Comparison of the policy of the two presidents
Barack Hussein Obama and Dmitry Medvedev: childhood years and family, work in politics before the presidential election and political views, the election, the campaign and presidency. The role, significance of these presidents of their countries history.
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president obama medvedev politic
It is known, that United States of America and Russia are among the largest countries in the world. USA is the most developed countries, where socio-economic indicators are high. Russia - a country with vast natural resources. However, it has not yet reached such results, but it is on the right way. Relatively recently in these countries changed of presidents. Barack Hussein Obama replaced George Walker Bush, Dmitry Medvedev replaced Vladimir Putin.
In my report I'd like to tell you about the policy of these two presidents before and after they have held the post.
In my opinion. this topic is actual now. Obama and Medvedev have become presidents recently. Barack Obama the 44th President of the United States took his post with the January 20, 2009. As for Dmitry Medvedev the 3rd President of Russia took his post the May 7, 2008. Many years USA and Russia were in a state of cold war, but after its completion the relationship between the two countries were strained. However, they started to establish the last time. In many respects, this is due to the policy of these two presidents of the two countries. April 8, 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and U.S. President Barack Obama in Prague signed the treaty on reducing strategic offensive weapons for 10 years. It is a big step in the further development of relations between the U.S. and Russia.
I was interested in which political program led to this result? What are the main objectives these presidents set for themselves? Which public opinion in the policy they held before becoming presidents? What they promised in his election campaign and what satisfied? I will try to answer in my report on these and many other questions.
1. Barack Hussein Obama
1.1 Childhood years and family
Childhood years and background.
Barack Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. His parents met in 1960 while studying at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Father - Barack Hussein Obama Sr. (1936-1982) - Kenyan, the son of the sorcerer of the Luo people. Raised in the traditions of Islam, later became an atheist. [Citation needed 23 days] missionary school paid for him to study in Nairobi and sent to study the course in Econometrics at the University of Hawaii, where he organized the Association of Foreign Students and became a best-of-issue. Stanley Ann was studying anthropology at the University of Hawaii when she met Obama Senior. Grandma Madeline Lee brought up Obama for a long time, they were very attached to each other. Obama interrupted his presidential campaign to visit her in hospital, Madeline Lee Payne Dunham died Nov. 2, 2008.
Obama's father and elder Dunham's parents were against the marriage, but those were married Feb. 2, 1961. Two years later, after the birth of Barack, his father went to continue his studies at Harvard, but Dunham and Obama, Jr. will soon return to Hawaii. Barak's parents' divorce took place in January 1964.
During his studies at Harvard University, Obama Sr. met with an American teacher Naydsend Ruth (Ruth Nidesand), which after finishing his education in the U.S. went to Kenya. It was his third marriage, which had two children. Upon returning to Kenya, he worked in the oil company and after received an economist in the government. He saw his son only once, when he was 10 years. In Kenya, Obama Sr. was in a car accident, resulting in lost both legs and later died in another car acciden.
Mother shortly after her divorce became acquainted with other foreign students - Indonesian Lolo Sutor, married him, and in 1967 went with him and with a little Barack in Jakarta. From this marriage Barak appeared half-sister Maya. Barack's mother died of ovarian cancer in 1995.
In Jakarta, Obama Jr. attended a public school from 6 to 10 years. After that he returned to Honolulu, where he lived with mother's parents until the end in 1979, a prestigious private school «Panehou».
Memories of his childhood described in his book «Dreams from My Father». As an adult, admitted that the school had smoked marijuana, took cocaine and alcohol, as he told voters on the presidential campaign of the Civil Forum August 16, 2008 and described it as its lowest moral collapse.
After school for two years at Occidental College in Los Angeles before transferring to Columbia University where he majored in international relations. By the time bachelor's degree in 1983, Obama worked at the International Business Corporations and the New York research center.
In 1985, the move to Chicago, began working as a community organizer in poor areas of the city. In 1988, Obama went to law school at Harvard University, where in 1990 he became the first in its history editor of the African-American university publication «Harvard Law Review».
Since 1992, Barack Obama is married to Michelle Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964), a practicing lawyer.
One effect of the marriage was to bring Obama closer to other politically influential Chicagoans. One of Michelle's best friends was Jesse Jackson's daughter, Santita, later the godmother of the Obamas' first child. Michelle herself had worked as an aide to Mayor Richard M. Daley. Marty Nesbitt, a young, successful black businessman (who played basketball with Michelle's brother, Craig Robinson), became Obama's best friend and introduced him to other African-American business people. Before the marriage, according to Craig, Obama talked about his political ambitions, even saying that he might run for president someday.
Michelle Obama, née Robinson, the wife of Barack Obama, was born on January 17, 1964 in Chicago, Illinois. She is a lawyer and was a University of Chicago Hospital vice-president. She is the First Lady of the United States.
