Through motives Russian world view
Language picture of the world, factors of formation. The configuration of the ideas embodied in the meaning of the words of the native language. Key ideas for Russian language picture of the world are. Presentation of the unpredictability of the world.
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Through motives Russian world view
"The person feels the world, contemplates it, perceives, learns, conceptualize, interpret, reflect and displays, abides in him, thinks is a" possible worlds ". Image of the world occurs in various acts of attitude, sense of the world, worldview, worldview, worldview, outlook, miropredstavleniya, mirootsenki, mirouyasneniya, in acts of experiencing the world as a whole. The word "image" we can replace the word "picture". If we consider this word primarily in explanatory slovoryu, namely dictionary Ozhegova, "Painting" means that it is possible to see, observe, or submit images in language as well as type, status, position anything. Great Dictionary of the Russian language complements the first of the values presented here: the bright and expressive verbal image of something. The image is interpreted through the image, and the image is defined as the playing consciousness of objects and phenomena of the external world.
On the basis of this clause is used today, the term "world view".
Picture of the world - a system of intuitive ideas about reality. Painting involves a holistic reflection that in some way reproduces the position, the state of objects and phenomena of the world. The picture reflects the reality of the world, just as it reflects the artistic canvas. It reflects the elements themselves in their various states relations. Reflecting the world in its infinite diversity and integrity, linguistic picture of the world points to the components of the picture, their state, position, ie. e. connection with respect to each other.
In short, man perceives the world as a picture
* The picture of the world - is a certain vision of the world and the construction in accordance with the logic of understanding of the world
* Picture of the world there is a person in the course of his contacts with the world
* The picture of the world - a global image of the world, which is never a mirror image of the world
* The picture of the world - it is a vision of the universe, which is characteristic of a particular people, as members of society representation about themselves and about their actions, their activity in the world
The concept of "world picture" is used very active representatives of different sciences: philosophy, psychology, cultural studies, epistemology, cognitive science, linguistics. There are several types of picture of the world as a scientific picture of the world, language picture of the world. Linguistic picture of the world bears the image of the world with the help of linguistic resources, which creates a visual representation of objects and phenomena of reality. In the end, "linguistic picture of the world" is a reproduction of a language, by means of language objects and phenomena of reality.
The very concept was introduced in the linguistic usage W. von Humboldt, however, despite the huge popularity, it has not yet acquired the terminological. YN Guards notes stiffness linguists when operating this concept in the strict sense of the terminology and as a result make it metaphorical character (Sentries, 1999: 99).
Linguistic picture of the world - this is reflected in the language of a way of seeing the world. Or otherwise it can be said that this actually conceptualization. This notion goes back, on the one hand, to the teachings of Wilhelm von Humboldt, on the other hand, the so-called hypothesis of linguistic relativity Sapir - Whorf.
Linguistic picture of the world is determined as follows:
representation of reality, reflected in language signs and their meaning - linguistic division of the world, language ordering of objects and phenomena inherent in the system values information about the world of words;
-result reflection of the objective world everyday (linguistic) consciousness of a language community
Linguistic picture of the world - this is reflected in the language of the secondary world, which is the result of refraction in the human consciousness of the objective world. Ordinary language creates linguistic picture of the world, which reflects not only fixed and knowledge of the world, but also delusion, feelings about the world, its evaluation, fantasies and dreams of the world. Such an understanding of the essence of the worldview does not require her objectivity.
Each natural language reflects a certain way of perceiving the world and devices, or "linguistic picture of the world." A set of beliefs about the world, concluded within the meaning of different words and phrases of the language, is in some kind of unified system of beliefs, or regulations (such as, for example: well, if other people know that a person feels), and imposed as a mandatory all native speakers .
Russian language, like any other natural language reflects a certain way of perceiving the world. Proficiency assumes ownership conceptualization of the world, as reflected in the language.
Why speaks this language must necessarily share these views? Because representations that form the world, are included in the meaning of words in an implicit form; People take them on faith, without hesitation, and often even without noticing it. Using words that contain implicit meanings, the man without knowing it, and takes them prisoner in the view of the world. In contrast, the semantic components that are included in the meaning of words and expressions in the form of direct statements that may be the subject of a dispute between the different native speakers, and thus are not included in the general fund of ideas that forms the linguistic world. So, from the Russian proverb Love is evil, love and a goat can not draw any conclusions about the place of love in Russian language picture of the world, but only that the goat appears in it as malosimpatichnye being.
