Information Society Concept

The material and technological basis of the information society are all sorts of systems based on computers and computer networks, information technology, telecommunication. The task of Ukraine in area of information and communication technologies.

Рубрика Программирование, компьютеры и кибернетика
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Язык русский
Дата добавления 10.05.2011
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Information Society Concept

At every stage of human development level of society is determined by the degree of dominant technologies. Such technologies and determine the type of epoch (phase) develtion of mankind.

In the words Fukidzavy Yukiti, scientific technology is a tool of civilization and development which will ensure the welfare of society. Based on this, "tool" of the Information Society or Information stage of civilization is ¬ rence information technology.

The notion of "information technology" is a multi. Therefore, in determining its stresses that aspect in question (operations, organization, components, etc.).

In this case, when information technology (IT) understand computing, communications systems, which use to create, collect, transfer, storage and processing of information in all spheres of public life.

For comparison, consider a few common definitions.

Information technology - a system of techniques and methods of collection, accumulation, storage, search and information processing based on the use of computer technology.

Information technology - a process that uses a combination of means and methods of collecting, processing and transmission of data (primary data) to obtain qualitatively new information on the status of the object, process or phenomenon.

According to the definition adopted by UNESCO, information technology - a set of interrelated scientific, technological, engineering disciplines, studying the methods of efficient work of people engaged in processing and storage, computer equipment and methods of its interaction with people and production facilities, their practical applications, and associated with all these social, economic and cultural problems.

Now it is information technology, the degree of their development and distribution determine the level of development of a particular state. All leading countries are working intensively conceptual foundations of information society: developing a multi-projects aimed at improving the information infrastructure, projects, information and legal support work, training and life in this society. The U. S. result of the National Program "Strategic Computer Initiative," Advanced software technology, "Microelectronics and computer technology", "new compu ¬ retrorgrade Initiative," National Information Infrastructure: Action Plan "were: developing a new generation of computers that have special knowledge, who can see, hear and speak, creating an information infrastructure that provides access to national information resources from anywhere in the country, on which virtually all computerized areas of human activity. Achieving the full information in the U. S. prog-nozuyetsya the second decade of the XXI century. The introduction of these highly intelligent technologies, such as information, generates a number of issues related to improving computer literacy. One of the latest applications - Challenge technological literacy "is aimed at improving the informatization of education.

European Union (EU) intensively working to develop a concept of information society and programs that implement. Basic principles and guidelines, which will develop the EU, set out in the Green Paper "Living and working in the information society: people first." More features and results of these and other programs are considered in section 3.

The task of Ukraine is not to lose the chance that it has today, to participate in international projects and implementation of these concepts. Problems in this way very much. Therefore it is important to choose the right priorities and develop an effective strategy of action of joining the information society. As world experience shows, in addition to purely technological problems, which surely is the core, there are a number of economic and organizational and management issues without resolving them is impossible to form a nucleus.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) affect all spheres of human activity on the person personally. Scientists have noted social and psychological impact of ICT on humans, which manifests itself in changing a person's attitude to work and its content. The basis of the changes occurring, is fundamentally different attitude to information and its role in society. Everything becomes more common toward her as a commodity. Thus, it becomes possible to talk about establishing an information market.

Recently, history information and technological revolutions and their impact on social relations covered in numerous sources, so no need to do a complete statement. Moreover, given the accelerating pace of life and the changes taking place, such a description instantly obsolete. However, please recall the main features of technological transformation in the processing and transmission of information. The result of these changes was acquiring a new quality of human society, the formation of the new socio-technical paradigm - information society.

The first revolution associated with the invention of writing, which led to a huge qualitative and quantitative jump. Now you can transfer knowledge from generation to generation.

Second Revolution (mid XVI century). Caused the invention of printing, which radically changed the industrial society, culture, organization of activities.

The Third Revolution (late XIX century.) Is caused by the invention of electricity, through which came the telegraph, telephone, radio, which allows you to quickly transmit and accumulate information in any volume.

