The history of development the science of translation in the countries of studied language
The history of translation studies in ancient times, and it's development in the Middle Ages. Principles of translation into Greek, the texts of world's religions. Professional associations of translators. The technology and terminology translation.
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First of all we should ascertain, that a major part of outstanding issues of the theory of translation, for example, as questions about translation, about equivalence, about the creative beginning in translation and its borders, about transformations and distortions, about that, finally, what to consider as translation and a trade the translator, as well as many other things, discussed during more than two millenniums, till now have not received the final decision. But it at all does not speak, that these problems concern to a category initially unresolved, therefore to them and it is not necessary to address.
It testifies only that translation is the intellectual activity requiring multilateral profound studying, the new theoretical knowledge of those aspects of translation which from time immemorial are in sight theorists and experts of translation, is capable to add a picture of the most complicated process, named with translation. N.R. Barhudarov in the conclusion to the book about translation gives of a word of English philosopher I.A. Richards, « colourfully describing this type of intellectual activity: « very much maybe, that here we deal with the complicated process from everything which have arisen ever during evolution of space ». [36, p. 231].
Schools in USA
In the USA 4 higher educational institutions which prepare for translators are known: Monterej institute of translators (California), New-York university, University of state of Iowa (specializes on art translation) and university in Washington. All of them enter in CIUTI.
The most popular for today is the Monterej institute. This unique educational institution in the USA where translation into foreign language is taught and where train in simultaneous interpretation. Oral translation is not separated from written. From entrants the knowledge of foreign language at a level of bilinguals and some practical experience of translational work is required. It is necessary to have also even some rates of higher education in other high school. Training lasts 2 years. On I a rate terminology accustoms to different areas (political, economic, legal); here are developed procedures of mastering of greater blocks of lexicon with conformity in an active stock (A.Falaleeva's procedure); students get acquainted also with management of translation.
Students study in legal and economic texts to translate on I a rate, technical and political -- on 2nd rate. Training of the shorthand translational record is not spent. A role of the theory in training weak, subordinated. In Monterey prepare for translators of the widest structure without restriction subjects, therefore at final examination the student can receive for translation the text of any subjects unprepared
Schools for Translation/Interpreting/Translation Studies
This list contains translation schools and universities throughout the world
Centre for Translation and Comparative Cultural Studies,
“The Graduate School”, “University of Warwick”, Coventry
Chinese-English, English-Chinese Translating and Interpreting, MA/Diploma, Language Centre, “University of Newcastle”
Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies, “University of Manchester Institute of Science & Technology”
Centre for Translation Studies, “University of Surrey”
Department of Modern Languages, “University of Bradford”
MA Applied Translation Studies, “University of North London” - joint venture between the University of North London (United Kingdom), “the Maastricht School of Translation and Interpreting of the Hogeschool Maastricht”
(The Netherlands), and “Institut Libre Marie Haps” in Brussels (Belgium)
MA in Translation Studies, “Centre for British and Comparative Cultural Studies”, “University of Warwick”, Coventry
MA Translation Studies (Linguistics), “Centre for English Language Studies”, “University of Birmingham”
Translation Studies (TRA), “Middlesex University, Tottenham”
Department of European Studies and Modern Languages, “University of Bath”
Department of Diplomacy & Applied Languages (DDAL), “University of Westminster”, London
School of Languages & European Studies, “Aston University”, Birmingham
Preparatory Courses for the Diploma in Translation - University based/Distance learning, Centre for Language Studies, “City University London”
“University of Salford”, Manchester
Department of Linguistics, “School of Modern Languages”, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, “University of New South Wales”, Sidney
“Universitй du Quйbec en Outaouais in Gatineau”, Canada
“Universitй de Sherbrooke”
“Universitй du Quйbec а Trois-Riviиres”
“Dйpartement de traduction et des langues”, University of Moncton
“Dйpartement de linguistique et de traduction”, Universitй de Montrйal
French, Foreign Languages and Translation Studies, “School of Continuing Studies”, University of Toronto
“School of Interpretation and Translation”, University of Ottawa
Baccalaurйat, certificat de traduction, certificat de traduction (cours par Internet), Facultй des arts, “Collиge universitaire de Saint-Boniface”, (Manitoba)
School of Translation, “Glendon College, York University”, Toronto, Ontario
Translation Studies - “Centre for Continuing Education”, McGill University, Montreal
“The Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation”, “Monterey Institute of International Studies”, Monterey, CA
Center for Interpretation and Translation Studies, “University of Hawaii”
Center for Translation Studies, “University of Texas” at Dallas, TX
Critical Language Institute and Center for Translation Services, “Florida A&M University”, Tallahassee
Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics and Interpretation, “Gallaudet University”, Washington, DC
Graduate Program in Bilingual Legal Interpreting, “University of Charleston”, SC
Translation Studies, Graduate Center, City “University of New York”, NY
Professional Translation Certificate Program, “University of Pittsburgh”, PA
Professional Translator Training Program, “Institute of Applied Linguistics”, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio
“Translation & Interpretation, Bellevue Community College”, Washington State
“Translation and Interpretation Institute”, Washington Academy of Languages
Translation Research and Instruction Program (TRIP), “Binghamton University, NY”
Translation Research Group, “Brigham Young University”, Provo, Utah
Translation Studies, Department of Comparative Literature, “Indiana University”, Bloomington, IN
Translating and Interpreting, School of Languages, “Auckland Institute of Technology”
Centre for Translation & Interpreting Studies, Faculty of Arts, “University of Auckland
As it was already marked, theoretically for the Middle Ages promotion on the foreground of three "sacred" languages (hebrew, ancient greek and latin), opposed "vulgar", it was characteristic. е. Alive of New Europe to languages. The actual life, however, has brought essential corrective amendments in the specified diagram. Hebrew language was initially alien to vast majority of the Christian world, and its knowledge during this period (as, however, and later) always was destiny of the few. The number knowing the Greek language in the countries of the Western Europe also remains during Middle Ages (unlike an antique epoch) insignificant to that estrangement between Catholic and orthodox churches to no small degree assisted, come to the end in 1054 the open break. Reflection of a similar state of affairs became a known saying: « Graecum est, non legitur "(" It is Greek it is not read »). Thus, unconditional superiority in hierarchy of languages undividedly belonged to Latin.
