Theoretical basis of a role plays as a teaching aid. Historic background of game origin. Psychological value of a role plays. The main function and principles of game organization. Gaming technique. Classification of role plays. Advantages of a game.
|Размер файла||50,7 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Learning a foreign language is on the first place at the present stage of education development. Teaching a foreign language is a complex set of practical, educational and educational objectives. Training covers the different types of language material (vocabulary, grammar, phonetics), also the practical skills are being imparted, students develop language skills, their logical thinking, self-educated and creative activity Knowledge of a foreign language - gives the ability to use language in real life.. To know a language means to be able to to read and understand books without a dictionary (if not all kind, then, at least, special books), the ability to explain your ideas, the ability to understand foreign speech, the ability to translate a text from the native language to a foreign one , finally, the ability to write a small text in a foreign language.
One of the most effective means that helps to understand a language linguistic material and forming a skill of verbal communication and treatment, is a role game. Games that are offered to the students, must have not only communicative point, but a professional orientation. у тебя ролевая игра
Games are interesting also because they take a specific time, and allow students to be engaged in the learning process, or to switch attention to studied material (depending on whether the game is being conducted in the beginning, middle or end of the lesson).
The use of games in the learning process stimulates verbal communication, promotes the formation of motivation and interest in learning a foreign language. Also a game is one of the most effective methods of implementing the principle of communicative language teaching. An important factor for a game is to take into consideration the age of students and their social experience, Thus, conducting a lesson game requires a great deal of preparatory work, which should provide not only the participance of individual students, but also of the whole group.
Thus, the relevance of issues raised due to the influence of games on the minds of today's learners. The goals of our course paper are:
1) to study and analyze the literature on the subject;
2) to characterize the current state of play activities in the classroom;
3) to reveal the concept of gaming technology;
4) to investigate the organization of a gaming lessons;
5) to develop a set of educational games;
6) to verify the results obtained in practice by creating a series of lessons using games;
7) to compile and analyze the results of the study;
Problem and relevance of the topic help to formulate the objectives of the study:
to analyze the games,
to prove their effectiveness in teaching a foreign language.
Thus, the object of our study is the process of learning a foreign language.
The subject of our study is a role play designed and carried out in the process of teaching foreign languages.
On this basis, we can formulate the following hypothesis: if we use role plays at the classroom, then learning will be more attractive to students, it will contribute to a better mastering of the material, increase learning motivation and cognitive activity of students,
The basic methods are:
1) analysis of scientific and methodological literature
2) modeling of lesson plans
3) monitor the process of learning
4) The synthesis of teaching experience
5) analysis of the learning process results
The structure of the work consists of an introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion, and applications. The introduction has a goal, subject, object, objectives, methods and sources of research. The first part sets out the theoretical aspects of conducting classes in a form of a game. The second part deals with modeling of lesson plans according to the found material.
The application has materials that are required for the exercises, such as texts, tasks, examples.
1. Theoretical basis of a game as a teaching aid
1.1 Historic background of game origin
A game is a great invention of man, it has its biological, social and spiritual development.
The game has been associated with different types of art Savages played as children, the game consisted of dances, songs, drama and elements of art. Thus, human activities like playing games, constitute a reproduction of the relations between people. [1, c.43] A game is an activity that reconstructs the social relationships between people The concept of "game" has some difference in different gropus of people Thus, for the ancient Greeks, the word "game" meant an action, characteristic of children. The Jews considered a game to be a concept of a laugh and a joke. For The Romans a game meant joy and merriment. Subsequently, all the European languages considered ??the word "game" as a wide range of activities which bring people joy and pleasure.
The term "game" in different languages ??follows the concepts of jokes and laughter, ease and pleasure, and shows the connection of this process with positive emotions.
What is the reason the appearance of the game?
As the development of society grows higher, so it becomes more difficult for a child to prepare for the adult life. The game occurs in the course of historical development as a result of changes in the child's place in the system of social relations A game is social due to its origin and its nature. [2, c .13]. A game does not arise spontaneously, but arises in the process of education As a powerful stimulus to the development of a child, it is influenced by children and adults. "A game and game activity is one of the specific kind of animals and man activity" - says the pedagogical encyclopedia [3, c. 128]. According to the testimony of Plato, even the priests of ancient Egypt were famous for the construction of special training and bringing up games Plato in his "State" etymologically brought together the two words "education" and "game". He rightly argued that teaching crafts and martial art is unthinkable without a game [4, c. 97].
An attempt to study a game systematically was first made ??in the late XIX centuryby German scholar K. Gross, who believed that a game is a pre exercise of instincts to future conditions of the struggle for existence ("warning theory"). [5, c. 23 K. Gross names a game as a primary school of behavior According to his point of view , it is does not matter what factors (external or internal) game were motivated, their meaning is to be children's school life.
