Error correction strategies in English classroom
Involvement of pupils to study language as the main task of the teacher. The significance of learners' errors. The definition of possible classifications of mistakes by examples. Correction of mistakes of pupils as a part of educational process.
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1. ERRORS AND STRATEGIES IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
1.1 Why Correction is Necessary
1.2 The significance of learners
1.3 Studies of learner errors
1.4 Studies of corrective feedback
2. MISTAKES AND RECEPTION OF THEIR CORRECTION
2.1 Reasons of emergence of mistakes
2.2 Prevention of speech mistakes analysis method
2.3 Ways of correction of mistakes
Since there was a need for training to a foreign language, there was also a problem of search effective ways achievement of this purpose. A huge number of teachers to aspire to create concrete systems of the training, capable to provide each pupil successful mastering by a foreign language. However the difficulties, getting in the way there is a lot of achievement of this purpose. One of difficulties is connected with training oral speech. The methods, allowing to consider specific features of trainees in group aren't developed yet. While methods are developed to the teacher it is necessary to hope for the intuition.
We perfectly know, what even native speakers often commit mistakes in the speech. The person speaking on second, not native to it language, it will be not dependent on the desire to commit a mistake in speech. The teacher in turn should warn, and if isn't present, to help to get rid of mistakes. It should define accurately what reasons of mistakes, develop receptions of correction of mistakes, and the most important to learn their forecasting and the prevention.
The purpose of this term paper is the analysis of various ways correction of mistakes.
Tasks : Study of methodical literature, identification reasons emergence of mistakes and definition possible classifications of mistakes.
Thus, object of our research is communication, and an subject of research are mistakes arising at communication and ways of their correction.
Method: to study strategies work teachers by means of examples and mistakes of pupils.
The structure of my work consists of two chapters. In first chapter I tried to show that language is a communication medium and the main task of the teacher it is involvement of pupils to studied language. Correction of mistakes at pupils is one of the most important in foreign languages. In second chapter on the practice by means of examples disassembled possible strategy of correction of mistakes.
1. ERRORS AND STRATEGIES IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
1.1 Correction is Necessary
"An error…reflects the competence of the learner." (Brown) "While mistakes can be self-corrected" (Brown), "an error cannot be self-corrected." (Brown) Student errors are an inevitable part of their learning process and need to be treated as a teachable moment. There are many causes of errors including "interlingual errors...from the native language, intralingual errors within the target language, the sociolinguistic context of communication, psycholinguistic or cognitive strategies, and affective variables."
When learning a second language it is natural for students to at first apply their knowledge of their native language to the target language. Depending on the similar or contrasting characteristic of these languages this may or may not be a successful strategy for the student. "In the beginning stages of learning a second language... (negative) interlingual transfer is a significant source of errors...as the native language is the only previous linguistic system upon which the learner can draw." (Brown) An example of this would be students applying their L1 grammar structure to the target language.Errors also stem from intralingual transfer, which is an indicator to the teacher that the student has moved out of the beginning stages of learning. "Once learners have begun to acquire parts of the new system, more and more intralingual transfer-generalization within the target language-is manifested". (Brown) The field of corpus linguistics had amassed copious amounts of data on this subject and provides a great resource to help teachers learn what errors to look out for.A third significant source of student errors can be the result of inferior classroom materials or from the teachers themselves, these are called induced errors. "Students often make errors because of a misleading explanation from the teacher, faulty presentation of a structure of word in a textbook, or even because of a pattern that was rotely memorized in a drill but improperly contextualized". (Brown)
When and how to correct errors. "While it is important to accentuate the positive in learners' journeys to success" it's up to the teacher to discern when to correct or not correct the student. One of the criterions when deciding when to correct student errors is whether the error is global or local. A local error, at the discretion of the teacher, can often be overlooked for the greater good of the students learning process. This is because "Local errors do not prevent the message from being heard, usually because there is only a minor violation of one segment of a sentence, allowing the hearer/reader to make an accurate guess about the intended meaning." (Brown) On the other hand when a student makes a global error, this is probably an error that should be corrected. This is because "global errors hinder communication; they prevent the hearer from comprehending some aspect of the message" the student is trying to convey.There are many strategies and styles of error correction that teachers use, this choice usually coincides with the teaching method the TESOL professional is using. While early L2 teaching methods that focused on rote learning and emphasized students creating perfect output (for example the Audio-Lingual method) used error correction excessively, newer models based on a natural approach emphasize communicative competence and recognize that not correcting all student errors is more productive.A useful tool for interpreting types of error correction is Vigil and Oller's affective and cognitive feedback model. "Vigil and Oller's (1976) communication feedback model offered one of the first models for approaching error in the language classroom". They employ the simple concept of a traffic light and categorize teachers' styles of error correction as green light, yellow light and red light. "Green light (correction)...allows the sender to continue attempting to get a message across; a red light causes the sender to abort such attempts." (Brown p. 274) "A yellow light ... causing the learner to adjust, to alter, to recycle, to try again in some way".
