The history of development the science of translation in the countries of studied language

The history of translation studies in ancient times, and it's development in the Middle Ages. Principles of translation into Greek, the texts of world's religions. Professional associations of translators. The technology and terminology translation.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 13.06.2013
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Generally, the better the contact and exchange that existed among two languages, or among both and a third one, the larger is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that might be used in translating between them. However, owing to shifts in "ecological niches" of words, a ordinary etymology is occasionally deceptive as a guide to recent meaning in one or the other language. The English definite, for example, must not be confused with the equivalent French actuel (meaning "present", "current"), the Polish aktualny ("present", "current") or the Russian актуальный ("urgent, topical").

The translator's position as a link for "carrying across" principles between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, Roman adapter of Greek comedies, in the second century BCE. The translator's role is, still, by no way a submissive and mechanical one so has been compared to that of an artist too. The major position seems to be the idea of parallel formation established in critics as early as Cicero. Dryden observed that "Translation is a type of representation after life..." similarity of the translator with a musician or actor leads back at least to Samuel Johnson's comment about Alexander Pope playing Homer on a flageolet, while Homer himself used a bassoon. If translation exists as an art, it is no simple one. In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator have to recognize 2 languages, as well as the knowledge that he is to translate; and pronouncement that few translators did, he wanted to do missing with translation and translators in total.

The first European implicit that one translates adequately only in the direction of his own language may have been Martin Luther, translator of the Bible into German. According to L.G. Kelly, given that Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, "it has been self-evident" that one works just toward his own language.

Compounding these demands ahead the translator is the actuality that not even the most whole dictionary or lexicon can ever be a fully sufficient guide in translation. Alexander Tytler, in his Essay on the Principles of Translation (1790), emphasized that persevering reading is a more complete direct to a language than are dictionaries. The similar point, but also counting listening to the spoken language, had previously been made in 1783 by Onufry Andrzej Kopczyсski, part of Poland's Society for Elementary Books, who was called "the last Latin poet".

The particular role of the translator in society is rightly described in an essay that was in print posthumously in 1803 and that had been printed by Ignacy Krasicki -- "Poland's La Fontaine", Primate of Poland, poet, encyclopedist, author of the first Polish story, and translator from French and Greek:

«Translation... is in reality an art both admirable and very hard, and consequently is not the effort and piece of ordinary minds; it be supposed to be experienced by those who are themselves competent of being actors, when they see larger use in translating the works of others than in their works, and hold superior than their own magnificence the service that they cause to be to their country.

Shortly, translation has a extremely extensive and wealthy history in the West. Since its birth, translation was the theme of a variety of investigates and conflicts between theorists. Each theorist approaches it according to his point of view and field of make inquiries, the fact that gives its history a altering excellence.

In the first centuries of our view era of translation there weren't any essential changes. Installation mainly on free transposition of the original is clearly reflected in the statement of Mark Fabia Kvintilian mentioned above who in the work "About Education of the Speaker" specified that translation has to contain not simply an original paraphrase, and a peculiar competition with it while saving the contents. About the educational value of occupations by translations I spoke in one of letters and other eminent person of the Roman culture of an imperial era Guy Pliny Tsetsily Sekund known as Pliny Junior (61 or 62 - about 114): "It is useful … - and it is advised by many, - to translate or with Greek on Latin or with Latin into Greek: thanks to exercises of this sort the accuracy and shine in word usage, abundance of figures, statement force, but also, owing to imitation the best samples, and a similar ingenuity are developed; at the same time that escaped the reader, can't take cover from the translator. From it the subtlety of understanding and the correct judgment" is got [19, p.33].

In the field of a literary translation it is necessary to mention first of all an activity of fabulist Fedr, the slave, and then the libertine of Emperor Augustus. Certainly, it is possible to speak about translation here only with a big share of convention. Five collections created by it "Ezopovs of fables" included not only the plots of the Greek fables stated by Latin verses, attributed to legendary Aesop, but also independent works. Later, already in the V century, Avian carried out poetic translation of fables of the Ancient Greek poet Babry living at a boundary of the I-II centuries AD, with the instruction that the Latin version represents poetic processing of that was already reproduced by prose earlier.

A peculiar aspiration to use a foreign-language plot for the purpose of promotion of the Roman expansion in the east characterizes Valery Flakka's activity (I died about 90 g). Having addressed to the poem "Argonavtika" of the Greek poet of the III century BC Apollonia Rodosskiy (once already transferred in Latin Varron Atatsinskiy), it essentially changed character of the main character, having turned shy and artful Yazon into the brave and haughty hero personifying type of the real Roman in his best and worst lines.

