Development of technology of crude smoked sausage
Characteristics of sausages, of raw and auxiliary materials. Technology of production of dry sausage enzymatic. Technological line for crude smoked sausage production. Requirements for the finished product, for quality sausage. Defects of sausages.
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According to Gorlov , the design of new types of meat products, especially, should take into account the fact that food is not only a source of energy, but also plastic materials, it is necessary for construction and renovation of the protein structures of the body, as well as vitamins and minerals salts, which are essential for normal variables processes. Introduced into the sausage vegetable proteins in combination with the animals to be active in biological relative amino acid complexes, providing a physiological usefulness and high digestibility of amino acids in the intracellular accurate synthesis.
Thus, the sausages should be worked out with the set chemical composition on the content of protein, fat, moisture and other substances by selection of raw materials and best manufacturing technology.
4.1 Requirements for quality meat products
sausages enzymatic dry defect
Quality control of finished products is carried out in a certified laboratory of sanitary epidemic station and the regional veterinary laboratory. The laboratory conducted the organoleptic and physical-chemical tests on samples of sausages of each batch of products.
Sampling of products is carried out according to GOST 9792-73 "Sausage and pork products, mutton, beef and other kinds of slaughtered animals and birds. Acceptance rules and sampling methods.
Organoleptic research is carried out according to GOST 9959-91 "meat products. General terms of organoleptic evaluation.
Loaves of all types of sausages must be clean, dry, no damage shell, stains, slips and the influx of meat wrappers should fit snugly inside the stuffing.
Cooked and smoked sausages should be elastic consistency, in the context of beef cooked sausages should be pink or pale pink, well-mixed, it is uniformly distributed pieces of bacon or language of a certain size. Minced smoked, boiled-smoked, smoked and good sausage should be pink to dark red, with no gray spots, voids, and contain pieces of fat white or white with a pinkish tint. Tolerance of individual pieces of yellowed speck in accordance with technical requirements for each type of sausage
Smell and taste of meat products must comply with this type of product, the aroma of spices should be well defined, of extraneous odors and flavors must be absent, smoked, boiled-smoked and smoked - slightly spicy, moderately saline (smoked - brackish), with a pronounced smoke flavor.
Benign sausage must comply with standards in size, shape and binding of loaves.
Are not allowed to implement the sausages:
1. with contamination on the shell;
2. with bursting or broken loaves
3. with a loose ground meat;
4. with the influx of meat over the shell (violating the integrity of the loaf), or slip on the premium sausages - longer than 5 cm, sausages 1st grade - longer than 10 cm, sausages 2nd grade - longer than 30 cm;
5. with the presence of gray spots and large voids;
6. with the presence of a broth-fat edema: a sausage premium of more than 2 cm, sausages in the 1st and 2nd grade - more than 5 cm
In the sausage regulated mass fraction of moisture, Popov-rennoy salt, sodium nitrite and starch.
Mass fraction of salt in the sausage must not exceed: a semi - no more than 4,5%.
Maximum content of residual nitrite in smoked sausages should not exceed
0,003%, the rest - 0,005%.
Mass fraction of moisture in the semi - 35-47%, boiled-smoked - 38-40%.
In the sausages are not allowed the presence of coliform bacteria (coliforms) and Staphylococcus aureus in 1 g, sulfidredutsiruyuschih Clostridia - in 0,01, pathogens, including salmonella - 25 g .
Content in the sausage of toxic elements, aflatoxin B1, nitrosamines. hormones and pesticides must not exceed the permissible levels established by medical and biological requirements and sanitary norms of quality food raw materials and food Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan .
4.2 Faults and defects of sausages
Spoilage of sausages called mainly the growth of microorganisms in their production process in violation of or noncompliance with technology Institute of storage conditions.
In sausages usually are cocci, bacteria group Subtilis Mesentericus and other typical feedstock. On the outside of the surface of the loaves are deposited microorganisms, under whose influence the shell sausages are moist, sticky and is moistened stuffing .
The main defects that arise in violation of the conditions and shelf life of sausages, are:
Sliming. He exposed cooked sausage as a result develop blennogenic microflora during storage of products at temperatures above 20C and high humidity.