It is important to balance the types of error corrections. A consequence of the excessive use of green light strategies may result in fossilization of the students learning as the teacher has not provided a framework from which the student can build. Superfluous use of red light corrections "often leads learners to shut off their attempts at communication.
They perceive that so much is wrong with their production that there is little hope to get anything right."Correction is necessary. The argument that students just need to use the language and the rest will come by itself seems rather weak. Students come to us to teach them. If they want only conversation, they will probably inform us - or, they might just go to a chat room on the Internet. Obviously students need to be corrected as part of the learning experience. However, students also need to be encouraged to use the language. It is true that correcting students while they are trying their best to use the language can often discourage them. The most satisfactory solution of all is make correction an activity. Correction can be used as a follow-up to any given class activity.
However, correction sessions can be used as a valid activity in and of themselves. In other words, teachers can set up an activity during which each mistake (or a specific type of mistake) will be corrected. Students know that the activity is going to focus on correction, and accept that fact. However, these activities should be kept in balance with other, more free-form, activities which give students the opportunity to express themselves without having to worry about being corrected every other word.
It is to S.P. Corder that Error Analysis owes its place as a scientific method in linguistics. As Rod Ellis cites (p. 48), "it was not until the 1970s that EA became a recognized part of applied linguistics, a development that owed much to the work of Corder". Before Corder, linguists observed learners' errors, divided them into categories, tried to see which ones were common and which were not, but not much attention was drawn to their role in second language acquisition. It was Corder who showed to whom information about errors would be helpful (teachers, researchers, and students) and how.
1.2 The significance of learners
There are many major concepts introduced by S. P. Corder in his article "The significance of learners' errors", among which we encounter the following:
It is the learner who determines what the input is. The teacher can present a linguistic form, but this is not necessarily the input, but simply what is available to be learned.
- Keeping the above point in mind, learners' needs should be considered when teachers/linguists plan their syllabuses. Before Corder's work, syllabuses were based on theories and not so much on learners' needs.
- Mager (1962) points out that the learners' built-in syllabus is more efficient than the teacher's syllabus. Corder adds that if such a built-in syllabus exists, then learners' errors would confirm its existence and would be systematic.
- Corder introduced the distinction between systematic and non-systematic errors. Unsystematic errors occur in one's native language; Corder calls these "mistakes" and states that they are not significant to the process of language learning. He keeps the term "errors" for the systematic ones, which occur in a second language.
a. Errors are significant in three ways:
b. to the teacher: they show a student's progress
c. to the researcher: they show how a language is acquired, what strategies the learner uses.
d. to the learner: he can learn from these errors.
- When a learner has made an error, the most efficient way to teach him the correct form is not by simply giving it to him, but by letting him discover it and test different hypotheses. (This is derived from Carroll's proposal (Carroll 1955, cited in Corder), who suggested that the learner should find the correct linguistic form by searching for it.
- Many errors are due to that the learner uses structures from his native language. Corder claims that possession of one's native language is facilitative. Errors in this case are not inhibitory, but rather evidence of one's learning strategies.
1.3 Studies of learner errors
Corder introduced the distinction between errors (in competence) and mistakes (in performance). This distinction directed the attention of researchers of SLA to competence errors and provided for a more concentrated framework. Thus, in the 1970s researchers started examining learners' competence errors and tried to explain them. We find studies such as Richards's "A non-contrastive approach to error analysis" (1971), where he identifies sources of competence errors; L1 transfer results in interference errors; incorrect (incomplete or over-generalized) application of language rules results in intralingual errors; construction of faulty hypotheses in L2 results in developmental errors.