K. Gross' point of view was supported and continued by the Polish educator, therapist and writer Janusz Korczak, who believed that a game is an opportunity to find yourself in the society , in humanity, in the universe
In any historical epoch a game attracted the attention of educators. Iit gives a real real opportunity to educate and train a child in a joy.
A game always comes out as if in two temporal dimensions: in present and in future On the one hand, it provides a momentary personal pleasure and satisfaction . On the other hand, a game is directed to the future, because it has a forecast and simulats life situations, or qualities, skills and abilities that are necessary to perform the social and professional, functions become fixed..
The essence of a game is that the most important part of it is not a result, but a process itself, a process of experiences associated with playing actions. [6, c. 73]
This particular feature of a game carries a great educational opportunity, because by controlling the content of the game, the teacher can program some positive feelings . We can say that a game is a method of understanding the reality.
Leontiev A. N. noted that new, innovative education is developing in the game and there is a powerful cognitive motive, which is the basis of an incentive to learn.
According to M.F. Stronin, a game is an organized activity that requires intense emotional and mental strength. A game always involves making a decision what to do, or what to say? [8, c. 24]. The desire to resolve these issues aggravates the mental activity of the players. And what if a child will speak in a foreign language in this case? Are not here rich teaching opportunities? Children, however, do not think about it. For them a game is a fun That is why teachers like to use . Everyone is equal in the game It is feasible, even for the weakest students. Sense of equality, the atmosphere of enthusiasm and joy, a sense of feasible tasks - all of this gives students an opportunity to overcome shyness, which prevents free speech, and has a beneficial effect on learning process
A game is a kind of situation that has its own plot, conflict and actors During the game, the situation is played several times, and each time it may have a new version. But at the same time a situation of the game is a real life situation Despite the clear rules of a game and limited use of language material, it necessarily has an element of surprise. Hearing an unexpected question, a child will immediately begin to think how to answer it. That is why , it is characteristic for a game to have a spontaneous speech Verbal communication, which includes not only speech but also gestures, mimics and etc., has the determination and binding.
Thus, MF Stronin considers a game as a situational variative exercise, which creates the opportunity for frequent repetition of the speech sample in conditions as close to the actual verbal communication with its inherent characteristics - emotionality, spontaneity, action oriented speech effect.
Dutch biologist and psychologist Boytendayk F. (1933) gives an etymological analysis of the word "game" and tries to deduce the characteristics of the processes identified by the word. Among these characteristics, he finds the movement, spontaneity and freedom, joy and fun.
The word "game" is not a scientific concept in the strict sense of the word.
Thus, for Schiller, a game is a pleasure associated with the free expression of the needs of the external surplus of vitality. In other words, a game - it is an aesthetic activity Excess of power, free from external needs, is just the condition of aesthetic pleasure, which, is delivered by the game according to the Schiller .
Wundt was inclined to consider the source of a game was pleasure " There is not one game that would not have had his prototype in a form of serious work, and it is always preceded by time and by its very essence. the need to exist forses a person to work And in the labour he gradually begins to appreciate his own activities as a source of pleasure. These thoughts of Wundt have fundamental importance..
These regulations are important for understanding the origin of the game as an activity In the history of human society, the game can not come earlier than work.
Thus, the human game - is an activity in which the social relationships between people reconstract outside of any direct activity
1.2 The psychological value of the game
The game is one of the life's forms The didactic function of the game has a greaf importance in character formation.
All the qualities, personality traits, not only manifest, but are formed in the active work in those of its various forms, which constitute the life of the individual and his social existence It depends on what a person does (ie what is the content of his work), the way he does (means of his work), on the organization and conditions of this activity and on the attitude that this activity arose in a person, he formes certain aptitudes and character traits and fixes knowledge Personality is formed in the activity. [11, c. 87]
The diversity of human activities a person comes into many relationships with other people As varied this activities so diversified the relationships with other people, and the more diversified are its interests, motivations, feelings and abilities.
With the help of activities that a man does with other people he finds himself. In the process of child's development his consciousness is formed in a joint activity with their peers He is learning to understand others and himself , learns to govern himself and evaluate his actions.
Any human activity requires the use of certain movements and modes of action, ie skills and abilities. [12, c. 147-148]
Skills - this is usually simple movements or actions with an object, instrument, tool, that are automated as a result of repetition.
Any intelligent human activity does not reduce to only the skills. A person should be able to use his own systems, or sets of skills that he mastered , it must critically evaluate the obtained results , to verify the success of his actions, ie to perform, in addition to the physical, the whole system of mental, cognitive operations. The repetition of such a complex of numerous mental activities lead to the development of skills, ie development of methods of action.