Malia Obama and Sasha Obama
Barack and Michelle Obama have two daughters: Malia Ann (pronounced /m??li??/), born on July 4, 1998, and Natasha (known as Sasha /?s????/), born on June 10, 2001. Sasha is the youngest child to reside in the White House since John F. Kennedy, Jr. arrived as an infant in 1961. Sasha is also the first White House resident born in the 21st century.
Before his inauguration, President Obama published an open letter to his daughters in Parade magazine, describing what he wants for them and every child in America: «to grow up in a world with no limits on your dreams and no achievements beyond your reach, and to grow into compassionate, committed women who will help build that world.» .
While living in Chicago, they kept busy schedules, as the Associated Press reports: «soccer, dance and drama for Malia, gymnastics and tap for Sasha, piano and tennis for both. ". In July 2008, the family gave an interview to the television series Access Hollywood. Obama later said they regretted allowing the children to be included.
Malia and Sasha attend the private Sidwell Friends School in Washington, DC, the same school as attended by Chelsea Clinton, Tricia Nixon Cox, and Archibald Roosevelt, and currently the grandchildren of Vice President Joe Biden. The Obama girls began classes there on January 5, 2009. While in Chicago, both attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory School.
In his victory speech on the night of his election, President Obama repeated his promise to Sasha and Malia to get a puppy to take with them to the White House. The selection was slow because Malia is allergic to animal dander; the president subsequently said that the choice had been narrowed down to either a labradoodle or Portuguese Water Dog, and they hoped to find a shelter animal. On April 12, 2009, it was reported that the Obamas had adopted a six-month-old Portuguese Water Dog given to them as a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy, named Bo by Malia and Sasha
1.2 Work in politics before the presidential election and political views
The senator of Illinois.
In 1996 he was elected to the Senate in Illinois.
Held the seat the senator from 1997 to 2004, represented the Democratic Party of the United States: re-elected twice: in 1998 and 2002. As a Senator, has worked with both Democrats and the Republicans: With representatives of both parties worked on programs to support low-income families through tax cuts, spoke as a proponent of early childhood education, has supported measures to tighten control over the work of the investigating authorities.
In 2000, attempted to run for election to the U.S. House of Representatives, but lost the primaries, the current Congressman Bobby Rush Blacks (Bobby Rush).
In 2004 he joined the fight for the nomination for one seat from Illinois in the U.S. Senate. Won a convincing victory over six opponents in the primaries.
U.S. senator in Washington (2005-2008)
He sworn in as U.S. senator on Jan. 4, 2005, becoming the 5 th African-American senator in U.S. history.
In late August 2005, under the Nunn-Lugar (en: Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction) flew to Russia to inspect nuclear facilities of the Russian Federation, together with Republican Senator Richard Lugar, during his visit on 28 August at departure at the airport in Perm Big Savino incident: Senators were detained for three hours because of the refusal «to meet the requirements of border guards»  on the inspection plane, which had diplomatic immunity. Later, the Russian Foreign Ministry expressed regret «in connection with a misunderstanding and inconvenience caused to the senators». . In his book, Obama described the incident as one of the moments during his travels, «which reminded of the days of the Cold War». [7, c. 246]
August 26, 2006 together with his wife visited Kenya.
As a senator, has repeatedly been in the White House at the invitation of President George W. Bush.
Non-partisan Congressional Quarterly publication described him as «loyal Democrat» based on an analysis of all the votes in the Senate in 2005-2007; National Journal introduced himself as his «most liberal» senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007.
In 2008, Congress.org has put his 11-th of an influential senator.
Senate left office on Nov. 16, 2008
On April 20, 2007, Obama introduced a bill in the Senate (Shareholder Vote on Executive Compensation Act - S. 1181) requiring public companies to give shareholders an annual nonbinding vote on executive compensation, popularly called «Say on pay.» A companion bill introduced by Rep. Barney Frank passed the House the same day.
Obama supports the Employee Free Choice Act, a bill that adds penalties for labor violations and which would circumvent the secret ballot requirement to organize a union. Obama promises to sign the EFCA into law. He is also a cosponsor of the «Re-empowerment of Skilled and Professional Employees and Construction Tradesworkers» or RESPECT act (S. 969) that aims to overturn the National Labor Relations Board's «Kentucky River» 532 U.S. 706 (2001) decision that redefined many employees lacking the authority to hire, fire, or discipline, as «supervisors» who are not protected by federal labor laws.
Obama favored the increase in the federal minimum wage from $5.15 an hour to $7.25, and he voted to end the filibuster against a bill to accomplish that. He favors raising it to $9.50 an hour by 2011, and then indexing it for inflation afterwards.