Not all researchers have agreed with the above distinction, such as Dulay and Burt (1974) who proposed the following three categories of errors: developmental, interference and unique. Stenson (1974) proposed another category, that of induced errors, which result from incorrect instruction of the language. As most research methods, error analysis has weaknesses (such as in methodology), but these do not diminish its importance in SLA research; this is why linguists such as Taylor (1986) reminded researchers of its importance and suggested ways to overcome these weaknesses.
As mentioned previously, Corder noted to whom (or in which areas) the study of errors would be significant: to teachers, to researchers and to learners. In addition to studies concentrating on error categorization and analysis, various studies concentrated on these three different areas. In other words, research was conducted not only in order to understand errors per se, but also in order to use what is learned from error analysis and apply it to improve language competence.
Such studies include Kroll and Schafer's "Error-Analysis and the Teaching of Composition", where the authors demonstrate how error analysis can be used to improve writing skills. They analyze possible sources of error in non-native-English writers, and attempt to provide a process approach to writing where the error analysis can help achieve better writing skills.
1.4 Studies of corrective feedback
Corder elaborated on Carroll's work to show that the most efficient way to teach a student the correct linguistic form is to let him test various hypotheses and eventually find the right form (point 6, listed above). In these steps, Hagиge points out the importance of self correction (p. 82-83). According to Hagиge, it is useful to always perform an error analysis based on written tests administered by the teacher, but without informing the student of the purpose of the test. On that basis, self-correction is preferable to correction by the teacher, especially if the latter is done in a severe or intimidating way. Self correction is even more efficient when it is done with the help of children's classmates. According to teachers, the younger the children, the greater the cooperation among them and the less aggressive or intimidating the corrections. Hagиge dedicates a section in his book to the importance of treating errors in a positive way. In this section, titled "The teacher as a good listener", he notes that it is useless, if not harmful, to treat errors as if they were "diseases or pathological situations which must be eliminated", especially if this treatment becomes discouraging, as occurs when teachers lose their patience because of children's numerous errors. This, of course, does not mean that corrections should be avoided; after all it is the teacher's duty to teach the rules of the L2. But the correction of every error as soon as it occurs is not recommended. The justification that Hagиge offers is the following: the linguistic message that the child tries to produce is a sequence of elements which are interdependent; immediate corrections which interrupt this message tend to produce negative consequences, even to the less sensitive children; such consequences include anxiety, fear of making an error, the development of avoidance strategies, reduced motivation for participation in the classroom, lack of interest for learning, reduced will for self correction, and lack of trust towards the teacher. Esser (1984, cited in Hagиge) also made a similar point: repetitive and immediate corrections, he noted, may cause sensitive children to develop aggressive behavior towards their classmates or teacher. Thus, Hagиge concludes, correction must not be applied by the teacher unless errors obstruct communication. This is the main criterion for error correction (i.e. obstruction of communication) presented by Hagиge; however there have been studies which examined such criteria in greater detail, such as Freiermuth's "L2 Error Correction: Criteria and Techniques" (1997). Freiermuth accepts Corder's view (point 6) and proposes criteria for error correction in the classroom. These criteria are: exposure, seriousness, and students' needs.
In the case of exposure, Freiermuth claims that when a child creates language (for example, when he tries to express an idea by using a linguistic form he has not yet acquired), he will most likely make errors; correcting these errors will be ineffective because the learner is not aware of them. Thus, error correction would result in the acquisition of the correct form only if the learner has been previously exposed to that particular language form.