Fourth Revolution (70-ies of XX century.) Associated with the invention of microprocessor technology and the advent of the personal compu ¬ tera. In microprocessors and integrated circuits are created computers, computer networks, data (information communication). This period is characterized by three fundamental innovations:

transition from mechanical and electrical products to electronic information transfer;

miniaturization of components, devices, appliances, machinery;

development of software-controlled devices and processes.

Help with changing generations computer

The first generation (1946-1960) - is becoming a machine architecture Von Neumann type, based on the performance of tubes with 10-20 thousand arithmetic operations per second. The first generation are: first domestic computer SECM (had an electronic machine schetnaya), established in 1951 in Kyiv under the direction of academician SA Lebedev, serial machines Minsk-1, Arrow, BESM (Bolshaya schetnaya an electronic machine) the Ural-1, Ural-4 and others.

First generation computers were bulky, unreliable and required auxiliary chiller. We used them for solving computational problems of scientific and technical nature. The process of programming on these machines required very good knowledge of machine structure and its reaction to this or that situation.

Second generation (1960-1964) - machine, based on transistors with a speed of up to hundreds of thousands of transactions per second. Improved compared to previous-generation computers, all specifications. These machines used a library of standard software programming process easier. To use algorithmic programming language. The first semiconductor machine, which appeared in 1959, was the model RCA-501. In the Soviet Union this generation machines Minsk-2, Minsk-22, Minsk-32, BESM-2, BESM-4, BESM-6, the last performance - 1 million operations per second.

Third generation (1964-1970) - were used instead of transistors integrated circuits (ICs) and semiconductor memory that has caused a dramatic downsizing computers, improving their reliability, increased productivity, access to remote terminals.

For efficiency was needed in the system program that manages computer devices. This has created an operating system.

Computers third generation usually make a series (family) of machines compatible software. Series of computers, performance and memory capacity are increasing from one machine to another series. However, a program established at a series of machines can be immediately started on another machine in this series (on machines with more power).

The first in a family of third generation machines was IBM/360, released in 1965 it had over seven models.

information communication society computer

In the Soviet Union to the present generation of machines include the EU family computer (the computer system only), compatible with IBM/360, as were copies of American computers.

Fourth generation (1970-1980-ies) - a machine built in large integrated circuits (LSI). Such schemes include up to several tens of thousands of elements on a chip.computers of this generation carry tens and hundreds of millions of transactions per second. There are microprocessors that can handle the number of length 16 and 32 bits, static memory capacity of 256 Kbytes and dynamic memory capacity of 1 MB. According to its characteristics such diverse computers that begin to classify them into: super-computer (B-7700 - Burrows Company, Illiak-IV - University of Illinois, Elbrus - the USSR), large (universal) and mini-computers and micro-computers, or personal computers (PCs).

Fifth generation (mid 80's - to date). Distinctive features of this computer generation are:

- New technology production - not on silicon but on the basis of other materials;

- Abandonment of a von Neumann architecture, the transition to new architectures (eg, the architecture of the data stream). And, consequently, turning the computer on a multiprocessor system (array processor, the processor of global communications, local communications processor, database machine, operating system, processor, etc.);

- New methods of input-output, convenient for the user (eg, speech recognition and images, speech synthesis, processing messages in a natural language);

- Artificial intelligence, process automation that is solving, the findings, the manipulation of knowledge.

Go to the fifth generation computer means a sharp increase in "intelligence" of your computer, resulting machine can directly "understand" the problem of the condition set for her man. Thus, there is no need for compiling the program as a means of "communication" with computers for solving this or that problem.

Next, the fifth, the information revolution began in the late 90's. According to P. Drucker, it is not in technique, equipment, technologies, software or performance, this is a revolution concepts. This is significantly different from the previous one, focus on data - their collection, storage, transmission, analysis, provision and use. Fifth inforrence revolution solves another question: "What is the essence of information and what its purpose?". This leads to problems that are solved through information and, consequently, to view the institutions to solve them.