Any activity may be decomposed , (including playing) into the sum of individual abilities: perception + memory + thinking + imagination However, this expansion of the individual elements completely loose qualitative features of the game as a specific activity of the child as a special form of his life, where the relationship with its surrounding reality takes place[13, c. 51, 60 Analysis, in which a game was seen as an expression of relatively mature faculty of imagination, has led to the fact that it began to ascribe the properties of the imagination to see its child's departure from reality, to consider it as a special closed world of children's dreams, associated with deep-seated instincts.
In the description of children's games psychologists have especially paid attention to isolated work of imagination or fantasy A game was regarded as a manifestation of a singular vivacity, carelessness and a high level of imagination.
The content of the game is the material that the teacher wants to revise or fix in the memory of student The content of the game is expressed by deep penetration of a child in the activities of the teacher.
There are different types of games [15, c. 8-10]. They may be named as outdoor games (games with rules), teaching games, a dramatization, constructive games. Role-playing games have a particular importance for the development of a child They are characterized by the following features
1 A role play is revealed as a reflection of social realm
2. A role play is a complex of actions, not individual movements (such as at work, writing, drawing).
3. A game, like every other human activity, is social in character, so it varies with the historical conditions of human life.
4. A game is a manipulation of knowledge, a means of refinement and enrichment, exercise and the way of development of cognitive and moral faculties and powers of a child
5. In the extensive form a game is a collective activity. All the players are in a relationship of cooperation.
Means the game are as follows:
а) Knowledge about people, their actions, relationships, expressed in images of speech, feelings and actions of a child;
b) Methods of action with certain objects in certain circumstances;
c) Those moral judgments and feelings that appear in the judgments of good and bad things about the beneficial and detrimental actions of men, [16, c. 14]
Educational peculiarities of games.
A game also has a great learning opportunities. Let's consider what they are.
1. A game can be viewed as the most accurate model of communication. Because it involves imitation of reality in its most essential features That is why psychologist VA Artemov suggested "to learn from the theater" in teaching a foreign language In games as in life itself, verbal and nonverbal behavior of the partners are intimately intertwined.
2. The game has a great potential motivation. Intercourse is not possible without motivation.
However, in educational terms is not easy to evaluate a motivation to speak The difficulty lies in the following : the teacher should describe the situation so that there was an atmosphere of communication which, in turn, causes the inner need of students to express thoughts. "Psychologists insist on the thesis: "Let them (students) say that they want to say." In conditions of foreign language communication it is very important that students were able to express theit thoughts as they really want Language support (vocabulary and grammar material, skills in using it ) often overshadow the very purpose - students 'and teachers' communication .
3. The game promotes academic cooperation and partnership. The game involves a group of students (the game can be based both on the basis of dialogue, and on the basis polylogue), which must interact harmoniously, as if considering the reaction of each other, help each other. It is very important to take into account students' language capabilities. As a result, students with weaker preparation can overcome shyness, embarrassment, and eventually, perhaps, be fully integrated into the game. Thus, at the right setting, the game can be viewed as an organizational form conducive to creating a cohesive team, and therein lies its educating value .
1.3 Functions and principles of the role play game
Now let's consider the game in terms of its other basic characteristics.
In learning a foreign language conditions a game is primarily verbal activities, that are actable and educational at the same time In terms of students a game is a play activity in which they act the certain situations. The aim of the game is the carried out activity - the game, where the motive lies in the content of the activity, rather than outside of it Students do not realize the academic nature of the game . From the perspective of the teacher a role play can be viewed as a form of educational process Teacher's goals of the game are the formation and development of language skills, and abilities of students The game is controllable, its academic character is clearly recognized and defined by the teacher.
The use of games in education is a vivid example of duality, where pedagogical purpose is hidden and appears in disguised form [21, c. 18].
Analysis of the literature on the use of games in teaching foreign languages ??shows that the game is a polyfunctional phenomenon . Let's consider, what functions it can perform.
Educational games determine the choice of linguistic resources, contribute the development of verbal skills and allows you to simulate interaction of students in different speech situations, in other words, the game is an exercise in mastering the skills and abilities of dialogic speech in interpersonal communication In this respect, the game provides a learning function
It is difficult to overestimate the educational value of games, its full impact on students The game helps to rally the team, shy students start to work in a team , and it promotes self-assertion in each team. Games educate conscious discipline, hard work, mutual support, activity, willingness to be included in a variety of activities, independence and ability to defend their point of view, to take the initiative to find the optimal solution under certain conditions. That is, we're talking about the educational function of the game [22, c.8].
This game requires students' ability to play, to see themselves from a position of the communication partner. It directs students to plan their own verbal behavior and the behavior of the interlocutor, develops the ability to control their actions, to give an objective evaluation of actions of others. Consequently, the game performs the function of orienting.
