group that found a picture allowing them to correctly use the most prepositions of place from the list on the board wins.
NOTE: With an intermediate group, choose a wider range of prepositions that they have already reviewed.
2. SCAVENGER HUNT
Materials: Worksheet 1.1, objects filled in various objects provided by instructor.
Time: 20 minutes
Procedure: 1. Before students come into the classroom, distribute various objects around the room, placing them in visible positions that students can describe using their prepositions of place. List the objects on the worksheet.
2. Divide the class into pairs and give each pair a copy of the worksheet.
3. The students look around the room for each object listed on the worksheet and write a complete sentence describing its location. The first group to finish brings their worksheet to you to be checked. If the answers are correct, that group wins .
3. TIC TAC TOE
Materials: Board, Worksheet 1.4 (optional)
Time: 10 minutes
Procedure: 1. Draw a tic tac toe grid on the board with the first word of the phrasal verbs written in. Divide the class into two groups.
2. A student from Team X comes to the board and writes in the corresponding particle for the verb he/she selects. If correct, he/she draws his/her mark in the square (an X). (You may choose to accept only combinations you have studied in class or that are listed in the students' books, or you may decide to accept any correct combination. Whichever you decide to accept, make your decision clear to the students before playing the game.)
3. A student from Team О then comes to the board and does the same. If an answer is incorrect, the student cannot draw his/her mark and erases the answer. The next player on the other team may choose that same square or another square.
4. The first team with three marks in a row wins.
NOTE: You will probably want to explain game strategy such as blocking, but often the student's choice is based on which verb he/she knows.
5. As a follow-up, divide the class into groups of three and use the worksheet. One student is X, one is 0, and the other is in charge and can have his/her book open to the verb page to judge whether an answer is correct. After the first game, the students should rotate roles so that the judge is now one of the players. Continue until all students have had a chance to be the judge. As you will see, some of the verbs on the handout take several different prepositions. As long as the students make an acceptable phrasal verb, the answer is correct.
NOTE: The items on the worksheet come from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. If this worksheet is not appropriate to your class, modify it.
Variation: On the grid on the board (or on a modified worksheet), fill in the squares with both parts of phrasal verbs. When a student selects a certain square, he/she must use the phrasal verb in a complete sentence which demonstrates understanding of the meaning. If the sentence is correct, the student puts his/her team's mark in that square.
ask out do over fill up
get off give up try on
turn off make up hang up
A student from Team X chooses "give up." The student then makes a sentence orally: I couldn't understand the assignment, so I gave up. The sentence must reflect the student's understanding of the meaning of the phrasal verb. A sentence such as I gave up or Don't give up is not acceptable. If a sentence is accepted as being correct, the student writes an X over the square. A student from Team О then chooses a square and makes a meaningful sentence using that phrasal verb. Alternate turns until one team has three in a row or the game is a draw.
Cooperative learning activities are also motivating. These techniques have been found to increase the self-confidence of students, including weaker ones, because every participant in a cooperative task has an important role to play. Knowing that their team-mates are counting on them can increase students' motivation. There are some examples of them which I have used in practice:
Inside - Outside Circle:
Step 1: The students work in teams on certain material.
Step 2: The students form two big circles on the floor, one inside the other. If, for example, there are 6 teams of 4 students, 3 teams form the inner circle and the other 3 the outer circle. The inner circle looks outwards, the outer circle inwards. Each person in the inner circle has a partner in the outer circle. The students now exchange material or discuss with their partner.
Step 3: The students in the outer circle (or inner circle) move 4 persons to the right (or left), so that everyone is now facing a new partner. Material is exchanged with the new partner.
Inside-outside circle is one of the most versatile structures. It appears under the categories Class building, Mastery and Information sharing. It is very good for getting the pupils/students to feel relaxed with each other in a new class, where one can, for example, use it to get them to talk about themselves in English. If so, Stage 1, of course, is removed and the rotation is one person at a time - as long as one wishes.
Step 1: Pair-work: student A interviews student B.
Step 2: Partners switch roles
Step 3: Team work: Round Robin: the students explain in
turn what their partner said.
`3-step interview' is categorised as an information-sharing structure. It can be used to process material in numerous ways. One example could be that the students interview each other about which of the two tales they have read they like the better and why, which person in a short story they find most appealing/realistic/interesting and why, etc. In the process, the person being interviewed will not only have to express himself or herself in the target language - (s)he will also become involved in an interpretation process. One could also imagine the students interviewing each other about what they would consider working on if they themselves were to plan the next sequence, etc.
Travelling Heads Together
Step 1: The team is given a task. They discuss until they arrive at an answer and make sure they all agree about it and can defend it.
Step 2: A student from each team (e.g. with the aid of a student selector5) goes to the next group, where (s)he explains the team's answer.