Souring exposed cooked meats in recipes to include flour, starch, dairy products. Carbohydrates are decomposed microflora with the formation of acid, resulting in a gain of sausage sour taste and smell.
Growth of molds are the most susceptible smoked, boiled-smoked and smoked sausages that were stored at elevated humid STP.
Rot is the result of decomposition of protein putrefactive bacteria. Stuffing loosened and as a result of liquefaction of gelatin bound proves it with a shell behind her. Decay is accompanied by a decaying house dyes to form sulfmioglobina, resulting in beef acquires a gray-green color. Appears putrid smell.
Rancidification fat. Oxidative damage bacon accompanied by yellowing and the appearance of rancid odor and taste. Bacon can okra Shiva in a dirty-green color due to pigments formed during putrefaction.
Change the color of meat. Color of the sausage meat can be dimmed from full-time shortages of nitrite, made by salting meat. and so is may be the result of denitrifying bacteria, reducing nitrite to nitrogen. In the first case of sausage are considered benign, in the second - poor quality.
Acceptable defects are: a slight deformation of baton new, small, fat, and pollution by combustion products of wood, not a proper form of cross-linked shell, careless breeding, small visible empty shell (1-2 cm), small slips of pale-colored loaves in the form of longitudinal strips, and for smoked and smoked sausages, irregular or insufficient light smoked loaves .
In crude smoked sausages on a cover and under it is possible to find out the black stains application of ascorbic acid and its salts (the form of stains wrong can be which reason of occurrence). Fall of the maintenance or the termination of use of ascorbic acid prevents these undesirable phenomena. Black stains can arise at joint processing of the frozen and cooled raw materials when in the course of smoking and drying there are non-uniform biochemical processes. By alignment of temperature of the raw materials arriving on processing, prevention of black or dark brown coloring crude smoked sausages is reached. Dimness of this kind of products can be marked at use of meat of the dark color, strongly dehydrated raw materials, and also at infringement of modes of drying - at the raised speed of air exchange and relative humidity of air of industrial premises less than 75 %.
Black stains in crude smoked sausages are marked also owing to development mildew, for example, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum.
Complex researches are necessary for an establishment of the reason of change of color of sausage products with use of laboratory methods.
5 Packaging, labeling, storage and transportation of meat products
Crude smoked sausage packed in wooden crates multi GOST 11354, plank - according to GOST 10131, polymeric multi, aluminum, or in containers made ??of other materials authorized for use as well as in special containers or container-equipment. With the meat processing enterprises in trade sausages translation of specialized vehicles. In spring and summer sausage are transported in refrigerated trucks to ensure the temperature in the body does not exceed 8 °C. Nonresident transportation jam and other perishable sausage made ??refrigerators car. Prohibited in sausages without packaging in an open car. Terms of storage and sales of sausages in the retail trade network presented in Table 9.
Terms of storing and selling sausages at retail level
Shelf time and realization under 8С and relative moisture 75%, hours, not more
Selz, liver sausage third grade and blood, jellys
Sausages stuffed, boiled 1 and 2-go sort, hot dogs, small sausages, zelec high and 1-go sort
Boiled sausages of the top grade, meat bread
15 (at 120С)
Semi smoked sausage
Dry fermentic sausage
4 mon (at120С)
Smoked sausage and smoked stored in refrigerators in flow of the following terms: at a temperature of -7 to-90C and a relative humidity of 85-90% smoked - not more than 6 months., boiled-smoked - up to 3, semi - up to 2 months. since the development of: at a temperature of -3 to-60C - respectively 4, 2 and 1 month. at 0-40C - up to 1 month.
6 Techno-chemical controls
Apparently from the data tables 6 organoleptical of research are spent have allowed to establish that a kind of forcemeat and its consistence, a smell and taste, correspond to the requirements STATE that shown for analyzed crude smoked sausages.