Thus, the game plays in the educational process three main functions: teaching, educational and orienting function
The professional skill of the teacher shows that he should be able to organize the activities of students, develop their creativity and individuality through play. GK Selevco identifies a range of target orientations:
--. Didactic. Expanding horizons, cognitive activity, the formation of certain skills, skills development
-- Educating. . Parenting self-reliance, the will, moral, aesthetic positions, education cooperation, teamwork, sociability.
-- Developing. The development of attention, memory, speech, thinking, skills, compare, compare, imagination, fantasy, creativity, development of motivation of educational activity
-- Socializing. An introduction to the norms and values ??of society, adaptation to environmental conditions, stress control, self-control, communication training, psychotherapy.
The objectives of gaming activities can be the following:
-- development of communicative qualities of the participants in the game;
-- development of imagination as the basis for creative activity
-- development of memory, attention, language;
-- formation in the game-box thinking
-- organization of collective and individual games during the lessons, exercises and creative game tasks According to the the goals and objectives, defining the play activity, it should be noted principles, such as regulatory requirements for the organization of the game The nature of the principles are expressed in the form of general guidelines, rules and regulations.
Let's consider the principles of gaming activities tha are formulated by PI Pidkasistym and JC Khaidarov. [15, c. 8-10] The authors identified a sufficiently broad set of principles for the game. Let us consider the most important and relevant to teachers
--activity - the basis of the principle of the game, which expresses the active manifestation of intellectual power, from preparing for the game, and during the discussion of its results;
--openness and accessibility of the game means the free participation of interested persons, and every game should be simple and clear;
-- dynamism is the importance and influence of the time factor in the game. The game is significant for the level of preparedness of students
-- visibility of the game means that all gaming activities must be open to the real and unreal (film, theater, computer games) manifestations of a reality, greatly enhancing the cognitive interest;
-- entertaining and emotional game reflect the exciting and interesting manifestations of the game, greatly enhance the cognitive interest
-- principle of individuality reflects a purely personal attitude to the game, which has the personal qualities and have the opportunity for self expression and a player;
-- Collectivism also reflects the collaborative nature of the interconnected and interdependent gaming activities, fosters relationships, learn to think and act in unison
-- purposefulness of a player reflects unity of purpose for the player and his opponent's personal goals must coincide with the overall objectives of the team
-- initiative and independence of a player in the game is one of the main principles, has the function of management expressed in the ratio between the measure of self-activity and the measure of autonomy;
-- Competition and competition in the game. Without competition there is no game. The didactic value of this principle is obvious, since leads to an active self-employment, and mobilizes the physical, intellectual and spiritual strength
-- Performance reflects the recognition results of actions in the game, both productive and creative activities player team;
-- reliability and repeatability of the game shows that almost all of them are based on real models and the role. This allows you to repeat the past and "open up" the certainty of the future. So the game is a powerful tool for prediction;
-- problematic principle in the game is logical and psychological patterns of thought in the intellectual and emotional struggle Game - a "perfect generator" learning problems, and the ability to "see and do" problems where they do not have for rivals, leading to victory in the game, and in life
-- information for the game in its simplest form, reflects the strong emotion in the player waiting for the success or failure, etc.
Thus, a holistic, cohesive application of principles of effective organization of play activities can ensure a high didactic, educational and developmental impact on the players.
1.4 Advantages of the playing method
The objectives of the game are more consistent with the practical needs of students This form of educational process removes the contradiction between the abstract nature of an academic subject and the real nature of professional activity, systemic nature of used knowledge and their belonging to different disciplines. The method allows to connect a wide coverage of issues and depth of their comprehension. Game forms the logic of activities, includes the time of social interaction, prepars for professional communication. The game component contributes the greater involvement of students The game is full of feedback, and it is more informative than traditional used methods The game generated set of professional activity, helps to overcome stereotypes. Traditional methods assume the dominance of the intellectual sphere, the game shows the whole personality. Method triggers the inclusion of reflexive processes, provides a possible interpretation, comprehension of the results. The experience gained in the game, it may be even more productive in comparison with the acquired in professional activities.
1.5 Characteristics of the main types of games, their classification and structural elements
A game as the specific activities is not simple Each type of game performs its function in development.
Games can be divided into two types. The composition of the first type s consists of: game experiment and plot game, the - story-educational game , subject-role game, and theatrical game. This class of games is the most productive for the development of intellectual initiative and creativity of the child, which appear in the formulation of new game problems, for the emergence of new motives and activities. [25, c. 12]
The second type includes teaching games (didactic and others), which include entertainment, games, entertainment, intellectual games.
Educational and developmental value of these games is huge They shape the culture of the game, and help to assimilate social norms and rules, and, they are, the foundation of the amateur game in which students can creatively use the gained knowledge [26, c. 6]
Educational games is a kind of game with rules specially created by school for training and education. Educational games aimed at solving specific problems in learning, but at the same time, they gain an educational and developmental impact of gaming activities.