As regards the seriousness criterion, Freiermuth claims that the teacher must determine the gravity of an error before deciding whether he should correct it or not. Here Freiermuth sets a criterion which agrees with that of Hagиge's: "the error, he states, must impede communication before it should be considered an error that necessitates correction". But what constitutes a serious error? Which errors are those which should not be corrected? As an examples of non-serious errors, Freiermuth mentions those errors which occur due to learners' nervousness in the classroom, due to their stress or the pressure of having to produce accurately a linguistic form in the L2. These errors can occur even with familiar structures; in that case, they are not of serious nature and are similar to what Corder called "mistakes". Here again we see Corder's influence in error analysis, and in particular in the distinction between errors and mistakes. Freiermuth goes on to suggest a hierarchy of errors (according to seriousness) to help teachers decide which errors should be corrected: "Errors that significantly impair communication [are] at the top of the list, followed by errors that occur frequently, errors that reflect misunderstanding or incomplete acquisition of the current classroom focus, and errors that have a highly stigmatizing effect on the listeners". He also clarifies what can cause stigmatization: profound pronunciation errors, or errors of familiar forms.
Another important criterion that must be considered by the teacher is individual students' needs. The importance of this factor is mentioned in Corder, who in turn notes that this idea had been suggested previously by Carroll (1955, cited in Corder 1967) and Ferguson (1966, cited in Corder 1967). Each student is different and thus may react differently to error correction. We infer from Freiermuth's claim that the teacher must perform two main tasks: first, assess some specific character traits of students, such as self-confidence and language acquisition capability. Freiermuth agrees with Walz (1982, cited in Freiermuth) that self-confident, capable students can profit from even minor corrections, while struggling students should receive correction only on major errors. This claim agrees with Esser and Hagиge's claim that repetitive corrections are likely to decrease motivation; it is reasonable to accept that students who lack self-confidence will be "stigmatized" to a greater degree than confident students.
The teacher's second task, according to Freiermuth, is to listen to learners' L2 utterances in order to determine where errors occur (i.e. which linguistic forms cause students difficulties), their frequency, and their gravity (according to the severity criteria mentioned above). Then the teacher can combine the outcome of these tasks and decide on correction techniques for individual students.
A different approach to error correction was suggested by Porte (1993), who stressed the importance of self-correction. Porte refers to Corder's distinction of errors and mistakes and points out that many students do not know the difference. It is important, Porte notes, that students know how to identify an error in order to avoid it in the future. She agrees with Corder that it is more efficient for learners to correct themselves than be corrected by the teacher, and goes on to suggest a four-step approach for self-correction. This approach consists of questions that the teacher provides to students. After writing an essay, students should read it four times, each time trying to answer the questions included in each of the four steps. Thus, in each re-reading task (each step) they concentrate on a different aspect of their essay. In brief, the first task asks them to highlight the verbs and check the tenses; in the second task students concentrate on prepositions; the third task requires them to concentrate on nouns (spelling, agreement between subject and verb); finally in the fourth task students should try to correct potential personal mistakes. Porte also offers some clarification of what is meant by personal mistakes, in order to help the students identify them.
The studies mentioned above are only a few examples that demonstrate how S. Pit Corder's work influenced the area of error analysis in linguistics. The concepts that Corder introduced directed researcher's attention to specific areas of error analysis; they helped linguists realize that although errors sometimes obstruct communication, they can often facilitate second language acquisition; also they played a significant role in training teachers and helping them identify and classify students' errors, as well as helping them construct correction techniques.
2. MISTAKES AND RECEPTION OF THEIR CORRECTION
2.1 Reasons of emergence of mistakes
There is a set of the reasons why pupils commit mistakes in the speech. One of the main reasons emergence of mistakes according to Natalyin V.P. is a nesformirovannost of the corresponding speech skills and abilities. This reason can be tracked on an example of emergence of grammatical mistakes in oral speech of pupils foreign. So, for example: quantity of mistakes in the use and formation of temporary forms, in particular, Present Indefinite and Past Indefinite, a verbal sheaf of to be. Pupils commit these mistakes not because this grammatical structure but because at them skills and abilities weren't formulated corresponding grammatical speech both isn't familiar to them. If learning to specify a mistake, it in most cases corrects it, and, thus he can correctly explain the grammatical phenomenon more often.
As before teaching there is a problem of psychological character: the being trained are afraid to make a mistake (grammatical or in a word choice) that adversely affects registration of speech, its fluency and, of course, not least on the substantial party of the statement. Skill of teaching should prompt it the correct approach to a correction of mistakes, and the most important - to their forecasting and the prevention.
According to Ivitsky the teacher of a foreign language should know N of, why there are mistakes, what their sources, also should think over and find necessary and most valid receptions of prevention of mistakes for the purpose of their prevention.