The picture of translational activity of the last centuries of existence of the Roman Empire is rather various. The most visible poet of the IV century Detsim Magn Avsony (about 310-395) who has left some translation of the Greek authors which rather fully translation the corresponding originals addressed to it. From prose translations it is possible to mention the Greek novels of the III-IV centuries AD: "Alexander's acts" Alexander the Great (in the Middle Ages was which hero it is work enjoyed wide popularity and it was translated into many languages), and "History Apollonia, the Tirsky king". On the other hand, gain distribution and various translational mystifications. In this case to work translated character as it took place, for example, in relating to the III-IV centuries to the collection of fables "Romul" which was issued in the preface for the translation of fables of Aesop though leaned only on Latin sources could be attributed intentionally.

At the same time the translation history on Latin of the monuments which have been really connected to some extent with the Greek originals, could be supplemented with details of obviously invented character. Exactly so business with two works of narrative literature of the III-IV centuries AD - "The diary of Trojan war" and "History of falling of Troy" was. About the first it was reported that it was originally written in Phoenician language by a certain Diktis - the participant of a Trojan campaign, found in its grave at emperor Neron and translated on an order of the last on Greek, and then a certain Lutsy Septimy - into Latin. The manuscript of the second work was found allegedly in Athens by the known historian of the I century BC Kornely Nepot who translated it into Latin, nothing was changed. In the field of translation of philosophical and scientific prose Anitsy Manly Torkvat Severin Boetsy's (about 480-524) activity had special value, life and which activity proceeded after falling of the Western Roman Empire at court of ostrogothic king Theoderich by order of whom he was executed subsequently.

Boetsy became as though a connecting link between antiquity and the Middle Ages, translating into Latin such works of the Greek authors as Aristotle's logical works "About interpretation" ("Hermeneutics") and "Categories" with Porfiry's "Introduction", Euclid's first four books (though without proofs) and "Arithmetics bases" Nikomakh (the last version represented retelling), having supplied them with the comments which have had enormous impact on further development of philosophical thought in Western Europe. It is characteristic that, formulating the principles by which it was guided in the work, Boetsy considered necessary first of all resolutely to keep separate from tradition of the free address prevailing in the Roman antiquity with the original: "I am afraid that I will assume fault "the faithful translator" (in the original - fidus interpres, i.e. hint on the statement of Horace mentioned above - L.N. X.) because it is translated word for word. The reason for that in works in which look for knowledge of things the graceful beauty of speech instead of the truth which has undergone to distortions" [15, p. 12].

Boetsy's translational activity was highly appreciated from his younger contemporary Magn Avrely Kassiodor Senator (490? -- 575? ) which as well as Boetion often call to "the last Romans". "Whatever sciences and arts created forces of the husbands eloquent Greece, - he addressed to the last, - all their Rome accepted from you one. You made in total them clear by means of excellent words, transparent - by means of exact speech so they would prefer your work to the if had opportunity to compare the work to yours" [19, p. 34]. Kassiodor (borrowing, as well as Boetsy, high state posts) was the organizer and the active participant of translation into Latin of compositions of Joseph Flavia.

2.2 The theory of translation studies in Renaissance period

Conversation on translational concepts of the Renaissance authors can be begun with « the Treatise about proper translation » (« De interpretatione recta »), published in 1426 Its founder was mentioned above one of the largest representatives of Italian humanism Leonardo Bruni. As the first and indispensable condition of translational work Bruni named good knowledge of initial and translating languages (if to use modern terminology). At the same time it emphasized, that the specified instant, being absolutely necessary, at all is not completely sufficient: in fact cases when the people, satisfying to the given requirement, appear absolutely unsuitable for performance of duties of the translator just as all is distant not experts on painting are frequent are capable to draw.

Therefore it is necessary to possess deep knowledge of language and the literature of the original and not easier to be expert in language and the literature of translation, but also to dominate over them both. Essence of the problems arising by transfer of the speaking another language text, Bruni states as follows: « Just as what on the sample of any picture draw other picture, borrow the sample and a figure, both a pose, and forms of all body, intending not something to make, and to reproduce that has made another, - and in translations the best translator passes all content, both spirit, and intention of the author of the original, will re-embody to the maximum extent possible figures of its speech, a pose, style and outlines of the original, aspiring to recreate all of them [20. p].

To cope with a similar problem in a condition only the person, widely-read in works of philosophers, orators, poets and other authors. Only to it under force to keep shape of the original, having passed both a semantic side of words making it, and inherent in the last « shine and the order ».