Last information revolution started and has become the most development in commercial business. It is the necessity of the change of the nature and purpose of business - it began to consider how value creation and welfare. In turn, the concept put forward another question - for whom the business of creating value and wealth, what gave impetus to the development of corporate governance. Despite the importance and scale of the impact of recent information revolution, it is mostly "not influential people realized the world of information because the information system began in the accounting treatment of IT professionals is usually characterized by a mixture of ignorance and contempt." The revolutionary impact of computers and information technology still evident where nobody expected it: in operations. Yes, truly revolutionary software enabled the architects to significantly reduce costs time and money on drafting big buildings, surgeons-interns - to gain experience by performing virtual surgery on virtual patients. With software equipment manufacturer may organize its operations based on the anticipated needs of customers in service and replacement of equipment. Ana well, and the role of computer in banking, which among all in hodni is probably the most computerized industry.

Hope that the computer will bring revolutionary changes to the work of senior management were not met. For problems of top management computer and information technology generated by its data providers have become more than information, let alone new problems and new strategies.

The traditional explanation for this - the conservatism of managers "old school" that are not actively implementing its activities in IT. This explanation is not correct. Senior management does not use new technologies because they do not give him the information necessary to carry out its own problems. Most management information systems store data related to assets and costs. The data from the traditional accounting system. Such information can be useful only accountants, but not superior.

Acquiring the information of strategic importance in enhancing competitiveness in the information society has necessitated revision of place and scale IT department. Its head should be the intermediary between the economic management and markets. The need for the director, who serves as chief technologist only information activities in the future disappear. It will be a catalyst of information and link that unites all its members. As the midst ¬ nickname, he must know the language of business leaders, auxiliary ¬ flashing identify organizational risks and complications in the implementation of IT projects. Chief information officer must be understood not only on technological issues of information activities, but also be able to serve as general manager, taking outreach activities as the economic sphere (business process) and simultaneously to control it. That he should have not only technological training, but also business knowledge. Therefore, preparation of relevant experts from the information managers of zhmentu (MI) is a topical and important issue.

The new information revolution that began in the commercial sector is beginning to cover education and health. Again modify the above concepts, not tools and technology. Every day is becoming clear that technical change will lead to new understanding of education. Distance learning, for example, may well change the concept of teaching in higher education: the educational process of transferring campuses in places convenient for teaching from the perspective of each student (such as houses, cars, trains at the town ¬, jobs, etc.). It is likely that the focus of higher education programs will be continuing professional education of adults.

In health, a similar shift of the concepts are likely to lead to what health care will determine not like fighting disease and how to support physical and mental health. Preventable disease, of course, remain an important component of health care, but only a subset of rights. In education and health care as the business and the economy generally, the emphasis in the phrase "information technology" increasingly zmischatymetsya of "technology" to "information".

Modern paradigm shift can be seen as moving from technology based largely on the use of cheap energy, to technology, where information prevails Budget attachment advances in microelectronics and telecommunications technologies.

Consider the basic features of information-technological paradigm, which taken together constitute the foundation of the Information Society.

The first characteristic of the new paradigm is that information is "raw". That there was a shift from information to influence the technology as it was during previous technological revolutions, the technology to influence the information.

The second feature is the totality of effects of new technologies. This information is an integral component of any human activity, all processes of our individual and collective being formed directly (though certainly not determined) in the new technological method.

The third characteristic is the network logic of any system or set of relationships using these new information technologies (NIT). Morphology of the network is well adapted to the growing complexity of interactions of objects and to unpredictable patterns of complex processes occurring under the influence of such interactions. The network is capable of growth or learning. Of the network topology is like on the outer layer of the system is available for external occurrences. All other topologies limit what goes into it.

Consider the basic features of information-technological paradigm, which taken together constitute the foundation of the Information Society.

The first characteristic of the new paradigm is that information is "raw". That there was a shift from information to influence the technology as it was during previous technological revolutions, the technology to influence the information.