In a July 2007 address to the National Education Association, Obama supported merit pay for teachers, to be based on standards to be developed «with teachers.» Obama also called for higher pay for teachers. Obama's plan is estimated to cost $18 billion annually and was originally planned to be partially funded by delaying NASA's Constellation program for five years but he has since reconsidered and stated that he will look for «an entirely different offset.» «We owe it to our children to invest in early-childhood education; and recruit an army of new teachers and give them better pay and more support; and finally decide that, in this global economy, the chance to get a college education should not be a privilege for the few, but a birthright of every American. ". He also is against the teaching of intelligent design as science, but supports teaching theology.
Obama has proposed the American Opportunity Tax Credit, which would provide a refundable tax credit for education in exchange for community service.
Obama wants 5,000 failing schools to close, and then reopen with new principals and teachers.
In his New Energy For America plan, Obama proposes to reduce overall U.S. oil consumption by at least 35%, or 10 million barrels per day, by 2030 in order to offset imports from OPEC nations. Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which provided incentives (chiefly tax breaks) to reduce national consumption of energy and to encourage a wide range of alternative energy sources.
In an interview with NBC's Tim Russert on May 4, 2008, Obama said,»… we've got a serious food problem around the world. We've got rising food prices here in the United States.» «There's no doubt that biofuels may be contributing to it. And what I've said is, my top priority is making sure that people are able to get enough to eat. And if it turns out that we've got to make changes in our ethanol policy to help people get something to eat, then that's got to be the step we take.» .
Obama and other Senators introduced a bill in 2007 to promote the development of commercially viable plug-in hybrids and other electric-drive vehicles in order to shift away from petroleum fuels and «toward much cleaner - and cheaper - electricity for transportation». .Similar legislation is now in effect in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Obama proposes that the U.S. Government invest in such developments using revenue generated from an auction-based cap-and-trade or emissions trading program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Obama stresses innovation as a means to improve energy efficiency, calling for a 50% improvement by 2030. He has called for a 50 miles per US gallon (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp) rule, proposing tax credits to automakers in order to ease the transition.
He opposes drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
On June 22, 2008 Obama proposed tightening regulations on oil speculators in an effort to ease record high prices of oil. «My plan fully closes the Enron loophole and restores common-sense regulation,» Obama said. .
On January 24, 2007 Obama spoke about his position on health care at Families USA, a health care advocacy group. Obama said, «The time has come for universal health care in America […] I am absolutely determined that by the end of the first term of the next president, we should have universal health care in this country.» . Obama went on to say that he believed that it was wrong that forty-seven million Americans are uninsured, noting that taxpayers already pay over $15 billion annually to care for the uninsured. Obama cites cost as the reason so many Americans are without health insurance. Obama's health care plan includes implementing guaranteed eligibility for affordable health care for all Americans, paid for by insurance reform, reducing costs, removing patent protection for pharmaceuticals, and required employer contributions. He would provide for mandatory health care insurance for children.
In July 2008 The New York Times reported that Senator Obama has promised to «bring down premiums by $2,500 for the typical family.» . His advisers have said that the $2,500 premium reduction includes, in addition to direct premium savings, the average family's share of the reduction in employer paid health insurance premiums and the reduction in the cost of government health programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.
The Associated Press reported in September 2008 that Senator Obama was proposing a National Health Insurance Exchange that would include both private insurance plans and a Medicare-like government run option. Coverage would be guaranteed regardless of health status, and premiums would not vary based on health status either. The plan requires that parents cover their children, but does not require adults to buy insurance.
According to an October 26, 2008 article in the New York Times, Obama is considering a new payroll tax on large and medium employers who do not already provide their employees with health insurance, and this tax would be used to pay for health care for uninsured people.
Homes, mortgages, mortgage crisis, and real estate industry
Obama voted for the $700 billion Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.
Obama introduced the Stop Fraud Act to increase penalties for mortgage fraud by mortgage brokers and real estate brokers and to provide more protections for low-income homebuyers.
In regards to capital gains on house sales, Obama says he favors increasing capital gains tax above the present 15% rate to 20% for families whose income is above $250,000.
«As president, Obama will support the development of this vital new platform Crew Exploration Vehicle to ensure that the United States' reliance on foreign space capabilities is limited to the minimum possible time period.» Obama advocated a delay of the NASA Constellation Program by at least five years in order to fund educational programs. He has since reversed this position, stating «I know it's still being reported that we were talking about delaying some aspects of the Constellation program to pay for our early-education program… I told my staff we're going to find an entirely different offset, because we've got to make sure that the money going into NASA for basic research and development continues to go there. That has been a top priority for us.»
His Human Space Flight Plans Committee is reported to have concluded that the budget allocation for NASA would not permit the planned manned Mars mission.
Under Obama's plan, middle-class families would see their income taxes cut, with no family making less than $250,000 seeing an increase. However, he did vote for a budget in June 2008, that would raise the taxes on single people with a taxable income of over $32,000 by pushing up their tax bracket from 25% to 28%. Obama has proposed a tax plan which includes tax credits to lower the amount of taxes paid. It is argued that the typical middle-class family would receive over $1,000 in tax relief, with tax payments that are 20% lower than they faced under President Ronald Reagan.