Progress, and partly some specification of positions of treatise Bruni can be found in the work of its compatriot Dzhanotstso Manetti (1396-1459) carrying the same name. Though in the text of the last there are no direct links on the predecessor, however its content clearly testifies, that Manetti not only closely read work of Bruni, but also has included greater fragments from it in the book, made only insignificant stylistic variations. So, Manetti emphasizes an indispensability of careful, extensive and comprehensive knowledge of language from which translation is done, recommending for its purchase long and observational reading the first class poets, orators, historians, philosophers, theologians.

At the same time is available at Manetti and a new instant - distinction between the texts completely focused on emotional expressiveness (poetry, oratorical prose, historical compositions), and works, whose rhetorical installations are subordinated an indispensability to state true (philosophical treatises and the Scriptus). In the first case is admissible to overcome dryness which is inherent in the original, giving to translation beauty and elegance in conformity with the desire. But true translators of philosophers and theologians should not afford similar derivations and have no right too to move away from objective of translation. At the same time it is not necessary to follow unconditionally even the most first class authors, but to adhere to average and safe road. Thus, the translator should be so modest that the reader did not have a suspicion as if it evades in this or that side.

In XVI century translation study works are created also by representatives of the French Revival. First of all here name Jacque Pelete's names dyu Manet (1517-1582) and Et'en Pask'et (1529-1615). In opinion of the named authors, the essence of the original is defined by two instants: an originality of language on which it is written, and style of its founder. Marking an indispensability to avoid two dangers: is primitive-literal following to the original and free retelling, dyu Manet and Pask'e defended the greatest possible approximation to the original, assimilating translator Ikar who, coming close to the sun, should not cross, however, invisible border. Specified « the high literality » represents ideal objective of the translator, which, not breaking internal laws of translation, despite of dissimilarities of languages, aspires to final approximation, well knowing what to reach full conformity it is impossible.

The concept of one of the most outstanding representatives of the French Renaissance, the poet and translator Etena to the Fraction (1509-1546) which « the French orator » (1540) has included in the book a special reasoning « About art well uses the greatest attention of researchers to translate from one language to another » where following positions were put forward:

1) the translator is obliged to understand up to the end that translates, i. е. A content of the original and intention of the author;

2) it should be the lord of both languages, i. е. In perfection to know initial and translating languages;

3) the feather of the translator should not be connected by words and designs of the original. Differently, it is not necessary to pass the original word for word as such slavish following to the author of the original will pervert a content of the last and will destroy beauty of its trope;

4) translating from language more developed on less developed, the translator constantly should aspire to develop last;

5) it is impossible to forget about smoothness and harmony the translated text.

Thus, E.Dole, while speaking the modern language, puts forward a problem of reconstruction of ideologically-art sounding of the original. However the latest commentators have paid attention not to that circumstance, that under the guise protection mentioned above « smoothness and harmony » before translators the ample opportunities opened to make variation in the texts being translated, in any way them not stipulating.

Therefore both at the Fraction, and at Amio, and at their colleagues in other countries of the Renaissance Europe have was extended so-called « ensplicative translations » with reductions, inserts, corrections, additions. By the way, the specified circumstance has been used by inquisition for accusation of El'en to the Fraction in heresy. Having paid attention to words of Sokrat in the dialogue of Platon translated by it: « The death is powerless above you for you yet so are close to the death and when you will die, it too will be powerless, for you will address in anything », - inquisition has subjected the text to special consideration and has come to conclusion That the resulted citation not only is absent at Platon, but also contradicts its sights, but also, calls into question a Christian doctrine about immortality of soul. To a fraction has been condemned and burnt; the same destiny has comprehended also its books.

The contradiction between the resulted theoretical postulates to the Fraction and its translational practice attracted the attention also of the latest researchers. Analyzing it, French scientist Edmon Kari has noted, that in this case it is more fair to speak not about inconsistency of the French humanist and its colleagues, and about historical variability of the concept of adequacy of translation: « … Certainly, nobody begins to require, that presently translated so … but the greatest consist in XVI century in it, anyway, the most realistic fidelity … Other fidelity, that which we approve for our time then it would be equivalent to aspiration to formal virtuosity » [21, p. 131]. To a similar conclusion send also English researchers of translation Elizabeth epoch.

2.3 Translation development in Canada

Canada is a country of translation. In the historical conditions of the Anglo-French bilingualism in this country is given great importance to translation. Now hardly anyone in Canada will come to mind to name translation secondary specialty, and a translator - a man who can only repeat what others said. In Canada, the translator is a respected intellectual profession, like a doctor or a lawyer. The realization that the translator performs great mediation, providing contacts between cultures and mutual understanding between the people had the Canadians influenced of the historical development of their nation. The history of translation in Canada can be divided, into two stages: the first stage begins with the colonization of North America by the French, and the second from the translation of New France the British.