Typically, they require the student's ability to decipher, to unravel, - to know the subject. The more skillful didactic game is made, the most skillfully the didactic purpose hidden A schoolboy learns unintentionally, involuntarily playing to handle knowledge nested in a game .
Didactic games cause the student interest to the subject , allows us to develop individual abilities of each student, fosters cognitive activity. The value of a didactic game is not determined by what kind of reaction it causes on the part of children, and the effectiveness in solving a particular problem in relation to each student ..
Thus, we can define the purpose of application of the technology game forms of training - Sustainable development of cognitive interest in students through a variety of game forms of learning [27, c. 17-20]
· To promote a lasting student assimilation of educational material
· To promote the expansion of students' horizons s through the use of additional sources
· To develop students' creative thinking
· To promote the practical application of skills acquired in the classroom
· To raise the moral attitudes and beliefs
· To encourage the upbringing of self-developing and self-fulfilling individual
Didactic game has a certain structure that characterizes the game as a form of learning and playing activities. There are the following structural components of the didactic game:
1) didactic task;:
2) gaming activities
3) rules of the game;
The didactic task is determined by the purpose of training and educational impact It is formed by a teacher, and displays its educational activities [28, c. 26].
The Gaming task is carried out by children The didactic task in a didactic game is implemented through a game problem. It determines the gaming activities of a child .
Gaming action is the basis of the game The more diverse gaming activities, the more fun for children and the game itself is more successfully deals with cognitive and game problems
In various games, gaming activities are different in their orientation with respect to the players. This, for example, role of, guessing riddles, spatial transformation, etc. They are connected with the game plan and come out of it Gaming activities are a means of implementing a game plan, but also include activities aimed at fulfilling the didactic task.
Gaming activities are a means of implementing a game plan, but also include activities aimed at fulfilling the didactic task. In the lesson we should include clear and specific images. If students do not see the pictures, they learn a verbal language, devoid of life content, which are quickly forgotten Game forms of training like no other technology facilitates the use of different ways to motivate
Motives for communication:
1. Students who are jointly solving problems, participating in the game, learn to communicate, consider the opinions of colleagues
2. In the game, for the solution of collective tasks students use their own different capabilities Children in practical activities realize the usefulness of the experiment and think quickly and work well
3. Joint emotional distress during the game helps to strengthen interpersonal relationships.
1. In the game, each student can express themselves, their knowledge, skills, character, endurance and stamina, their attitude towards work and people.
1. Each game has a similar result (end of a game) and stimulates the student to achieve the goal (victory) and awareness towards the goal (to know more than others).
2. In the game the team or individual pupils are initially equal (no standouts and weak students, there are players). The result depends on the player, the level of their preparedness, ability, endurance, skill, character.
3.Impersonal process of learning the game gets personal values.
The situation of success creates a favorable backdrop for the emotional development of cognitive interest. Failure is not perceived as a personal defeat, but as defeat in the game and stimulates cognitive activity (revenge) [31, c. 23].
Adversarial - an integral part of the game - is attractive to children. The pleasure derived from the game, creats a comfortable condition in the classroom and enhances the desire to learn the subject
Rules of the game Their content and focus are driven by common
tasks - the formation of personality, cognitive content, game challenges and game action.
In a didactic game rules are given With the help of the rules the teacher controls the game, the processes of cognitive activity and behavior of students The rules also affect the decision of the didactic tasks - seamlessly limit the actions of the students, direct their attention to the specific task of a subject As a result, the ability to control their, to relate them to the actions of other players actions is developing [32, c. 62-63].
Rules of a game have teaching, organizing and disciplining nature
Rules must be used carefully, as not to overload their game, but to use only the necessary one The introduction of many of the rules, the performance of their enforcement leads to negative results Excessive discipline decreases in interest in the game and even destroy it, and sometimes causes a cunning ploy to avoid compliance with the rules.
How to offer games to students The main task in the proposal of the game is to initiate interest in it, in such a formulation of the question, when the same goals and desires of the student teacher. Gaming receipt of proposals may be oral and written character. The proposal includes an explanation of the game rules, and technology of operations. Explanation of the game is a very responsible moment. The game should be explained briefly and accurately immediately before the start of In the explanation there is the name of the game, the story of its content, and an explanation of the primary and secondary rules, including the distinction of playing, the explanation of the value of game accessories, etc. [33, c. 28]
How to devide the class into groups. and how to distribute roles between the players Game collective is usually called collective of children, created for the games As we know, there are games that do not require division into groups, and team games Dividing the collective requires compliance with ethics, accounting, affections, sympathies, antipathies
The development of a game situation Under such development, we understand the change of position players, the complexity of the rules of the game, change the situation, an emotion-filled game action, etc. The players socially active as long as none of them did not know until the end all manners of action and carry out their functional tasks in the game. That is the mechanism for providing interest and enjoyment of the game. [34, c. 5-12]
The basic principles of the game:
· The lack of any form of coercion in engaging students in the game.