Obama's plan is to cut income taxes overall, which he states would reduce revenues to below the levels that prevailed under Ronald Reagan (less than 18.2 percent of GDP). Obama argues that his plan is a net tax cut, and that his tax relief for middle class families is larger than the revenue raised by his tax changes for families over $250,000. Obama plans to pay for the tax changes while bringing down the budget deficit by cutting unnecessary spending.
During an October 13, 2008 speech at Toledo, Ohio, Obama said that for the next two years, he favors a $3,000 tax credit to businesses for each new full time employee whom they hire above the number in their current work force.
For people with incomes above $250,000, Obama wants to reduce their charitable tax deduction from 35 cents for each dollar donated to 28 cents for each dollar donated, to match the level of deductions for people making less than $250,000. In a press conference on March 24, 2009, Obama stated that he wanted to return to the rate that existed in the Reagan administration. «There's very little evidence that this has a significant impact on charitable giving,» said Obama. «I'll tell you what has a significant impact on charitable giving, is a financial crisis and an economy that's contracting. And so the most important thing that I can do for charitable giving is to fix the economy, to get banks lending again, to get businesses opening their doors again, to get people back to work again.» Obama said he wanted to «look at raising the capital gains tax for purposes of fairness.»
Lobbying and campaign finance reform
În February 28, 2008, he wrote that he planned to «aggressively pursue» a publicly financed campaign, later promising to sit down with John McCain to ensure «a public system» of campaign financing is preserved. However, on June 19, 2008, he opted out of public campaign financing and declared, «I support a robust system of public financing of elections (…) but the public financing of presidential elections as it exists today is broken.» . Furthermore he has maintained that he will not take contributions from federal lobbyists and special interests during his 2008 presidential campaign.
Barack Obama made critical statements about the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) during the Democratic primaries, calling the trade agreement «devastating» and «a big mistake».In February 2008, a Canadian diplomatic memo surfaced, which alleged that Obama's economic advisor Austan Goolsbee had met with Canadian consular officials in Chicago and told them to disregard Obama's campaign rhetoric regarding NAFTA, a charge the Obama campaign later denied (see Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008#NAFTA controversy). Obama also noted that free trade comes with its own costs: he believes the displacement of Mexican farmers by more efficient American counterparts has led to increased immigration to the United States from that country.
Âarack Obama foreign policy
His first major speech on foreign policy was delivered on April 23, 2007 to the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. He identified the problems that he believes the current foreign policy has caused, and the five ways the United States can lead again, focused on «common security», «common humanity», and remaining «a beacon of freedom and justice for the world»:
· «Bringing a responsible end» to the war in Iraq and refocusing on the broader region.
· «Building the first truly 21st century military and showing wisdom in how we deploy it.»
· «Marshalling a global effort» to secure, destroy, and stop the spread of weapons of mass destruction.
· «Rebuild and construct the alliances and partnerships necessary to meet common challenges and confront common threats,» including global warming.
· «Invest in our common humanity» through foreign aid and supporting the «pillars of a sustainable democracy - a strong legislature, an independent judiciary, the rule of law, a vibrant civil society, a free press, and an honest police force.» .
During the speech Obama called for an expansion of the United States Armed Forces «by adding 65,000 soldiers to the Army and 27,000 Marines», an idea previously introduced by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates.
In a Washington, DC speech entitled «A New Strategy for a New World» delivered July 15, 2008 Obama stated five main foreign policy goals:
· ending the war in Iraq responsibly;
· finishing the fight against al-Qaeda and the Taliban;
· securing all nuclear weapons and materials from terrorists and rogue states;
· achieving true energy security; and,
· rebuilding our alliances to meet the challenges of the 21st century. .
Foreign policy advisors
Barack Obama is currently advised on foreign policy by a support group of approximately 300 people organized into 20 teams based upon subject. A core group of advisors, led by Susan E. Rice and Anthony Lake, filters hundreds of papers and messages daily to provide the President with more concise positions on foreign policy and more specific reactions to international developments. Obama's foreign policy advisers have included Richard Danzig, Mark Lippert, Gregory Craig, Denis McDonough, Daniel Shapiro, Scott Gration, Sarah Sewall, Ivo Daalder, Jeffrey Bader, Mark Brzezinski, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Richard Clarke, Roger Cressey, Philip Gordon, Lawrence Korb, James Ludes, Robert Malley, Bruce Riedel, Dennis Ross, Mona Sutphen, and Samantha Power (resigned March 7, 2008).
Barack Obama social policy
Obama was the only Democratic presidential candidate to issue an unsolicited statement expressing his views on disability community issues. For example, he stated his intention to sign the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and expressed his support of the ADA Restoration Act.