The first phase occurs in the first half of the XVI century. This time was very significant for the European history of translation. It was at that time in France E. Dole (1509-1546) published the first treatise on translation. The German version of the Bible made under the direction of M.Lyuter (1483-1546), has aroused heated debate, which allowed subsequently E. Cary described the Reformation as a discussion between the translators. Thanks to R. Etienne (1503-1559) in French in the XVI century, the same word appears traduire (translate) from which E. Dole made traduction (translation) and traducteur (translator), the words firmly included in the dictionary and still functioning. At the same time William Tyndale (1494-1536) worked on the new English version of the Bible, and Jean du Bellay (1522-1560) tried to define the role of translation for the development of modern European languages.

Pic 1. Population in Canada

During this period, at the behest of the French king Francis I explorer and traveler seafarer Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) is sent to the eastern shores of North America to colonize new territories. In 1534 he was being captured two Iroquois Indian tribe Stadacona (now Quebec). Indians - House Agay and Taynyaoni - follow him to France. Cartier intends to teach them the basics of the French language there, to be used in the future to travel as interpreters dealing with the Indians. Indeed, in the next journey in 1535, these Native American interpreters helped him in getting new and useful information about life in New France.

In the XVII century French explorer Samuel de Champlain in North America, founded Quйbec City in 1608, and continues to develop new lands and expanding contacts with the local population. In 1610, he directs to the Algonquin Indians also lived on the territory of present-day Canada, Etienne Brule with a task to learn their language and act as an interpreter. Brule is the first official translator in the country. In subsequent years, the Champlain creates, so the whole institution of translators who had to "live with the Indians and the Indians" to master all the subtleties of culture of local tribes for their successful colonization [22, p.1515].

During the period of French rule the translation in the languages ??of Indian tribes gets fairly widespread: there are a group of court interpreters, military, commercial, etc.

At the beginning of the XVIII century judicial and military interpreters are necessary and have to communicate with the Dutch and the British.

From the XVIII century, when it starts inning of New France by the British, the French, opens a new stage in the modern history of translation in Canada. Since 1710 and the fall of Port-Royal and the British capture of Acadia (now Nova Scotia) the local French-speaking population forced to live under the rule of the British government. The last run the country through regulatory documents, writing in English and translates then into French. The central figure of the Anglo-French translators becomes Paul Mascari, Huguenot, won the 1706 British citizenship 1710 and came to Canada. [23, p. 54-55].

During this period the birth of Canadian bilingualism however, the translation in the official sphere is too early to say exactly according to its established tradition in Mascarene make texts governing documents directly in French. The official name is "translation" the French version of the governmental document gets only 6 February 1769, when a French version of a published document shows a postscript: "Translated by order of His Excellency Franзois-Joseph Kuehne. SF. "Kuehne from 1768 was the official translator of the Governor of the Province of Quebec and performed administrative and editorial functions. [24, p. 67].

The present translation activities in the official sphere begins only after the whole French North America by the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763 goes to English in Quebec and settles civil government. Since 1764 there begins to come out the first official bilingual organ - La Gazette de Quebec / The Quebec Gazette. Articles in this newspaper are written mainly in English, but are accompanied by a French translation. From this period, according to a Canadian researcher Pierre Davio already there has been some distortion of the French language. At the initial stage of the Anglo-French bilingual French texts of official documents were excellent, although written in the vernacular. Translation and editing of translated or compiled by the French official texts carried emigrants old Canadian families. Later, when Kuehne, especially the moment when he began to charge transfer competent enough in French to people who have received an English education, the French language is beginning to suffer. Kuehne himself does not always know how to properly relate the position of the French legal documents and their English counterparts, which often led to a complete nonsense in translation.

2.3.1 Translation development in 20 century

In the XX century translation activities in government continues to grow and strengthen. In 1934 at the suggestion of Secretary of State Kaan created the Federal Bureau of translations, designed to serve the entire federal administration. The role of the public authority in the development of translation in Canada is enormous. Chronology of events in the history of translation given in the book of G. Delisle "Translation in Canada, 1534-1984," provides a picture of the activities of this organization for over fifty years. [25, p. 65-120].

It is the creation of local (provincial) Translation Bureau, the organization of training courses and professional development of translators, the creation of the study and systematization of terminology, recurrent publications on Language and Terminology organization of scientific and practical conferences, the introduction of new means of transfer, the study of issues of organization translation work, their wages, objective way to evaluate the quality of translations, the nature of relations between translators and their clients, and much more. One of the key aspects of the Federal Bureau of translation development and publication of the transfer and in the interests of the translation. In 1995, he developed a French-English-Spanish dictionary Road Transport and 1996 - "Guidelines for Editors," and in 1999 - CD-ROM with a French-English vocabulary. [23, p. 378].