As it established most the general reasons of emergence of mistakes. Unlike Natalyin V.P. who considers that the majority of mistakes in English are the general and their emergence in speech doesn't depend on features of the native language.
Ivitsky the N of finds the main reason interpretation of the native language. In her opinion it is necessary to predict all types of mistakes, working over their prevention and overcoming, it is impossible to give a priority any to one of below listed aspects since they are interconnected.
- It is interesting that at the first grade level to the second foreign language more considerable interference of the first foreign language which weakens at more advanced stage is observed, giving way to an interference of the native language. It is explainable from the point of view of psychology: subconsciousness constantly reminds being trained that he speaks in a foreign language, removing an interference of the native language on more background and later grade level. Cases of the use of interrogative-negative offers instead of interrogative utochnitelny definition are frequent, it is necessary to use a definite article with nouns in shape both the only thing, and plural. However at this stage also there are difficulties - being trained not always can solve, whether definition is descriptive or utochnitelny and, as a rule, descriptive definitions are accepted to the utochnitelny. Here the feeling of language, and exercise to the aid can come to the article use - good assistants in its development.
A certain difficulty represent and the listed nouns which can be offered being trained in the following look are lower:
Luck work time
Fruit fun money
Weather furniture progress
News advice information
Knowledge scenery success
The listed uncountable nouns can suggest being trained to be sung, using motive of any popular song.
- An interference of the first foreign language (since now in many Higher education institutions and schools study two, and there are more than languages, gets a special urgency).
Ivitsky the N of gives examples of some mistakes connected with an interference of the first foreign language (German) at training to the second (English) language.
Avrora was a slavin (Germ. Sklavin), and anybody who had money could buy her.
One more example: the student, having acquired that the English suffix - ly forms an adverb (a suffix - ly forming adjectives, at that stage it was yet familiar), writes:
It was ear (instead of early), i.e., correctly believing that the pledged word, is an adjective, and remembering that in German the adjective doesn't differ in a form from an adverb, further working over mistakes it assumes new not less "interesting" option; it uses option without a suffix - ly; He got up earlily (and observing rules of spelling changes y for i).
Also Ivitsaya of N of revealed some other the reasons:
a. Insufficient possession of the first foreign language.
b. Linguistic incompetence.
c. Feeling of language.
Classifications of the mistakes:
There are some classifications of the mistakes offered by foreign and domestic methodologists.
In the beginning we will consider S. N. Tseytlin's classification.
Depending on the reasons of emergence of mistakes they can be divided on system, colloquial and composite.
Depending on the relation to two forms of speech - oral and written, mistakes are allocated:
a. speeches peculiar to exclusively oral form - connected with a pronunciation (orfoepichesky) and with an accent (aktsentologichesky);
b. peculiar to exclusively written speech (spelling and punctuation);
c. the speeches peculiar to both forms which more precisely aren't depending on a form of speech.
Consideration subject in this term paper are only errors of the last type.
Depending on what language norms appear broken, actually speech mistakes are subdivided into a number of categories. this classification is the leader in practice of school training. It is possible to allocate mistakes:
a. the word-formation - consisting in an unjustified slovosochinitelstvo or modifications of words of a standard language;
b. the morphological - connected with substandard formation of forms of words and the use of parts of speech;
c. the syntactic - consisting in incorrect creation of phrases, simple and compound sentences;
d. the lexical - representing the use of words in substandard values, violation of lexical compatibility, repetitions, a tautology;
i. the phraseological - connected with not corresponding to norm use of phraseological units;
f. the stylistic - unities of style consisting in violation. Stylistic mistakes take a special place in this system as don't correspond with a certain circle of language and can be shown in the field of lexicon, morphology, syntax.
V. Lengo Nskal
Lengo Nskal offered the classification of mistakes. In his opinion, they can be subdivided:
a. Admission of some necessary elements.
b. Addition of unnecessary or wrong elements.
c. Choice of the wrong element.
d. Wrong word order.
2.2 Prevention of speech mistakes analysis method
mistake correction pupil language
Correction of mistakes of pupils - an integral part of educational process. Efficiency is a kind of activity, finally, defines efficiency of educational process as a whole. In practice of teaching of foreign languages the wide circulation was received by a correction method by means of the mistake analysis. It is reception it is successfully used at formation of skills of different types of speech activity in a foreign language and at different grade levels.