· The principles of game dynamics
· The principles of maintaining the game atmosphere (keeping the real sense).
· The principles of the relationship game and non-game activities. For teachers it is important to transfer point in the main game action in the real life experiences of students.
· The principles of the transition from simple games to complex gaming forms. The logic of the transition from simple to complex games is associated with the gradual deepening of the diverse content of games and rules - of the game state to game situations, from imitation to the gaming initiative from the local game - a game-complexes from the age of games - to irrevocable "eternal"
Summing up - the result is fed immediately after the game This may be scoring, identification of students who met playing better job, the definition of thewinner team , etc. It should be noted achievements of each student, to emphasize the successes behind.
We should keep the structural elements during a game. Since it is with their help we solve teaching problems. Game objectives, actions, rules, game results are interrelated, and the absence of at least one of these components is violating its integrity, reduces educational impact. [35, c.55]
The relationship between students and teacher are not determined by the situation, but the play. Students and teachers are members of one game.. In case this condition is violated, the teacher takes the path of direct instruction.
Thus, the didactic game is a game only for student , for an adult it is a way of learning The purpose of didactic games - to facilitate the transition to the educational goals, make it gradual. From the above it is possible to formulate the basic functions of teaching games:
- function of a sustainable interest in learning and stress relief;
- The formation of psychic growth ;
- function of formation of training activities
- function of formation of skills, experience of self work
- function of developing skills of self-control and self-esteem;
- function of forming relationships and developing appropriate social roles.
Thus, didactic game is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon.
To organize and conduct educational games, we need the following conditions:
- the presence of a teacher's specific knowledge and skills about teaching games;
- Expressiveness of the game;
- The need to include teachers in the game;
- An optimal combination of entertainment and learning;
- means and ways to improve students' emotional attitude to the game, must be seen not as an end in itself but as a path leading to the fulfillment of teaching objectives;
- used in the didactic game visual aid should be simple, accessible and capacious
The presence of a didactic nature of the problem emphasizes learning character of the game, the orientation of its content on the development of cognitive activity. In contrast to the direct formulation of the problem in the classroom in a didactic game as it arises and the student of the game problem The importance of educational games is that it promotes self-sufficiency.
It is necessary to teach gaming activities . Only under this condition, the game takes on a training character and becomes meaningful. Training of the is performed through a trial course of the game.
Successful management of didactic games, above all, provides for the selection of their program content, a clear definition of objectives, definition of the role and place in the whole educational process, interaction with other games and forms of learning. [36, c. 2-25]
Didactic games as a form of training is conductedduring the lesson It is important to establish the right balance between these two forms of learning, to determine their relationship and place in a single pedagogical process Didactic games sometimes preceded by studies, in this case their purpose is to attract students' interest in what will be the content of lessons. The game may alternate with classes when necessary to strengthen the independent activities of students, to organize the application of learning styles in gaming activities, summarize, synthesize lessons learned on the material. [37, 576c.]
2. The practical impact of the research of game influence
What is the game for foreign language lessons in terms of both content and mechanism of action?
The game is a little situation, the building of which resembles a dramatic work of its plot, conflict, actors. During the game, the situation is played several times, each time has a new version
But at the same time, the situation of the game is a real life situation Thus, we consider the game as a situational variative exercise that raises the possibility for multiple repetition of the speech sample in conditions close to the actual verbal communication with its inherent characteristics - emotionality, spontaneity, action oriented speech effect.
2.1 The objectives of case studies
Apply to the practice of teaching foreign languages and to check on the effectiveness of our developed games
1. Create and conduct a series of role play games
2. Prove the effectiveness of using role play games at foreign language lessons;
3. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of role play games
Example of a game «Traveling» in a group Let us assume that the group consists of 10 students The level of students' knowledge is pre intermediate
1. To develop speech and self-activity of pupils, the development of dialogue speech.
2. To elaborate of of structures of persuation and overpersuation
3. To increase the motivation of language learning
Stage 1. Equipment3. The course of the lesson
1. Cards - situations
2. Cards - the countries
The classroom should be divided into areas There are five areas - the five countries To split the group into pairs, 10 students - 5 pairs. Each pair begins her "tour" with a specific country Task: To make a dialogue, moving around . There is a new situation in every country There are 25 Thus, 5 pairs have 5 dialogues. The students are given a certain period of time - 5 min for a dialogue , during which time they have to speak. After the time is up everyone stops, and each pair says their situation to the whole group and summarizes to what conclusion they came. Thus, visiting five countries around the world, playing in every country on the situation, the students have learned all the 25 cases At the end of the lesson to summarize evrything
Note Dialogues for are given in Appendix
At the end of the game «Traveling» students were given the questionnaire. In their responses, students should note that they liked or did not like to play in the classroom.