Undoubted merit of this part of the country is the fact that the French language is officially recognized as a second, equally important, the official language of Canada. In 1969, that through there after the Act of Union declared official only the English language in the country, accepted fact, it meant that the parliamentary debate, where everyone chooses has the legal right to speak on any of the two languages should be provided with translation, all legislative acts of government, archives, records parliamentary hearings must be developed and published in two languages?, and later in two languages and legal proceedings underway. It is hard to imagine what an enormous amount of translation involves the law, which the army of translators to ensure its implementation! In 1997, Canada had about 12,000 officially registered professional translators. Translation activities evolved in this industry sector the country with all the characteristic of this socio-economic phenomenon attributes.

But we should not assume that the translational activity in Canada is actively conducted only in the formal sector. The industrial character of translation activity in Canada is reset by the fact that in Quebec - the largest by area and second in population highly industrialized province in the country - the main language is French since 1977, when it adopted the Charter of the French language, it is the main official language of the province. This means that the French language is not only an administrative, but also all production activities. It is easy to understand that in the English-speaking Quebecers environment need to take a lot of effort in the field of translation, to ensure normal economic relations with its neighbors.

Acceptance of the Charter made active complex and continuing process « Fransizaton » the enterprises of Quebec, begun in 1971 « Fransizaton », i.e. transition to the French language in all industrial area, could not, certainly, with advantage without active participation of translators. On them, apparently, the basic weight of this process as the most complex and labour-consuming during « Fransizaton » manufactures was to process the engineering specifications, being basically in English also has laid down, to translate it on other language. It seemed, that the period of mass translation, so important at the beginning, having prolonged by some time, inevitably will pass, as objective «Fransizaton » was elimination of the old contradiction existed in Quebec between English language -- language of manufacture, and French -- language dialogue.

However in due course the demand for a translation service for Quebec did not become less. On the contrary, only for ten years -- with 1985 on 1995 -- their number has increased more than in one and a half time (with 7450 up to 11 790 person) 1. Transition to the French language in сфе¬ре manufacture has given a new impulse of translational activity: now for dialogue with English-speaking neighbors from others Canadian provinces, as well as with partners from the United States it was necessary to translate the documentation on English language. Thus, translational activity was not reduced, has changed only its orientation: from intraeconomic it has turned in external economic. Translational activity of the enterprises English-speaking provinces Canada, interested in attitudes with partners in Quebec has external character also.

In such ways, Canada seems and feels similar to America. Their big, extensive cities, sports stadiums, shops, and the same unique sense of liberty and novelty found all through the U.S. But while speaking about translation, it is a whole different world. The explanation is simple: in Canada there are two official languages, English and French. Why does that make a difference? make up in your mind for a second if Spanish were the major language of the six New England states, plus New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, and both Virginia and West Virginia. Imagine other if English remained the major language in other states.

That makes the U.S. relating to as Spanish as Canada is French. If there were the case, do you think U.S. businesses would go on to communicate only in English? Would restaurants in Boston translate their menus for tourists from the southern and western states? What concerning the central government? When one-quarter of the whole people speaks a alternative language and is geographically concerted in a single region, all have to be translated: administrative documents, public signs, quad decisions, manufactured goods packaging, and promotion--the whole thing! A Bilingual Country Full of Unilingual People unexpectedly few Canadians in fact speak both English and French. In actuality, 7 of the 10 provinces are so especially English; you possibly will go days or weeks exclusive of hearing a word of French. Consider this: Canada's easternmost region, Newfoundland and Labrador, is house to in relation to half a million people. In the 2006 poll, 494,345 of them claimed to speak only English at home, versus 650 who claimed to talk only French. About 4.7% of the province's inhabitants supposed they fluent in French. In Canada's westernmost region, British Columbia, 3,341,285 scheduled English as their house language opposed to only 15,325 who listed French. In fact, for every person who spoke French at home, more than 41 spoke a nonofficial language such as Cantonese or Punjabi. About 5.2% of British Columbians claimed to be simple in French. The picture is totally different in Canada's popular French province, Quebec. There, slightly more than 6 million citizens out of a whole population of about 7.5 million speak French at home, compared to a number of 745,000 who use English and 520,000 who speak a another language.