Environmental policy and record
Addressing global warming, Obama stated:
The issue of climate change is one that we ignore at our own peril. There may still be disputes about exactly how much is naturally occurring, but what we can be scientifically certain of is that our continued use of fossil fuels is pushing us to a point of no return. And unless we free ourselves from a dependence on these fossil fuels and chart a new course on energy in this country, we are condemning future generations to global catastrophe.
He has pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050 by creating a market-based cap-and-trade system. Obama also has plans for improving air and water quality through reduced carbon emissions.
During the presidential campaign Obama rejected John McCain's proposed suspension of federal gas taxes claiming it would hurt consumers, hinder highway construction, and endanger jobs. Obama criticized the idea of a gas tax «holiday» as a ploy by his rivals «designed to get them through an election» and not actually help «struggling consumers».
Obama opposes offering reparations to the descendants of slaves. «I have said in the past - and I'll repeat again - that the best reparations we can provide are good schools in the inner city and jobs for people who are unemployed,» Obama said. An apology for slavery would be appropriate but not particularly helpful in improving the lives of African Americans, he said. Reparations could also be a distraction, Obama said. «I consistently believe that when it comes to whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the most important thing for the U.S. government to do is not just offer words, but offer deeds,» Obama told a meeting in Chicago in July 2008. .
Obama's administration offered a brief in support of affirmative action in March 2010 vis a vis a court case seeking to challenge Grutter v. Bollinger and the legality of «race-conscious» college admissions.
Obama has said that the death penalty is used too frequently and inconsistently. However, he favors it for cases in which «the community is justified in expressing the full measure of its outrage.» In his own words, «While the evidence tells me that the death penalty does little to deter crime, I believe there are some crimes - mass murder, the rape and murder of a child - so heinous that the community is justified in expressing the full measure of its outrage by meting out the ultimate punishment. On the other hand, the way capital cases were tried in Illinois at the time was so rife with error, questionable police tactics, racial bias, and shoddy lawyering, that 13 death row inmates had been exonerated.» .
On June 25, 2008, Obama condemned United States Supreme Court decision Kennedy v. Louisiana, which outlawed the death penalty for a child rapist when the victim was not killed. He said that states have the right to consider capital punishment, but cited concern about the possibility of unfairness in some sentences.
Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other church-going people, saying, «if we truly hope to speak to people where they're at - to communicate our hopes and values in a way that's relevant to their own - we cannot abandon the field of religious discourse.» .He supports separation of church and state and contends that: «I also think that we are under obligation in public life to translate our religious values into moral terms that all people can share, including those who are not believers. And that is how our democracy's functioning, will continue to function. That's what the founding fathers intended. "( In July 2008, Obama said that if elected president he would expand the delivery of social services through churches and other religious organizations, vowing to achieve what he said President Bush had fallen short on. His 2008 campaign web site contains his Faith Statement.
1.3 The election, the campaign and presidency
Barack Obama, then junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. On August 27, 2008, he was declared nominee of the Democratic Party for the 2008 presidential election. He is the first African American in history to run on a major party ticket. On August 23, 2008, Barack Obama's campaign announced that Senator Joe Biden of Delaware would be the Vice Presidential nominee.
End of the primaries
On June 3, 2008, after the Montana and South Dakota primaries, Barack Obama secured enough delegates to clinch the nomination of the Democratic party for President of the United States. His opponent in the general election, Republican John McCain, passed the delegate threshold to become the presumptive nominee of his party on March 4. On June 7, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Obama's remaining opponent in the quest for the Democratic nomination, conceded defeat at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado and urged her supporters to back Obama. After a June 26 dinner at which Obama encouraged his fundraisers to donate to Clinton's debt-saddled campaign, Obama and Clinton ran their first post-primary event together in Unity, New Hampshire on June 27. Over the first two weeks of July, the campaign ran a heavier schedule of fundraising events, drawing from former donors to Clinton's campaign. Obama strategically had pictures made with financial experts Warren Buffett and Paul Volcker so the public would portray him having inside knowledge of Wall Street.
Middle Eastern and European tour
In July 2008 Obama traveled to Kuwait, Afghanistan, Iraq, Jordan, the West Bank, Israel, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. During the course of this trip he met with assorted international leaders, including President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki of Iraq, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Olmert, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, President Nicolas Sarkozy of France, and Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, as well as former British Prime Minister Tony Blair and Conservative opposition leader David Cameron.
On July 24, 2008 he gave a speech at the Victory Column in Berlin before a crowd of estimated 200,000 to 240,000 people.
Vice Presidential selection
Barack Obama's vice presidential running mate had been a subject of speculation since the end of the primaries. As of August 2008, some of the most popular choices for VP included, but were not limited to, Clinton, Biden, Indiana Senator Evan Bayh, Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius, Virginia Governor Tim Kaine, retired General and former Secretary of State Colin Powell, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, and retired General Wesley Clark.) When Sarah Palin announced she would be McCain's vice president, Obama's supporters of Democrats and independents vastly grew.