2. Country study
An example of the game «Country study» as «quiz show» in Group Presumably there were 12 students in the group at the lesson Students have already attended a course of lectures on the subject, and they have some knowledge in the field "Country".
1. Revision / consolidation of the studied material, exam preparation;
2. Increasing of the motivation of learning a foreign language.
2. The course of the lesson
1. The playing field
The game is played in a competition.
Students are divided into four groups. For each team there is own version of the questions that are arranged in a "snake" but every `snake' goes to one finish. The presence of four different variants of questions helps to avoid a repetition of the same questions issues in other groups. Students take turn throwing dice, make the number of steps fallen on the field and answer the question of geography. If the student answered incorrectly, they returned to their original positions. The winner is the team, which will make the least mistakes, and the first pass away to the finish ..
After the lesson students were given questionnaires in which they express their opinion about the game.
Game - it is learning in action, which significantly raises the quality of education.
The game requires a full commitment from the participants and their reaction as verbal, nonverbal and means in this situation The game uses their knowledge and skills acquired during training, that is, their total stock of knowledge and skills.
The game has an element of surprise ("shock moments"), with which so many students meet in the process of real communication. During the game, as in real communication, participants must listen carefully to each other, because they do not know in advance what their partners will say, they must think quickly and respond to cues of their classmates.
During the game there is an emotional lift, which is extremely positive effect on the quality of education.
The game has a stable structure of didactic
Games specifically designed for language learning, contribute to a lasting memorizing individual expressions and grammatical structures as a result of frequent repetition of the replica, and therefore can be used to reinforce vocabulary and grammar skills.
Using games in the learning process - submits material in a more "comfortable" for the students' assimilation if meet certain requirements (availability of images, sounds).
role plays game psychological
1. Бородай Ю.М. Воображение и теория познания. - М., 1966.
2. Анастази А. Психологическое тестирование / Под ред. К.М.Гуревича, В.И. Лубовского. - М.: Педагогика, 1982.
3. Дьяченко О.М. Воображение дошкольника. - М: Знание, 1986.
4. Дьяченко О. М., Лаврентьева Г. В. Психическое развитие дошкольников. - М.: Педагогика, 1984. (Библиотека для родителей)
5. Гросс К. Душевная жизнь ребенка. Пер. с нем., Киев, 1919
6. Ильенков Э.В. Философия и культура. - М., 1991
7. Денисова Л. Г. Драматические игры для творческого этапа обучения// ИЯШ, 1990, №2
8. Стронин М. Ф. Обучающие игры на уроке английского языка. Пособие для учителя. Изд. 2-е - М.: Просвещение, 1984
9. Шиллер Ф. Письмо об эстетическом воспитании человека. Статьи об эстетике. М.-Л., 1935
10. Спенсер Герберт. Основания психологии. Спб.,1897
11. Эльконин Д. Б. Психология игры М. Просвещение 1987
12. Богославский В. В. и др. Общая психология. М. Просвещение, 1981
13. Коломанский Я. Л., Панько Е. А. М. Просвещение, 1988
14. Китайгородская Г. А. Методические основы интенсивного обучения иностранного языка. - М.: 1986
15. П.И.Пидкасистый, Хайдаров «Технология игры в обучении и развитии». М.Педагогика, 1989г
16. Вербицкий А. А. Игровые формы контекстного обучения. М.,- 1983
17. Выготский Л. С. Игра и ее роль в психологическом развитии ребенка: Вопросы психологии. - М., 1966
18. Выготский Л. С. Воображение и творчество в детском возрасте. - С-Пб.: Союз, 1997
19. Выготский Л.С. Собрание сочинений в 6-ти томах, - том 4. - М., 1984
20. Выготский Л.С. «Воображение и творчество в детском возрасте» - М. Просвещение, 1991
21. Равинская С. В. Игры как средство обучения// ИЯШ, 1980, №1
22. Красильникова В. С. Игра и игровые приемы при обучении английскому языку.// ИЯШ, 1975, №5
23. Васильева И. Б. English for all обучение игрой. - М. 2003
24. Дианова Е. М., Костина Л. Т. Ролевая игра в обучении иностранному языку// ИЯШ, 1988, №3
25. Ермаков В. Л. Игры на уроках английского языка. // ИЯШ, 1983, №2
26. Игры на уроке английского языка в младших классах// English, 2000, №8
27. Калимулина О. В. Ролевая игра в обучении диалоговой речи// ИЯШ. -2003, №3
28. Кувшинов В. И. Игра на занятиях английского языка // ИЯШ. -1993, №2
29. Манилова Н. Я. Игра на уроке английского языка// ИЯШ, -1997, №1
30. Мануэльян Ж. И. Игры при обучении английскому языку в 7-10 классах.// ИЯШ, 1979, №1
31. Перкас С. В. Ролевые игры на уроке английского языка// ИЯШ, 1999, №4
32. Солодникова Л. С. Игры на уроке: Методическая почта// ИЯШ, 2004, №2
33. Степнова И. С. Игры в обучении Английскому языку// ИЯШ, 1981, №2
34. Учимся играть// English, 2000, №7
35. Филатов В. Н. Ситуационно-ролевые игры как средство методической подготовки студентов языкового вуза// ИЯШ,1982, №4
36. Филатов В. Н. Методическая типология ролевых игр// ИЯШ,1988, №2
37. Подласый И. П. Педагогика. Новый курс: Учебник для студентов педагогических вузов: В 2 кн.: Кн. 1: Общие основы. Процесс обучения. - М.: Владос, 1999
38. Кабинет иностранного языка под ред. Е.С.Полат, изд. Владос, Москва, 2003
39. Богданова Д.А. Методика развития компьютерной грамотности в условиях дистанционного обучения. Дисс. канд. пед. наук. М., 1996.