For native speakers of Russian, it seems obvious that the psychic life of man is divided into intellectual and emotional, and intellectual life is connected with the head, and emotional - the heart. We say that someone has a good head and a good heart; remembering anything, keep this in mind and feel the heart; alarmed, clutches his chest. It seems to us that otherwise could not be, and we were surprised to learn that for some carriers of African languages, all mental life may be concentrated in the liver, they say that someone "smart liver" or "good liver" and when the waves, subconsciously feel discomfort in the liver. Of course, this is not due to the peculiarities of their anatomy, and with a language picture of the world to which they are accustomed.
Most important for the language ideas are repeated within the meaning of many of linguistic units and are therefore "key" to understanding the world view.
forming a picture of the world, are included in the meaning of words in an implicit form. Using words that contain implicit, "background" meaning man, without knowing it, and takes them prisoner in the view of the world. On the contrary, the semantic components that are included in the meaning of words and expressions in the form of direct statements and make them meaningful core, can be (and often are) consciously challenged by native speakers. Therefore, they are not included in the language picture of the world that is common to all speakers of a given language.
Since the configuration of the ideas embodied in the meaning of the words of the native language, speaking perceived as a matter of course, he has the illusion that so all the way life is. But when comparing the different linguistic world found significant differences between them, sometimes quite trivial. And so for the detection picture of the world of the Russian language I want to give a couple of examples.
Linguistic picture of the world is formed of key concepts (yes, they are the "key" to understand it) and connecting them invariant key ideas, or through motifs repeated within the meaning of many words and expressions. Key for Russian language car- slime world concepts are enclosed in such words as soul, destiny, longing, happiness, separation and justice. All of these words trudnoperevodimy: their translation equivalents not only approximate, they do not include important it is for the Russian language semantic components. Among lingvospetsifichnyh also include any words in the value of including some important precisely for that language in the whole idea, for example, to assemble, to get somewhere, try to do something; happened happened; insult, reproach; along with others.
Key ideas for Russian language picture of the world are, in particular, the following:
The idea of the unpredictability of the world (perhaps of a sudden, just in case that; cost blow over; gather, try, happened happened, happened; ugorazdilo; get; happiness).
- The idea that, for any action necessary to mobilize domestic resources, and it is difficult (collected at the same time).
- The special significance of the opposition "high - low" (truth - the truth, duty - duty, good - the good, pleasure - pleasure).
- High demands in human relations (each, communication, relationships, reproach, insult, mother, separation, bored, ask, please).
- The idea of justice (justice, truth, resentment).
- In order for a person has been well inside it needs a large space outside; however, if it is uninhabited, it also creates an internal discomfort (daring, will, expanse, scope, breadth, breadth of soul, toil, restless).
- Well, when other people know that a person feels (sincere laugh, soul wide open).
- It is bad when a person acts for reasons of practical benefits (calculating, petty).
Presentation of the unpredictability of the world has two aspects. On the one hand, a person can neither foresee the future, nor affect it. The specificity of this attitude is concentrated in the famous Russian random. About a man who buys a lottery ticket (ie, hoping for good luck), do not say that he was acting at random. Most will say so about a man who does not repair the roof, ready to collapse, sits in a car with a faulty engine or build a nuclear power plant without proper protection. Contrary to reason, he hoped that nothing bad will happen - cost or blow over.
On the other hand, the idea of ??the unpredictability of the world turns into a not controlled by their own actions. Russian language has an extraordinary wealth of tools to absolve themselves of responsibility. Suffice it to say: I do not work together yesterday I yesterday did not do anything, or try to use the word instead of do or do not have time instead did not. In all these cases, the situation is described as something that happens to a person against his will. A layer of words and a number of so-called impersonal syntactic constructions in which they are used, including the idea that you should not make an effort to do something, because, ultimately, us nothing depends. For example: I could have resulted, had to, had to have happened, had the good fortune, luck; I did not work, did not work, did not work, and others. All of these words trudnoperevodimy.
Resentment - is self-pity, coupled with a claim to another. Resentment arises when the other person gave me little attention, respect, trust, etc. - Insufficient compared to some appropriate level. Anyway, I found it less good feelings than I expected - and something that, in my view, he owes me. The idea of ??injustice arises precisely from this must. The claim to the good feelings to yourself that people take for granted, is lingvospetsifichnym semantic component.