As of November 3, 2008, one day before the election, the RealClearPolitics electoral map excluding toss up states shows 278 electoral votes for Obama/Biden, an electoral majority, and 132 electoral votes for opponents McCain/Palin. Including toss up states, the Obama/Biden ticket leads with 338 votes.
Barack Obama was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. He officially assumed the presidency at 12:00 noon, EST, and completed the oath of office at 12:05 PM, EST. He delivered his inaugural address immediately following his oath. To commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth of former President Abraham Lincoln, the same Bible that was used for Lincoln's inauguration was used in Obama's inauguration.
In administering the oath, Chief Justice John G. Roberts misplaced the word «faithfully» and erroneously replaced the phrase «President of the United States» with «President to the United States» before restating the phrase correctly; since Obama initially repeated the incorrect form, some scholars argued the President should take the oath again. On January 21, Roberts readministered the oath to Obama in a private ceremony in the White House Map Room, making him the seventh U.S. president to retake the oath; White House Counsel Greg Craig said Obama took the oath from Roberts a second time out of an «abundance of caution
Upon entering office, Obama planned to center his attention on handling the global financial crisis. Even before his inauguration he lobbied Congress to pass an economic stimulus bill, which became the top priority during his first month in office. On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law a $787 billion plan that included spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals. The tax provisions of the law reduced taxes for 98 per cent of taxpayers, bringing tax rates to their lowest levels in 60 years.
As part of the 2010 budget proposal, the Obama administration has proposed additional measures to attempt to stabilize the economy, including a $2-3 trillion measure aimed at stabilizing the financial system and freeing up credit. The program includes up to $1 trillion to buy toxic bank assets, an additional $1 trillion to expand a federal consumer loan program, and the $350 billion left in the Troubled Assets Relief Program. The plan also includes $50 billion intended to slow the wave of mortgage foreclosures. The 2011 Budget includes a three-year freeze on discretionary spending, proposes several program cancellations, and raises taxes on high income earners to bring down deficits during the economic recovery.
In October 2009, the national unemployment reached 10.1%, the highest since 1983. However by March 2010 the employment rate had decreased to 9.7% and 162,000 jobs were added in a single month, the most in three years. The White House indicates that 2 million jobs were created or saved due to the stimulus package in 2009 and self reporting by recipients of the grants, loans, and contracts portion of the package report that the package saved or created 608,317 jobs in the final three months of 2009.
Obama wanted to extend the tax cuts for taxpayers making less than $250,000 a year. Congressional Republicans agreed but also wanted to extend the tax cuts for those making over that amount, and refused to support any bill that did not do so. All the Republicans in the Senate also joined in saying that, until the tax dispute was resolved, they would filibuster to prevent consideration of any other legislation, except for bills to fund the U.S. government. On 7 December, Obama strongly defended a compromise agreement he had reached with the Republican congressional leadership that included a two-year extension of all the tax cuts, a 13-month extension of unemployment insurance, a one-year reduction in the FICA payroll tax, and other measures.
In his inaugural address, Obama suggested that he plans to begin the process of withdrawing from Iraq and continuing to focus on the war in Afghanistan. He also mentioned lessening the nuclear threat through «working tirelessly with old friends and former foes». He spoke about America's determination to combat terrorism, proclaiming America's spirit is «stronger and cannot be broken - you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you.» . To the Muslim world, Obama extended an invite to «a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect». He also said the USA would «extend a hand» to those «who cling to power through corruption and deceit» if they «are willing to unclench»  their fists. Shortly after his inauguration President Obama first called President Abbas of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Calls were also made to President Mubarak of Egypt, Prime Minister Olmert of Israel and King Abdullah of Jordan. Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton named George Mitchell as Special Envoy for Middle East peace and Richard Holbrooke as special representative to Pakistan and Afghanistan on January 23, 2009. At the same time, Obama called on Israel to open the borders of Gaza, detailing early plans on his administration's peace plans for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
On February 18, 2009, Obama announced that the U.S. military presence in Afghanistan would be bolstered by 17,000 new troops by summer. The announcement followed the recommendation of several experts including Defense Secretary Robert Gates that additional troops be deployed to the war-torn nation.
Obama declared his plan for ending the Iraq War on February 27, 2009, in a speech at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, before an audience of Marines stationed there. According to the president, combat troops will be withdrawn from Iraq by August 2010, leaving a contingent of up to 50,000 servicemen and servicewomen to continue training, advisory, and counterterrorism operations until as late as the end of 2011.
Other characteristics of the Obama administration on foreign policy include a tough stance on tax havens, continuing military operation in Pakistan, and avowed focus on diplomacy to prevent nuclear proliferation in Iran and North Korea.
On April 1, 2009, Obama and China's President, Hu Jintao, announced the establishment of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue and agreed to work together to build a positive, cooperative, and comprehensive U.S.-China relationship for the 21st century.