Organoleptical estimation of quality of crude smoked sausages
Characteristic and norms
Type of the mincemeat on cut
Запах и вкус
Long loafs with a clean surface, without spots, damages of a shell, inflows forcemeat
Forcemeat is in regular intervals mixed, color from pink up to dark red, without grey spots, emptiness and contains:
Sliced ??brisket length 10-12mm and a width of 4-5mm
Slices of pork in the size no more than 3 mm
Slices of fat in the size no more than 3 mm of white color a pinkish shade, about envelopes - yellowish from smoking , are supposed
Slices of bacon, not larger than 4 mm
Pleasant, characteristic of the type of product, with the aroma of spices and smoked without foreign taste and smell and the taste is slightly pungent, saltish
Form, size and weasand long loaf
Direct long loafs in length up to 50см, with two bandagings on the top end of a long loaf
Direct loaves up to 50 cm, with a bind at the upper end of the stick
Direct loaves up to 50cm, with a single transverse ligation on the lower end of the stick
Direct loaves up to 50cm, with two dressings in the middle of the stick
Direct loaves up to 50 cm, tied across every 10 cm with a segment of string on top
Mass share, %, not more: moisture
Salmonella in 25g of the product
India, in 0.01
27 30 25 30 30
6 6 6 6 6
0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003
From 0 to 12
Note: The tolerance of compacted outer layer-fashioned, no more than 3mm.
They are designed for fine grinding of soft raw meat and turning it into a uniform homogeneous mass. Prior to joining the cutter raw pre-milled on the top, but some design cutters are devices for crushing lumpy material. Cutters are periodic and continuous action. Raw meat in a cutter is crushed by rapidly rotating crescent-shaped blades mounted on a shaft. Knives alternately immersed in a rotating speeds up to 0.3 with ~ 1 cup. Milling is conducted in open bowls or under vacuum. In addition, the cutter combines the processes of grinding and mixing.
Key technical specifications Cutter - Capacity of the bowl. For small businesses use cutters with a bowl of 15 to 125 hp at large - more than 125 liters.
7.1 Cutter-Mixer P3-FSE
Cutter-mixer P3-FSE with mechanized loading and unloading of meat grinds and mixes the constituent components simultaneously stuffing in the manufacture of frankfurters, sausages and cooked sausages. The machine consists of a bed, mixers, cutters, lifts, hydraulic pump and electric minced. The agitator includes a bowl with spiral screws (rotation speed 39 min-1). Cutter is a cast-iron rack in which a drive shaft mounted sickle-shaped knives. They are enclosed in a special box, protected by 'cover. Mounted on the housing locking mechanism cover mutes the knife shaft drive when you open it. Shaft drive cutter from the electric motor through V-belt transmission .
The lift consists of a lever system, hydraulic cylinder and stand under the truck floor. Lever system enables the capture lift truck with forcemeat, a lifting and tilting of the bowl mixer. Work carried out by the lift cylinder and controlled by a hydraulic remote control. The composition of the hydraulic system includes pipes, pumps and control panel. In the pump housing for pumping. meat, there are two pairs of special cams propellants, rotating toward each other.
When working cutter-mixer spiral auger, rotating toward each other, mix stuffing with the simultaneous movement along the length of his bowl. End wall bowl adjacent to the cutter has a window through which an auger feeds minced cutter for grinding, while the second takes the crushed product, driving him to the opposite end wall and the feeding to the first screw. Thus, in the course of work carried out a circular movement of meat with simultaneous mixing and grinding. In the box end wall of the bowl, through which the stuffing load and unload a part of the cutter, mounted dampers. Dampers are controlled remotely from the hydraulic remote control. Dampers open and close the hole in the bottom of the bowl, through which the stuffing goes into the pump. In the car, provided the locking devices :
1-bed, 2-cutter, 3 - mixer, 4 - Hydraulics; 5-V-belt drive, 6, 8, 9-dampers the right and left pump 7-sickle blades, 10-cams propellant pump 11, 16, 17 - electric motors, respectively, pumps, mixers and cutter;12 - deja with screws, 13-gear, 14 - a star 15 - reducer;
Fig. 5 Cutter-mixer P3-FSE
The motor will not turn on when the lid is open cutter, pressing the protective frame bowl off the mixer motor drive screws.
When operating the cutter is important to correctly install and adjust the sickle-shaped knives. Permissible difference in their weight no more than 1-5 kg. The gap between the blades and housing wall cutter 2 mm.