English, like the speech of money, rule, and worldwide trade, is extensively spoken by Quebecers, who have the improvement of living in close proximity to English Canada and the U.S. In international Montreal, house of a vast migrant population, many citizens are in fact trilingual; there are speaking Portuguese, Chinese, or other languages at home, and English and French in public. Above four million Quebec citizens don't speak English at all. In Quebec, 95.3% of people are national French speakers and two-thirds unilingual. Native English stand for less than 1.5% of the whole population and in fact outnumbered the third language groups, stand for 2.8% of the inhabitants. The outstanding 0.4% claim English and French like mother tongues. In general, only 18% Canadians fluent in English and French, there are francophone Land of Translation These demographic realities made Canada an universal head in translation.

Though it is only 0.5% of the world population, occupies completely 10% of the worldwide translation advertise. The major manager of translators is the national government. Its Translation government department has 1,200 paid translators, interpreters, terminologists, and localization specialists. Not simply act these professional translate reams of documents, typically from English into French, they also provide a collection of another language services, such as Termium, the Canadian free trilingual (English, French, Spanish) terminology databank cover almost areas of all human doings. Translation Bureau is a regular source of work for hundreds of freelancers too. The local government also interpret, but to extensively changeable extents. Only one region New Brunswick officially bilingual a following choice then well-established in the foundation. It at the present has a legal compulsion to translate all it does for the advantage of its one-third French-speaking inhabitants. Manitoba also should translate all laws into French and offer guarantee of the levels of French-language teaching according to a 1985 Supreme Court decision.

The most full of people province, Ontario, while non-officially bilingual, makes general use of translation. French Language Services Act requires it to offer government services in French in 25 elected areas (non-urban areas where francophone's stand for at least 10% of the inhabitants and town centers with at slightest 5,000 francophone's).

In Ontario there are about 500,000 native French speakers out of a whole population about 12 million, mainly clustered in the central of Ottawa or close to the Quebec edge. Quebec is the only region is formally unilingual (unilingual French). Its bond of the French Language, planned as a bulwark next to the violation of English, requires businesses to control in French and deal by means of the French government, and requires non Canadian populace (immigrants from the U.S.) to propel children to French-language schools. The description doesn't, though, be relevant to the bench or to personal nation in their confidential transactions with the government.

It Means for Translators the most obvious difference among the translation business in the U.S. and Canada is the chance for paid employment. In addition to the thousands on the Canadian payroll government, thousands and more work for personal employers. large banks as Royal Bank or the Bank of Montreal have extensive in departments of house translation. Translators labor for chartered accountancies, store chains, grocery, law firms, big retailer's airlines, telecoms, and many other. Actually, students graduating programs of translation are three times more likely to establish careers in salaried positions than as freelancers.

This pays enormous dividends in conditions of specialized development. Many adolescent translators get every day response on their work from older editors (revisers in Canada), who also translators. These continuing relations boost their self-assurance and the excellence of work. According to studies, paid translators in Canada receive more on standard than self-employed translators, and amongst freelance translators, those who work first as paid translators earn more on standard than persons who did not. Dissimilarity--of exacting profit to freelancers--is the widespread need for translation in Canada. Since everyone who do business in the state is a possible client, nearly all freelancers can farm business associates and direct customers among people in their families and public.

Also it is easier for them to call possible customers or grows their customers by presence local commerce function. Most of freelancers didn't work for agency. There are probable 15,000 translators, terminologists, interpreters, and narrow action specialist in Canada. What It Means for Translation Agencies an arresting dissimilarity among Canadian translation agencies is their use of translators in-house? When each day brings certain work in a solitary language couple, it is more gainful and better for superiority manages to include an in-house team. The Canadian translation market is grown-up and has a lot of confidence buyers who wait for, demand, and recognizes lofty excellence. Subpar work is not tolerated. Even “suitable” superiority labor is a difficult advertises while customers wait for exceptional.

Professional Organizations There is no solitary association of translators in Canada like ATA. A state organization exists for agencies and language schools like AILIA. It is a tone for the business benefit of the Canadian language business. A subsequent state body, the Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council (CTTIC), is a confederation of nine regional and protective organizations. One of CTTIC's major actions has been to put into practice normal guarantee events, in accord with its purpose to offer consistent principles for the occupation and to make sure the capability of the members of the organizations it represent. CTTIC handle translator guarantee in all parts of the state except Quebec. It has also lately conventional administration backing to get better professional preparation for translators athwart the country. In adding to AILIA and CTTIC, translators have entity associations in each region. These relations are comparable to ATA, but devoid of commercial members. They grip normal conference and offer education opportunities.