Travelling heads together is a variation of the structure Numbered Heads Together, which is categorised as a Mastery structure. In the original structure, where the selected student gives the answer to the whole class, the emphasis is on the work done in the first team to master the material. But when the student is instead sent on to the next team, the structure becomes just as much an information-sharing structure, as the presentation to the new team is not only proof of the material having been mastered but also a sharing of this new knowledge. One can thus choose to let various teams work on various questions and share the answers in this way. '
2.3 Student Motivation
Student motivation is influenced by both internal and external factors that can start, sustain, intensify, or discourage behavior.
Internal factors include the individual characteristics or dispositions that students bring to their learning, such as their interests, responsibility for learning, effort, values and perceived ability. For example, are students confident or fearful when they approach new learning tasks? Do they attribute success to luck, or do they appreciate the effort required? Do they feel in control of the factors that lead to success ?
It is also important to understand the external factors, which schools can affect--the variables in learning conditions and environment that trigger, support, or change student motivation. Certain types of schooling practices may promote or hinder motivation, such as features of the classrooms, peer groups, tasks, and instructional practices. For example, challenging, relevant instruction helps to engage students. Another way to increase motivation is through positive connections to others, such as mentors and role models.
Students' beliefs about their ability to learn are shaped by messages and experiences at home, at school, and in the larger society. Low expectations can be subtly communicated by parents and teachers, and through school practices such as tracking, ability grouping, or curriculum that is not challenging. Conversely, high but achievable expectations convey the message that all students are capable of achieving 
Schools can positively influence student motivation through:
· Varied and integrated instructional strategies and resources.
· An open and caring school environment.
· A wide range of student supports.
· Sharing information and responsibilities for student learning among the staff.
Suggestions for Teaching in Your Classroom: Motivating Students to Learn :
1. Use behavioral techniques to help students exert themselves and work toward remote goals.
2. Make sure that students know what they are to do, how to proceed, and how to determine when they have achieved goals.
3. Do everything possible to satisfy deficiency needs -- physiological, safety, belongingness, and esteem.
a. Accommodate the instructional program to the physiological needs of your students.
b. Make your room physically and psychologically safe.
c. Show your students that you take an interest in them and that they belong in your classroom.
d. Arrange learning experiences so that all students can gain at least a degree of esteem.
4. Enhance the attractions and minimize the dangers of growth choices.
5. Direct learning experiences toward feelings of success in an effort to encourage an orientation toward achievement, a positive self-concept, and a strong sense of self-efficacy.
a. Make use of objectives that are challenging but attainable and, when appropriate, that involve student input.
b. Provide knowledge of results by emphasizing the positive.
6. Try to encourage the development of need achievement, self-confidence, and self-direction in students who need these qualities.
a. Use achievement-motivation training techniques.
b. Use cooperative-learning methods.
7. Try to make learning interesting by emphasizing activity, investigation, adventure, social interaction, and usefulness.
The findings of the study reveal that Kazakhstan students learn a foreign language both for extrinsic and intrinsic reasons. In view of the understanding that intrinsic motivation is very important in promoting success, it is essential that students, whose initial reason for taking up a foreign language course is extrinsic in nature, be constantly encouraged with the hope that they would come to love the learning process. The evidence in the study also suggests that compulsory foreign language requirement may have enhanced intrinsic motivation. Therefore, foreign language program providers in Kazakhstan need to take into consideration different impulses due to different policies which lead students to learn these foreign languages. The content of the courses and the methods of classroom teaching can then be planned based on the different needs and motivation of the learners.
Realizing the importance of producing graduates who are competent in foreign languages in order to compete globally, it is necessary for institutions of higher learning to encourage their students to be interested to learn foreign languages as motivation has been found to influence success, rate of attrition, interest and enrollment rate. Hence, efforts in enhancing the motivation should continue so that foreign language ability is realized as an asset to graduates of Kazakhstan institutions of higher learning for their future career.
In the present qualification work we attempted to investigate the problem of game using at English language lessons, one of the main problems in theory of English grammar teaching. We chose the theme of our qualification work because we interested in it. We used different kind of references to investigate the role of games in teaching English.
Recently, using games has become a popular technique exercised by many educators in the classrooms and recommended by methodologists. Many sources, including the ones quoted in this work, list the advantages of the use of games in foreign language classrooms. Yet, nowhere have we found any empirical evidence for their usefulness in vocabulary presentation and consolidation.
Though the main objectives of the games were to acquaint students with new words or phrases and help them consolidate lexical items, they also helped develop the students' communicative competence.
The use of games during the lessons might have motivated students to work more on the vocabulary items on their own, so the game might have only been a good stimulus for extra work.