Technical characteristics of cutter-mixer P3-FSE
Productivity, kg / h 1000
Bowl capacity, l 400
The number of sickle blades 8
Motor power, KW 22.3
Dimensions, m 2.38 X3, 23H1, 84
Weight, kg 3560
Cutters are used for fine grinding and turning the meat and certain meat products in a fairly uniform homogeneous mass. Products loaded in the cutters, usually pre-milled on the top, although the latest designs cutters adapted to work on raw minced before the ambassador. Grinding meat in a cutter, taking place when you add cold water, snow or crushed ice, accompanied by a noticeable change in the mechanical and chemical properties of the processed products (linear dimensions of the fragments, determined by sieve analysis, tack, shear stress limit, etc.).
On the cutter is allowed refinement of chilled meat in pieces weighing not more than 0.5 kg, and the frozen blocks of size 190 75 mm, their temperature must not fall below - 8 єS.
8 Safeties. Environmental protection
It is a system of organizational measures and technical means to prevent the impact on workers safety hazards. In the manufacturing process may affect the following dangerous and harmful factors: physical - moving machinery, moving mechanical parts' equipment, move the waste materials, slippery floors, the location of jobs in height, sharp edges, burrs, roughness on the surfaces of instruments and equipment, increased dust in the air in the working area, high temperature materials, finished products, increased humidity, noise in the workplace, increased the voltage in an electrical circuit, chemicals - detergents and disinfectants, biological - pathogens; physical overload when performing manual tasks , the monotony of work. Comprehensive planning allows more clearly, thoughtfully address issues of increasing safety and sanitation conditions, mechanization and automation of manufacturing processes, to introduce modern means of technology 9 security, improve sanitation - domestic service workers. To avoid injury in the enterprise must implement a series of measures, among them - to ensure the administration of strict compliance of all team requirements, rules and norms of labor protection, increase of production.
The nature is a complex system which part is the human society, capable to exist only in constant interrelation with it. Necessary for the ability to live - air, water, food, raw material for the industry - the person obtains all from an environment.
During industrial activity the mankind creates new for nature objects: cars, buildings, constructions, roads, etc. which render decisive influence on an environment. Negative consequences of influence of activity of the person on the nature are inevitable result of scientific and technical progress.
Preservation of the environment as the problem covers the broad audience of the varied questions connected with savings of use of natural resources, the food-processing industry necessary for progress and agriculture.
Specific targets of preservation of the environment are complex and varied, among them decrease in air pollution in cities, improvement state of water objects and maintenance with potable water of the population.
Guarantee of a radiating security, prevention of environmental pollution by dangerous chemicals, the decision of problems in zones of ecological disaster, conservation of woods, reservoirs, wild animal and other natural objects).
Preservation of the environment is fixed by Constitution RK (it.9, 10, 42, 58).
The constitution guarantees the right to a favorable environment, trustworthy information about its condition, as well as on compensation of the damage, caused to health or property of people ecological offences (item 42). To each citizen RK wildlife management, environments and the careful attitude to natural resources is made a duty.
Meats - meat is made from minced meat with the addition of nutritional supplements, herbs and spices, encased and cooked until ready for consumption. Meats have high taste and nutritional properties. Assortment of sausages is quite wide. At the present time developed a large number of formulations of sausages, which include a variety of dietary supplements that improve the taste and nutritional properties.
At the present time for the preparation of sausages that are available for mass consumption, there is a problem of the meat industry, which consists in the fact that it is necessary to provide cost-effective consumer products that would have been at this a highly. For this requirement, to adopt a new policy of the protein. This policy is an optimal combination of protein food ingredients, which are economically combine high nutritional value and functional characteristics that provide a finished food products to satisfy customer requirements.
The quality of meat products depends on the quality of raw materials, formulation, compliance technology, also from the hygienic conditions of production.
In carrying out the course work were studied the organizational structure, resource base, product range, recipes and technological scheme of production of sausages. In conducting special studies of the identified sensory, physical, chemical and microbiological logical indicators smoked sausages.
When comparing commercial and sanitary quality investigations samples of products with the requirements of normative documents mouthlished that the organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of these sausages with GOST 23670-79, GOST 16351-86, TC 61 RK 01-99-2000 and SanPiN 126.96.36.1990.96 for all regulated parameters.
Список использованной литературы
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