Pic. 4. percentage of speaking languages in Canada

The Quebec organization, the Ordre des traducteurs, terminologies et interprиtes agrййs du Quйbec (OTTIAQ), is single in that it is a predictable specialized sort whose main assignment is to defend the public alongside bad translations. It is alike in numerous ways to relations of registered nurses or chartered accountants or engineers. There are the right to examine a translator's professional perform and can arrange a translator to get corrective preparation if it deems this essential. Only specialized translators might fit in to OTTIAQ, and only OTTIAQ members may call ourselves specialized. There is no qualifications examination for each se, but relatively an accurate procedure planned to distinguish proven skill and knowledge. To be an OTTIAQ associate, you have to have a academia degree in translation and, depending on how many years of labor experience you have, present a mentorship below the direction of a specialized translator or propose a corpus of translations for assessment by a commission. If you don't have a bachelor degree, you may also ask for certification by proving that you worked intended for five years or more as a full-time translator and through submitting a quantity of translations. All told, there are more than 2,000 members of OTTIAQ.

2.4 Translation studies development in USA

For comparison I would like to consider the development of translation study in USA. Everyone knows that USA its international country and there are so many different nationalities. So let's consider how the translation study was developed, how people become to translation.

However, despite of centuries-old history, modern translation study was generated as independent scientific discipline only in second half XX centuries to that in many respects were assisted with expansion of the international contacts in all areas of human dialogue that has in turn caused a sharp increase of demand, both for translations, and in translators, became powerful spur and in growth of theoretical researches of translational activity. It is necessary to note especially such version of translation as synchronous which has appeared only in XX century, as well as machine translation, which occurrence became possible owing to progress of cybernetics. In second half XX century scientific publications on problems of the theory and practice of translation are so numerous, that hardly gives in to a review and so diverse, that classifications quite often simply do not give in.

In second half XX centuries prompt progress of linguistics is marked: there are new linguistic disciplines and areas of research: cognitive linguistics, psycholinguists, sociolinguistics, biolinguistics, linguistics of the text, the theory of speech certificates, neyrolinguists. `The Linguistics has turned to original macrolinguistics '. In sight linguistics have got also problems of translation. The comparative analysis of several translations of the same texts can be considered as natural experiment on comparison of language and speech units in two or several languages in actual certificates interlingual communications. Studying of translations allows detecting in each of compared languages important features which, however, by monolingual comparisons often remain not revealed. In this case translation represents itself as a litmus piece of paper, specifying on basic differences between language and speech units of multiple languages. Among the subjective factors which have rendered essential influence on progress of the linguistic concept of translation, we shall note following.

As it was already spoken, in second half XX century there is a sharp indispensability in interlingual dialogue consequently and demand for mass preparation of professional translators. At linguistic faculties of universities and colleges numerous translational schools and branches were created, both philologists and linguists alongside with translators-experts have appeared in a role of teachers of translation. And if by comparison of translations of scientists went from translation to revealing specific features of this or that language, that, having appeared in roles of teachers of a rate of the theory and practice of translation, scientists went from specific features of compared languages to the translation text.

The linguistic orientation of translational concepts in XX century is connected also by that language is considered as a basis of national culture, thinking, and attitude.

However with linguistic concepts of translation others develop also.

So, the known American theorist of translation Eu.Nida allocates four basic approaches to translation: philological, linguistic, communicative and social semantic.

The philological approach to translation is based on a principle of parity between the original and translation, i.e. in the center of attention of theorists and experts of translation there are problems of adequacy and equivalence. This direction uses basically methods and achievements of linguistics of the text. At the linguistic approach the translator always deals with two languages, thus the basic attention is given not to conventional attitudes between the original text and Translation, and substantial. Nida considers that the big contribution to progress of the linguistic approach was brought with many philosophical and psychological works.

In a basis of the communicative approach to translation the theory of the communications lays. Characterizing this approach, Eu.Nida speaks that on progress of this approach dramatic effect was rendered with sociological works of Labov, Haimz and Gumnerc.Social semiotic approach concentrates the attention on social aspects of interoperability between various sign systems in actual certificates of the verbal communications. Already in antiquity the term ' translation ' is used in two values: for a designation of translation process and for a designation of result of translation, i.e. the text of translation.

In XX century the important seat in theoretical translation study borrows the analysis of the translation process, cogitative operations of the translator, its strategy and techniques. Such operations are inaccessible to direct supervision, indirect methods of studying of translational process therefore are developed the method of computer modelling, in particular, is used, as well as various psychological experiments are spent. The leading tendency of translation in the Europe and in the USA during all XX century became translation mastering, natural, semantic, i.e. translation should be read through ' easily ', to make impression of original work, translation literal breaks reader's ' horizon of expectation '. American largest theorist of translation already mentioned above Eugene Albert Nida, follower Martin Luther, consistently proclaims a priority of content in relation to the form.