Speaking in Russian resentment seems so natural and everyday, they are surprised to find no exact equivalent to this word in other languages. Indeed, such words as English to offend, offence, French offenser, offense, German beleidigen, beleidigung matter more precisely corresponding Russians skomu offend, insult, ie embody a totally different meaning, centered on the representation is not about justice, but about honor. On the other hand, in many languages ??have words for the application of physical damage and derivative having a value close to the Russian offense. For example, the English to be hurt, German gekranktsein, French ktreblesse; Russian hurt in a figurative sense. The difference between words like to be hurt and offended determined, ultimately, a small definition of this concept in the Russian language, which speaks of his lesser importance for the linguistic world. One of the features of our culture is that it is a matter of justice emotional - in Russian phrase has a sense of justice. In this juxtaposition of justice and the rule of law, which in many languages ??and express impossible for Russian and self-evident, and extremely important. Evaluation of justice in the Russian view of the world is twofold. This is associated with a particular notion of injustice. People are extremely sensitive about when in relation to him or to whom he sympathizes, manifested injustice. When justice is based on objectivity, impartiality - is the value of the lowest level. But it is perceived as the highest value when the sensitivity is impregnated with you, first of all pain for the person offended affected by injustice. The specifics of Russian language picture of the world is not that it opposed the law and grace - is a common place for the Christian culture in general. Feature ideas about the world, as reflected in the Russian language is that, along with the law and mercy in it represented justice, which is much more important than the law, but it is inferior to the importance of higher spiritual values. However, connecting with the feelings and emotional pain, equity rises and falls in the status on a par with mercy and truth.
Another motif through Russian language picture of the world - high demands in the field of human relations. Specific is the word ratio (someone to someone) and relationships (between two people. One way to implement human relations - is communication. I must say that the very words of communication and, especially, to communicate in the Russian language are arranged quite differently, than their counterparts (eg, English to communicate, to contact). The word communicate contains, in addition, the idea of selflessness, impracticality, aimlessness of this activity, positive assessment which is another motive through Russian language picture of the world. From the communication people enjoy or feel joy.
Opposition joy and pleasure as the high and low can be illustrated by the following quote about the diary MM Prishvina: "I suspect that rare joy (if something explodes in a shower), joy, does not clog or years, no need, no insults - this joy we have with it overall, and she joined us. And here is our common hatred for her pleasure, substitute joy. " Fun in the Russian view of the world easily shifts to negative evaluation: a man, overcome by thirst for pleasure and conducting their lives in the pursuit of pleasure, it seems soulless creature. It is noteworthy that the intellectual is combined with a solid and contrasted with mental: intellectual pleasures are in the Russian language on a par with the physiological and motor. Here is a quote from the "Notes" FF Vigel where mind and body are combined and contrasted with the soul. "Light of Science to the top in 1820 spread rapidly; but at least as new inventions created every day for a person new facilities, new pleasures in life, the laws of morality are increasingly losing power. All for the mind, body, nothing for the soul, and the existence of which soon began to refuse. "
Gather language picture unpredictability world view
Verb to gather in the Russian language has become the most natural way of expressing attitudes toward their own actions in the future. At the same time, indicating their intention to gather a verb, speaking in Russian automatically accepts the notion that the intention, for whatever reason, does not always translate into action (it is called, is not going to) - and he does it unconsciously and quite independently by its nature, volitional qualities and beliefs about the device in the world. In this sense, we can say that the language not only reflects those or other mental stereotypes prevalent in the team, but also imposes them speak. Another feature of the Russian verb collected is as follows. Although this verb specifies primarily on certain mental state, it is strong enough and the idea of the process. For example, it is good that you called, and I have an hour to get up and lie. It is significant that in those contexts where the idea of the process of coming to the fore, the word gather can not be replaced on the mean, intend, etc. So, you can not say lie and intend to stand. Process involving the verb to assemble, can be partly understood as a process of mobilization of internal and even external resources. However, much more collected suggests a purely metaphysical process that has no tangible manifestations. The idea of such a process is the specificity of the words together and distinguishes it from both near synonyms (mean, intend), and from the equivalents in European languages (which are more likely to intend to, than to assemble). For example, the German beab sichtigen, die Absicht haben, vorhaben, as well as English to intend (and to be going to), the French avoir l'intention, Italian avere intenzione. Mental stereotype prisoner in Russian verb meet, reflected in the value of a number of linguistic units - for example, in the word at the same time. Since proceed to step hard, it's good, when it is possible to do something, not applying to this effort of the individual (not on purpose, but at the same time). Prompting to action, we can say: You're still going for a walk, buy bread at the same time. A man who was about to go for a walk, it is not difficult at the same time (no need to meet!) To do some more work.
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