In that same month, Obama requested that Congress approve $83.4 billion of supplemental military funding, mostly for the war in Iraq and to increase troop levels in Afghanistan. The request also includes $2.2 billion to increase the size of the US military, $350 million to upgrade security along the US-Mexico border, and $400 million in counterinsurgency aid for Pakistan.
In May 2009, it was reported that Obama plans to expand the military by 20,000 employees.
On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt. The wide ranging speech called for a «new beginning» in relations between the Islamic world and the United States. The speech received both praise and criticism from leaders in the region. In March 2010, Secretary of State Clinton criticized the Israeli government for approving expansion of settlements in East Jerusalem.
On April 8, 2010, President Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed the latest Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), a «major» nuclear arms control agreement that reduces the nuclear weapons stockpiles of both countries.
Overseas Contingency Operation
President Obama discontinued use of the term «War on Terror» and instead uses the term «Overseas Contingency Operation». However, Obama has stated that the U.S. is at war with Al-Qaeda saying «Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred.» .
In April 2010, the Obama administration took the extraordinary step of authorizing the targeted killing of an American citizen, the radical Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, who was believed to have shifted from encouraging attacks on the United States to directly participating in them.
During the presidential campaign, Obama announced that he favors measures that respect Second Amendment rights, while at the same time keeping guns away from children and criminals. On February 25, 2009, Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the Obama administration would seek a new assault weapons ban across the United States, claiming that it would have a positive impact on the drug-related violence in Mexico. After the statement drew criticism from the NRA and some House Democrats, the Administration reportedly ordered the Justice Department to end public discussion of the issue. Obama has signed into law two bills containing amendments reducing restrictions on gun owners, one which permits guns to be transported in checked baggage on Amtrak trains and another which allows carrying loaded firearms in national parks located in states allowing concealed carry.
On January 27, 2009, Obama issued two presidential memoranda concerning energy policy. One directed the Department of Transportation to raise fuel efficiency standards incrementally to 35 miles per US gallon (15 km/L) by 2020, and the other directed the Environmental Protection Agency to allow individual states to set stricter tailpipe emissions regulations than the federal standard.
Interior Secretary Ken Salazar has been quoted as saying, «To establish an orderly process that allows us to make wise decisions based on sound information, we need to set aside» the plan «and create our own timeline». .
On May 19, 2009, Obama announced a plan to increase the CAFE national standards for gasoline mileage, by creating a single new national standard that will create a car and light truck fleet in the United States that is almost 40 percent cleaner and more fuel-efficient by 2016 than it is today, with an average of 35.5 miles per gallon. Environmental advocates and industry officials welcomed the new program.
On March 30, 2010, Obama partially reinstated Bush administration proposals to open certain offshore areas along the Atlantic coastline, the eastern Gulf of Mexico and the north coast of Alaska to oil and natural gas drilling. The proposals had earlier been set aside by President Obama after they were challenged in court on environmental grounds.
On May 27, 2010, Obama extended a moratorium on offshore drilling permits after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill which is considered to be the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Although British Petroleum took responsibility for the disaster and its ongoing after effects, Obama began a federal investigation along with forming a bipartisan commission to review the incident and methods to avoid it in the future. Obama visited the Gulf Coast on May 2 and May 28 and expressed his frustration on the June 8 NBC Today Show, by saying «I don't sit around just talking to experts because this is a college seminar. We talk to these folks because they potentially have the best answers, so I know whose ass to kick.» Obama's response to the disaster has drawn confusion and criticism within segments of the media and public.
Obama set up the Augustine panel to review the Constellation program in 2009, and announced in February 2010 that he was cutting the program from the 2011 United States federal budget, describing it as «over budget, behind schedule, and lacking in innovation.» After the decision drew criticism in the United States, a new «Flexible path to Mars» plan was unveiled at a space conference in April 2010. It included new technology programs, increased R&D spending, a focus on the International Space Station and contracting out flying crew to space to commercial providers. The new plan also increased NASA's 2011 budget to $19 billion from $18.3 billion in 2010.
On October 19, 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice issued a directive to federal prosecutors in states with medical marijuana laws not to investigate or prosecute cases of marijuana use or production done in compliance with those laws.
On December 16, 2009, President Obama signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, which repealed a 21-year-old ban on federal funding of needle exchange programs.
Health care reform
Once the stimulus bill was enacted, health care reform became Obama's top domestic priority. On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,000 page plan for overhauling the US health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of the year.
In mid-July 2009, Douglas Elmendorf, director of the CBO, testified that the proposals under consideration would significantly increase federal spending and did not include the «fundamental changes» needed to control the rapid growth in health care spending. However after reviewing the final version of the bill introduced after 14 months of debate the CBO estimated that it would reduce federal budget deficits by $143 billion over 10 years and by more than a trillion in the next decade.
After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over his administration's proposals. In March 2010, Obama gave several speeches across the country to argue for the passage of health care reform. On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed the bill into law.