A huge impact on the development of linguistic theory of translation, not only in the U.S. but around the world has had a distinguished American linguist Eu. Nida. Eugene Albert Nida was engaged in many languages, both classical and modern, has published a number of important works on the syntax and semantics. He became interested in the problems of translation because of its many years of activity in the American Bible Society where he served as Executive Secretary and scientific consultant of the Department of translations, which were created under the direction of translations of the Bible in 200 languages ??and seventy-five countries.

Based on the experience of the work of Eugene found written a number of books and articles, which dealt with many of the important aspects of the translation work. The most important role in the development of linguistic translation studies has played his book "To translate science", published in 1964. The book deals with the problems of the Bible, as well as a number of organizational issues related to the selection of the team of translators and consultants interpretation of "vague" places in the Bible, the special requirements for the piety of an interpreter, the need for him to receive "divine blessing" of his work, etc. However, most of the book contains a review of the fundamental aspects of the theory of translation, far beyond the specifics of the Bible.

The work of Eu. Nida- this is the first serious attempt to develop a proper linguistic approach to translation issues. Back in 1959, in the article "Principles of translation as an example of the Bible" Eu.Nida clearly postulated that the bases of the translation are the main characteristics of language systems, namely:

1) the systematic linguistic signs

2) the arbitrariness of the sign in relation to the called subject,

3) the arbitrary division of reality language and speech marks,

4) the difference in how different languages ??organize signs into meaningful expressions. [26, p. 54].

This alone shows that the main problem lies in the translation of the language semantics. This idea has received all-round development in the book "To translate the science."

On the content of the reporting labor Eu. Nida is divided into three unequal parts. The first two chapters are devoted to formulation of the problem and a brief review of the history of translation of concepts in the "western world". In the next four chapters that are purely linguistic in nature, analyzes various aspects of the matter. And finally, the last six chapters are reserved indiscriminately proper translation problems, both theoretical and organizational. These issues are grouped under the heading: "The role of the translator", "Principles of conformity", "types of correspondences and differences", "Technology changes," "The translation" and "Machine Translation".

Sections on semantics, the scope and content are central to the book. The linguistic approach to the content of the original text, which should be reproduced in the translation, it allows you to refine the concept and get a set of semantic components that can be compared to the original and in translation, and to draw conclusions about the degree of equivalence. Such components are considered by Eugene and found in each of the three types of values of linguistic units: linguistic, referential and emotional. [27, p. 125].

Despite the specific nature of the translation on the study which it was based, on translation School Eu. Nida has played an important role in the overall formation of the linguistic theory of translation. It is anticipated the development of many branches of modern translation studies, especially research in semantics and pragmatics of translation. Of course the work of Eu.Nida and his followers do not exhaust the contribution to the development of the U.S. translators of translation science. American linguists published a number of other studies have not created such a large scientific school, but contain interesting data and concepts on certain aspects of translation. We have already mentioned some of the work from the collection "On Translation". Except it came out in the U.S. a few collections of works of translation, of which the most famous was a collection edited by R. Brislina, which along with the American authors participated and well-known European translators Seleskovich D. and B. Vilss.

American translation studies in the 80-ies of XX century

American Translation Studies 80s is characterized increasingly broad approach to translation issues. If in the previous period, many works were carried out in a kind of theoretical isolation, without taking into account the experience of other countries translators (primarily European), now translators U.S. is increasingly based on the works of foreign authors (with the exception of works of Russian scientists tend to obscure the ocean) shall enter into a discussion with them, give an estimate of their theories. The most serious work of beginning this period can be considered the book S. Bassnett-Makgayr "Translation Studies".

The main attention of the researcher is paid to problems of a literary translation. Considering a big complex of theoretical and practical problems of translation, the researcher widely uses works of other translators, agreeing with them or entering discussion. For example, after R. Yakobson Bassnett-Makgayr allocates three types of translation: rephrasing, actually translation and transmutation. Describing procedure of translational activity, in the key provisions Bassnett-Makgayr accepts Eu.Nida's concept, supplementing it with the detailed description of actions of the translator at a choice of a variant of translation. On the contrary, in treatment of translational equivalence the researcher disperses from the concept of dynamic translation of Nida, thus positively estimates classification of types of the equivalence, offered by A.Popovic.

Recently in Anglo-American theory of translation interest to "alienating" translation, the translation, urged to reveal a strangeness of a form, syntax -- figurative thinking -- the translated text amplifies. Translation is considered as a way and means to enter the reader into the world alien to it. Such installation is connected first of all with the German tradition of translational thought -- with Goethe, Shleyermakher, Gelderlin, George, Benjamin's names. [28, p. 50-63].

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