In the most general view proiznositelny mistakes according to Dubrovsky Pages of Century share on two groups: phonetic and phonologic. The phonetic treat not the correct articulating of sounds. For example, in English a pronunciation "dark" [L] instead of "light", an insufficient ugublennost  or insufficient openness , violation of a rule of item duration of a verb, namely not observance of gradation of duration public in a position of the end of a word, in a position before a sonant and in a position before deaf to concordants (lay-laid-late). Sound replacements belong to phonologic mistakes as in one sound system, and intersystem. Applicable and situations of learning of foreign languages of replacement in speech of pupils of sounds of studied language on sounds of the native language is intersystem replacements. Erroneous transfer of an accent in a word as belongs to a phonologic mistake. Thus, phonologic mistakes can be sound and accent.To define proiznositelny mistakes for school audience it is necessary to recognize that in the school program installation on formation of proiznositelny skills isn't given. Skills of school students are formed by Proiznositelnye at level of diaphonical compliances. It means sounds are replaced with sounds of the native language. the pronunciation in a foreign language is estimated by diaphonical replacements as quite satisfactory, so and correct. From this it follows that sound proiznositelny mistakes in speech of pupils are reduced only to those cases of sound replacements where diaphonical compliance is broken. For example, pronunciations [ ] instead of [ ] in the word arrive, [how] instead of [hou] in the word how should be estimated as erroneous.
Considering all this, terminologically correct will define proiznositelny mistakes in school audience only as phonologic, and phonetic mistakes, i.e. the wrong articulating of sounds to recognize as impossible because pupils use sounds of only the native language.
Correction of proiznositelny mistakes is carried out by providing and display of positions of the speech bodies, necessary for the correct articulation of sounds. This way of correction is convenient and effective, and therefore is standard when training students of language specialization. At school correction of mistakes by this way in view of the called reasons appears unacceptable. In practice proiznositelny mistakes are corrected by imitation: the pupil is offered to repeat the correct option of sound sequence for the teacher.
The page of Century Dubrovsky suggests to use such method: if the sound is mispronounced, the teacher prompts a corrected sound, 2-3 simple sound sequences in which contains corrected public are said, and suggests to substitute a sound from sequence in a word.
For correction of longs by such simple sequence the combination concordant + public, for correction of short vowels - sequence concordant + public + concordant is. These sequences can be monosyllables or it is simple combinations of sounds. It is important only that one of them contained a combination concordant + public, as a corrected word.
For example, for correction shock public in the word remain it is possible to use monosyllables of may, say, way, and for correction of a sound by [L] in the word courage it is possible to use the words cup, but, luck, but necessary and obligatory for correction public in the word remain is the words may, and for correction public in the word courage - cup. For an assessment of efficiency of this way pupils were offered to read lists of unfamiliar words. During the first reading said mistakes were corrected traditionally by imitation; during the second reading - on the described way. Comparison of results of correction of mistakes showed that the way offered correction allows to reduce quantity of mistakes almost in 2 times.
2.3 Ways of correction of mistakes
The important place in the general to system of work on the prevention of speech mistakes is occupied by special exercises. Exercises can be both written, and oral. The formulation of tasks depends on that at what stage of training the mistake prevention is carried out. There is a set of such exercises. To the teacher the main thing to find and choose among them what will be more effectively, to help pupils, to lower arising mistakes.
Currently at many schools, the general reception of correction of mistakes is still used; when the class or the certain pupil, and sometimes and the teacher calls structure misuse, and answering corrects the committed mistakes, such activity is recognized for a long time as the defective.
The pupil knows that from it wait for mistakes and excessive concentrates attention not on the contents, and on a statement form, all process of a conversation brakes. Besides, work is conducted not over typical, and over the first mistakes, which pupils caught aurally.
Because of insolvency of such way, we will try to find more effective receptions of correction of mistakes.
- Use of signs.