The second feature is the totality of effects of new technologies. This information is an integral component of any human activity, all processes of our individual and collective being formed directly (though certainly not determined) in the new technological method.

The third characteristic is the network logic of any system or set of relationships using these new information technologies (NIT). Morphology of the network is well adapted to the growing complexity of interactions of objects and to unpredictable patterns of complex processes occurring under the influence of such interactions. The network is capable of growth or learning. Of the network topology is like on the outer layer of the system is available for external occurrences. All other topologies limit what goes into - is the least structured organization, which we can say that it has structure at all. No new information technology network logic is very cumbersome for the material embodiment. Thanks NIT network as topological configuration can be materialized in all kinds of processes and organizations. However, the network logic should apply to structure, while preserving flexibility for nestrukturovane the driving force of innovation in human activity.

The fourth feature, which is connected to the network principle, but does not belong only to him, is that information-technology paradigm is based on flexibility. The process not only reversible, objects can modify and even fundamentally change by rearrangement of their components. For a modern society characterized by constant change and organizational instability, as new technological paradigm defines the ability to reconfiguration. Radically change the rules without destroying the organization was made possible by reprogramming capabilities and upgrading its financial base.

Finally, the fifth characteristic of this technological revolution - a growing convergence of specific technologies * highly integrated system in which certain technologies become isolated nevyriznenymy. Yes, microelectronics, telecommunications, optical electronics and computers are now integrated into information systems. In business, for example, there is still some time there a difference between chip manufacturers and programmers. But even this differentiation is diffused by the growing integration of firms in strategic alliances and joint projects, as well as embed the software in microprocessors. Moreover, in terms of technological system can not provide one element without the other: microcomputer are determined mainly by power chip, and designing microprocessors and parallel processing depends on the architecture. Telecommunications is now only one form of information processing, technology transfer and communications at the same time becoming increasingly diversified and integrated into the same computer network.

So we live in a period of technological change, development and wide application of information and communication technology (ICT). This process differs from previous technological changes and is greater for them. Specialists in information systems and information technology for this should be ready.

Complications of industrial production, social, economic and political life, changing the dynamics of processes in all spheres of human activity led on the one hand, to the growing demands on data and knowledge, on the other - to create new means and ways to meet those needs. ICTs are an integral part of our daily lives, providing us useful skills and services anywhere - at home, at work, at play.

The most important lesson of all previous information revolution lies in the fate of their technologists. Yes, the revolution in printing quickly formed a new class of information technology specialists - printers, today's information revolution has created a large number of information businesses, professionals from IS and IT, software developers and managers of information services.

Last information revolution highlights new industry - information industry related to the production of means, methods and technologies for the production of new knowledge. The major components of the information industry are all kinds of information technology, especially telecommunications.

Thus, the rapid development of computer technology and information technology was the impetus for the development of a society built on the everyday use of different information, ie information society.

As scientists understand the information society? Japanese scientists believe that in the information society process of computerization give people access to reliable information sources, deprive them of routine, provide a high level of automation of information processing in industrial and social spheres. The driving force behind the development of society should be production of information, not tangible products, and the material becomes more product information and spacious, which means increasing the share of innovation, design and marketing of its value.

In the information society will change not only production but also the entire way of life, values, cultural significance of leisure will increase relative to wealth.compared with industrial society, where everything is aimed at production and consumption of goods, information society produced and consumed intelligence, knowledge, leading to increasing the share of mental labor. From the person will need the ability to work to increase demand for knowledge.

The material and technological basis of the information society will be all sorts of systems based on computers and computer networks, information technology, telecommunication.

Information society - a society in which most workers employed in manufacturing, storage, processing and marketing information, especially its highest form - knowledge.

In real practice of science and technology of advanced countries at the end of XX century. becomes visible contours established pattern of information society theorists. Predicted to convert the entire world into a single computerized space and information community of people living in apartments and electronic cottages. Any accommodation equipped with all sorts of electronic equipment and computerized devices.

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