On March 30, 2010, President Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, which ended the role of private banks in lending out federally-insured student loans. By directly lending to students, the government is projected to save taxpayers $68 billion dollars over the next several years. Starting in 2014, the law permits borrowers to cap the amount they spend on student loans each year to 10% of their discretionary income and have their balance forgiven if they have faithfully paid the balance of their loan over 20 years.
Wall Street reform
On July 21, 2010 President Obama signed the Wall Street reform bill considered to be the largest financial system overhaul since the New Deal. The law recognizes complex financial derivatives and makes rules to protect consumers from unfair practices in loans and credit cards by establishing a new consumer protection agency. At the signing ceremony in the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington D.C. Obama proclaimed, «There will be no more taxpayer-funded bailouts. Period.» Obama also mentioned that «These reforms represent the strongest consumer financial protections in history. ". At the ceremony were Sen. Christopher Dodd, D-Conn., and Rep. Barney Frank, D-Mass., the two committee chairmen who sponsored the bill.
2. Dmitry Medvedev
2.1 Childhood years and family
Early life and background
The father - Anatoly Afanasyevich Medvedev (born 19 November 1926-2004), professor at the Leningrad Technological Institute of the Leningrad City Council (now St. Petersburg State Technological Institute). A descendant of peasants Kursk province
Mother - Julia Veniaminovna (born November 21, 1939), daughter of Benjamin Sergeyevich Shaposhnikov and Melanie Vasilevny Kovaleva; scholar, taught at the Pedagogical Institute named after AI Herzen, and later worked as a guide in Pavlovsk. Her ancestors - Sergei and Ekaterina Nikitichna Shaposhnikov, Vasiliy and Anfiya Filippovna Kovalev - came from Alexeevka Belgorod region. Living in Stary Oskol also believe Mr Medvedev his countryman for historical reasons: Residents Alexeevka mainly came from Oskol during the colonization of the Wild Field.
Dmitry Medvedev was born Sept. 14, 1965 in Leningrad. Was the only child in a family that lived in the area Kupchino, «sleeping area» of Leningrad (St. Bela Kun, 6).
Dmitry Medvedev maintains contact with his former school. Teacher Vera Smirnova recalled: «He tried very hard all the time devoted tuition. It is rarely possible to catch it on the street with the kids. He was like a little old man»
Medvedev was an A student in secondary school. He was a member of Komsomol from 1979 until 1991. His future wife, Svetlana Linnik, was his classmate. During his studies at the University he joined the Communist Party. Medvedev was fond of sports, in particular weightlifting. He was a fan of the English rock bands Black Sabbath and Deep Purple.
He graduated from the Law Department of Leningrad State University in 1987 (together with Ilya Yeliseyev, Anton Ivanov, Nikolay Vinnichenko and Konstantin Chuychenko) and in 1990, received his Candidate of Sciences degree in private law from the graduate school of the same university. Anatoly Sobchak, an early democratic politician of the 1980s and 1990s, was one of his professors. In 1988, Medvedev joined Sobchak's team of democrats and served as the de facto head of Sobchak's successful campaign for a seat in the new Soviet parliament, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR.
Between 1991 and 1999, Medvedev in addition to his business activities and participation in the Saint Petersburg City Administration, held a position of docent at his alma mater university, now renamed to Saint Petersburg State University.
Teaching and Research Activities with 1988 (from 1988 to 1990 as a postgraduate practice) He taught civil and Roman law at the Law Faculty of Leningrad State University, then St. Petersburg State University. Topic of Ph.D. thesis: «The problems of implementation of the civil capacity of the state enterprise», PhD in Law (L., 1990). One of the authors repeatedly reprinted three-volume textbook «Civil Law» edited by AP Sergeev, and Yu Tolstoy, wrote to him four chapters (on state and municipal enterprises, credit and settlement obligations, transport law, alimony obligations). Stopped teaching in 1999 due to moving to Moscow.
N. Nazarbayev is the head of state, Commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within of Kazakhstan. B. Obama II is the head of state and head of government of the United States. Queen Elizabeth II as head of a monarchy of the United Kingdom.
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Leading role Society Gard Kresevo (USC) in organizing social and political life of the Poland. The Polish People's Movement of Vilna Earth. The influence of the Polish Central Electoral Committee. The merger of the TNG "Emancipation" and PNC "Revival".
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The term "political system". The theory of social system. Classification of social system. Organizational and institutional subsystem. Sociology of political systems. The creators of the theory of political systems. Cultural and ideological subsystem.
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The classical definition of democracy. Typical theoretical models of democracy. The political content of democracy. Doctrine of liberal and pluralistic democracy. Concept of corporate political science and other varieties of proletarian democracy.
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Referendum - a popular vote in any country of the world, which resolved important matters of public life. Usually in a referendum submitted questions, the answers to which are the words "yes" or "no". Especially, forms, procedure of referendums.
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