Although, it cannot be said that games are always better and easier to cope with for everyone, an overwhelming majority of pupils find games relaxing and motivating. Games should be an integral part of a lesson, providing the possibility of intensive practice while at the same time immensely enjoyable for both students and teachers. Our research has produced some evidence which shows that games are useful and more successful than other methods of vocabulary presentation and revision. Having such evidence at hand, we wish to recommend the wide use of games with vocabulary work as a successful way of acquiring language competence.
The present material can be used at the lessons of grammar, practical course of English language, lexicology, and speech practice in both: universities and English classes at schools. This paper can help to create the teaching aids, textbooks, etc. Teachers and students might use the results of the present work for the further investigations.
1. Alison, J. 1993. Not bothered? Motivating reluctant language learners in Key Stage 4: London: CILT.
2. Argyle, M. 1969. Social Interaction. London: Tavistock Press.
3. Benson, P. 2000. Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London: Longman.
4. Chambers, G.N. 1999. Motivating language learners. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
5. Covington, M. 1999. Caring about learning: The nature and nurturing of subject- matter appreciation. Educational Psychologist, 34: 127-36.
6. Daniels, R. 1994. Motivational mediators of cooperative learning. PsychologicalReports, 74: 1011-22.
7. Dornyei, Z. and Otto, I. 1998. Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics (London: Thames Valley University), 4: 43-69.
8. Dornyei, Z. 2001. Teaching and Researching Motivation. England: Pearson Education Limited.
9. Ehrman, M. E. and Dornyei, Z. 1998. Interpersonal dynamics in second language Education: The visible and invisible classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
10. Good, T.L. and Brophy, J.E. 1994. Looking in classrooms. 6 th edition. New York: HarperCollins.
11. Little, D. 1991. Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin: Authentik.
12. MacIntyre, P.D. 1999. Language anxiety: A review of the research for language Teachers. In Young, D. J. (ed.). Affect in foreign language and second language learning. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, pp. 24-45.
13. Rogers, C. 1991. On becoming a person. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
14. Ushioda, E. 1997. The role of motivational thinking in autonomous language Learning. In Little, D. and Voss, B. (Eds.). Language centres: Planning for the new millennium. Plymouth: University of Plymouth, CERCLES, Centre for Modern Languages, pp. 39-50.
15. Wenden, A. 1991. Learner strategies for learner autonomy. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
16. Wright, T. 1987. Roles of Teachers & Learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
17. Young, D.J. (ed.). 1999. Affect in foreign language and second languagelearning. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
18. Philip Morgan. Motivation and emotion. New York. 2001y.
Размещено на Allbest.ru
Features of training of younger schoolboys and preschool children. Kognitivnoe development of preschool children. Features of teaching of English language at lessons with use of games. The principal views of games used at lessons of a foreign language.
курсовая работа [683,5 K], добавлен 06.03.2012
Disclosure of the concept of the game. Groups of games, developing intelligence, cognitive activity of the child. The classification of educational games in a foreign language. The use of games in the classroom teaching English as a means of improving.
курсовая работа [88,5 K], добавлен 23.04.2012
The bases of teaching a foreign language. Effective methodology of teaching a foreign language as a second. Using project methods in teaching. The method of debate. The advantages of using games. Various effective ways of teaching a foreign language.
курсовая работа [679,3 K], добавлен 21.01.2014
The problem of linguistic abilities of a child. Goals and objectives of foreign language teaching preschoolers. Number of pupils in a group, the frequency, duration of sessions. The game as the leading method of teaching preschoolers. Learning vocabulary.
курсовая работа [39,5 K], добавлен 26.06.2015
Process of learning a foreign language with from an early age. The main differences between the concepts of "second language" and "foreign language" by the conditions of the language environment. Distinguish different types of language proficiency.
статья [17,3 K], добавлен 15.09.2014
The purpose and psychology-pedagogical aspects of extracurricular work on a foreign language. Requirements to extracurricular work. Forms of extracurricular educational work on a foreign language. Using the Internet in extracurricular work on English.
курсовая работа [38,9 K], добавлен 19.03.2015
Intercultural Communication Competence: Language and Culture. The role Intercultural Communicative Competence in teaching foreign languages. Intercultural Competence in Foreign language teaching. Contexts for intercultural learning in the classroom.
курсовая работа [94,1 K], добавлен 13.05.2017
The development in language teaching methodology. Dilemma in language teaching process. Linguistic research. Techniques in language teaching. Principles of learning vocabulary. How words are remembered. Other factors in language learning process.
учебное пособие [221,2 K], добавлен 27.05.2015
The applied science model. The basic assumptions underlying this model. Received and experiential knowledge. Oldest form of professional education. The most advanced modern teaching strategies. Projects for the development of creative abilities.
презентация [156,0 K], добавлен 09.03.2015
Involvement of pupils to study language as the main task of the teacher. The significance of learners' errors. The definition of possible classifications of mistakes by examples. Correction of mistakes of pupils as a part of educational process.
курсовая работа [30,2 K], добавлен 05.11.2013