For this reception it is required big sheets of paper. On each of them that mistake which most often meets in speech of pupils is drawn. For example, on one leaf to draw a sound [s] - for those who forgets to say it where it is necessary; on other leaf - a particle of "to" and to cross out it. Cards are shown necessarily, that is at commission of mistakes. Mistakes fixed on a card, can vary depending on a stage, education and level of readiness of a class.
- Use of grants.
Many typical mistakes in oral speech of pupils can be prevented by use of evident schemes and plans. They always find wide application and represent the schemes defining the content of speech work of the pupil. For example, message/composition scheme «My working day». Here the scheme coincides with plan points.
- Use of directing teams
When pupils make this or that mistake, it is necessary to give to it instructions to correct it, not to correct at all most. It is possible to tell, for example, change the pronunciation change the verb, change the word. This way is universal since is suitable for correction of errors of any kind.
While pupils work in groups or on pairs, the teacher should note mistakes, bring them in a notebook. At the end of a lesson to write the wrong offers on a board that pupils corrected mistakes during discussion. It can be done so: it is necessary to make the list of mistakes which can be used in exercises for homework; or two four pupils, having worked some mistakes, explain corrected to all class; or are verified with other small groups.
- Coding by means of fingers.
At performance of this way fingers of one or two hands symbolize words in the offer and a question. It is necessary to stir those fingers which are representing itself as a word in which the mistake was made. This way is suitable for correction of the wrong word order, the admission of words, the wrong choice of words.
- Use of gestures.
It is necessary to develop gesture which would serve children as a signal to stop, consider the made mistake together with pupils, to correct itself before continuing to speak. As the elementary gesture the finger lifted up can serve.
In the presence of the tape recorder it is possible to record statements of pupils. Then to hear and specify erroneous words or designs. It is possible to make text listing. from the tape recorder and to offer pupils those places which they consider wrong.
One part of a class in the center of a room discusses any problem. Another - sits down round them, silently watches discussion and writes down all mistakes, and the others should correct them. Then pupils change roles that all pupils could execute both functions. In group of the discussing there should be no more than 5-6 people if a dictophone or the tape recorder, one group can carry out both tasks. Sense of this exercise in that pupils learned to notice errors of another's speech and independently to correct them.
All these methods can be used for the prevention, correction of grammatical, phonetic, lexical mistakes. The main thing in them that they promoted development of oral speech, and also were functional, and reflected novelty, a situativnost, a personal individualization.
Research of the methodical literatures showed.Student error is inevitable and a natural part of student learning. While the word "error" conjures up feelings of negativity, we must not look on it as such. Student errors are not a negative reflection on the student, but rather a critical pedagogical feedback tool. By correctly interpreting the source of student errors teachers can gain meaningful knowledge about the students learning process and knowledge deficiencies. Successful training to a foreign language is allocation of educational difficulties and development of the system of their neutralization.
In this work the reasons of emergence of mistakes at pupils at lessons of a foreign language were established, considered classification of mistakes, from the point of view of various domestic and foreign methodologists, receptions of correction of mistakes and ways of their prevention are developed.
Correction of mistakes, this performance of work of editorial editing for which certain skills are required. To help the pupil, the teacher should develop in character of the committed mistake and should have the personal individualized approach to each pupil.
1. Corder, S. P. 1967. "The significance of learners' errors". International Review of Applied Linguistics 5.
2. Dulay, H., and Burt, M., "Errors and strategies in child second language acquisition", TESOL Quarterly , 1974.
3. Ellis, R., "The Study of Second Language Acquisition", Oxford University Press, 1994.
4. Julian Edge, "Mistakes and Corrections" Longman, 1989
5. Richards, J., "A non-contrastive approach to error analysis", English Language Teaching, 1971.
6. Stenson, N. "Induced errors" in Shumann and Stenson (eds.), 1974, cited in Ellis (p. 60).
7. Taylor G., "Errors and explanations", Applied Linguistics
8. Kroll, Barry, and John C. Schafer. "Error-Analysis and the Teaching of Composition", College Composition and Communication 29: 242-248, 1978
9. Mager, R.F. "Preparing Instructional Objectives", Fearon Publishers, Palo Alto, CA 1962.
10. Professor Rod Ellis 2004/5 Analizing Lerner Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press (with Gary Barkhuizen)
11. Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. (5th ed.). New York: Longman
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