40. Карамышева Т.В. Изучение иностранного языка с помощью компьютера. Изд. Союз, Санкт - Петербург, 2001
41. Смирнов А.В. Технические средства в обучении и воспитании детей: Учеб. пособие для средних учебных заведений. - М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2005
42. Угольков В.В. “Дистанционное обучение с помощью компьютерных технологий”//Современные проблемы воспитания и образования: психолого-педагогический сборник научных трудов, выпуск 4, 2002 г. Москва - редакционно-издательский центр “Альфа”
43. Угольков В.В. “Использование новейших технологий в обучении иностранным языкам в высшем учебном заведении”//Сборник научно-исследовательских работ аспирантов и соискателей МГОПУ им. М.А. Шолохова, Молодые голоса, выпуск 9
44. Угольков В.В. “Роль Интернета в обучении иностранным языкам в вузе”// Сборник научно-исследовательских работ аспирантов и соискателей МГОПУ им. М.А. Шолохова, Молодые голоса, выпуск 9
45. Угольков В.В. “Российские вузы и мировая образовательная система”// Сборник научно-исследовательских работ аспирантов и соискателей МГОПУ им. М.А. Шолохова, Молодые голоса, выпуск 10
Размещено на Allbest.ru
The definition of stress as the body's way of responding to any kind of stimuli. Consideration of positive and negative emotions, which may cause stress. External and internal causes of stress. The role of consciousness in the assessment of events.
презентация [1,1 M], добавлен 22.09.2015
The study of harm to children from watching American cartoons. Problem of imitating negative or mindless characters from cartoons. Leading role of American cartoon industry in the animation history. First steps in the progress of a child’s development.
эссе [16,3 K], добавлен 11.04.2013
Research of negative influence of computer games with the elements of violence and aggression on psychical development of children and teenagers. Reasons of choice of computer games young people in place of walk and intercourse in the real society.
доклад [15,3 K], добавлен 10.06.2014
The problem of evaluation, self-assessment of personality as a psychological category. Factors of formation evaluation and self-esteem of children of primary school age. An experimental study of characteristics evaluation and self-esteem of junior pupils.
курсовая работа [28,6 K], добавлен 19.05.2011
Definition of Leadership. Trait theory. How this theory works. Origin and Analysis and basics Pre-conditions for effective use of Trait theory. Inborn leadership characteristics. Process of impact and interaction among the leader and his followers.
реферат [436,9 K], добавлен 24.09.2014
This article suggests specific ways in which college teachers can foster relationships with students that promote motivation and satisfaction. Fostering personal relationships with students. Motivating students to work. Handling interpersonal issues.
статья [18,6 K], добавлен 10.05.2014
What is conflict. As there is a conflict. Main components of the conflict. The conflict is a dispute over what. How to resolve the conflict. Negotiations search consent of a compromise. Subject of the dispute. The decision brought. Suppressed discontent.
презентация [50,7 K], добавлен 21.03.2014
The government possesses monopoly for legal use of means of compulsion and formally plays a role of the arbitrator in distribution of the blessings. What general principles govern the origins and organizations of the community?
реферат [9,4 K], добавлен 12.10.2004
Comparative teaching methodologies. Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language. Role plays as a method of teaching. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching english. Grammar translation method. Communicative approach.
дипломная работа [71,9 K], добавлен 18.04.2015
Role of games on the lessons of English. Advantages of the use and adequacy are in the use of games. Study of grammar through games. Games with pretexts. Conditional expressions and Wishes. Examples of workings folias, in-use on the lesson of English.
дипломная работа [427,1 K], добавлен 10.07.2009