In ancient Rome the Latin language was dominated. At the same time, Greek literature, Greek verbal creativity in general, was the subject of admiration for the Romans and a role model. Write like the great Greek masters, and can whine and beat them in the art of rhetoric - that many Roman orators and writers have seen evidence of self-mastery.
At last, it is possible to point existence in Ancient Egypt and so-called "chronological" translation, i.e. translation of texts from more ancient forms of language to later. It was connected both with evolution of the language, and with change of system of writing - replacement of hieroglyphs with the demotic letter . So business, for example, with one of the largest monuments of Ancient Egyptian literature - "The book dead" was.
Thus, existence in Ancient Egypt at various stages of its existence of rather intensive translational activity isn't subject to doubt, but, apparently from the material given above, it in absolute majority of cases carried out information and communicative tasks. Existence of a literary translation in an Ancient Egyptian civilization isn't established though separate observations were made about possibility of any contacts with foreign-language literatures.
At the same time, alongside with Latin, during this or that period enough key role could play and other languages. The example Old French which has received very wide international propagation not only in England (where after Norman gains is characteristic in this respect and down to the end of XIV century it borrowed dominant positions), but also in other countries. On it writings of Marco Polo and Rustichelo, creating the known book about wanderings the Venetian merchant; it the Florentine lawyer and diplomat Brunetto Latin at a writing of encyclopaedic work « the Book of treasures », including, that used this language - « the most pleasant and the most widespread among people » . It is natural, that Old French often acted and in a role initial while translating "fiction" - works where it was a question of military feats, battles.
Completing conversation on progress of translation and a translational idea in Renaissance, it has to be noted, that, besides questions of transfer from one language to another the secular literature, by attention of humanists there have not passed also the problems connected with translation of religious texts. First of all it is a question of versions of the Scriptus - and latin (in a counterbalance canonized Vulgate Ieronim), and in the certain degree "national", т. е. Created in alive European languages. However the given subject matter expediently to consider already in the section devoted Reformation. It has pushed into a problem of translation of the Bible the foreground, and in the approach to its permit was showed both continuity with actually Renaissance tradition, and significant enough divergences with it.
If practical activities of the Federal bureau of translations are not beyond the problem of service of federal administration established originally the theoretical and lexicographic development prepared by translators and terminology, concerning the Bureau, have general scientific value.
Thus, the fluent review of history of translation in Canada shows, that the major factor which has affected so fruitful progress of translation in this country, as well as on feature of translational activity, about which else it is necessary to tell, constant opposition of the French language -- language of the first Europeans who have occupied these territories, -- to the English language dominating over the North-American continent is.
Variation of language policy to no small degree assisted in an economic and social-political life of Quebec to development of translation as to special branch of the industry. For maintenance of its normal functioning the branched out and multistage system of a professional training Is created, activity professional associations extends and becomes stronger, the area of expertise inside of branch becomes more distinct, the translational theory develops.
American Translation Studies 80s is characterized increasingly broad approach to translation issues. If in the previous period, many works were carried out in a kind of theoretical isolation, without taking into account the experience of other countries translators (primarily European), now translators U.S. is increasingly based on the works of foreign authors (with the exception of works of Russian scientists tend to obscure the ocean) shall enter into a discussion with them, give an estimate of their theories. The most serious work of beginning this period can be considered the book S. Bassnett-Makgayr "Translation Studies".
The Canadian translators, by virtue of a social specific character of activity more tempted in informative texts, art, already for a long time have addressed to problems of terminology. As early as in 1902 Jozeph-Evarist Prens has published in magazine « the Bulletin of the French speech in Canada » the first terminologic the research, devoted to terms of the railway.
It is necessary to note one more -- a so-called category interprete communautaire. It is a question of professional translators who are called up to provide the oral communications in conditions when in contact there is one of official languages of Canada and foreign or languages of national minorities of the independent population of the country.
For this period in Canada there are some more translational professional associations. In 1956 is created a society interestingly to track destiny of one of such translationalassociations. In 1946 the Association of graduates of College of translation of University of Montreal (Association des diplomes ik % rinstitut de traduction de l'Universite de Montreal -- ADITUM) which in 1955 has received the national status has been created and was renamed in the Canadian association deplumed translators (Association canadienne des traducteurs diplomes -- ACTD).
So, we have got acquainted with experience of predecessors and our contemporaries, colleagues from some foreign countries where the cardinal importance is given to translation. The analysis of this experience not only shows a role of translation in progress of a human civilization, in propagation of religious and scientific knowledge, among national languages and literatures, in maintenance between representatives of the most various cultures, helps to understand more deeply problems which face the modern theory of translation.
We get acquainted with the translation history in Ancient times
We can compare the development of translation study in Canada and U.S.A.
We considered the universities in Canada and USA
At the Ottawa's University professional translators firstly prepared in 1934
1970 the Translation study takes place across the country.
Nowadays the translation training is at 11 Canadian universities.
In the USA 4 higher educational institutions which prepare for translators are known:
Monterej Institute of translators (California),
University of state of Iowa (specializes on art translation)
University in Washington.
Modern translation study, similarly to other scientific disciplines has developed thanks to efforts of the scientists of different countries.
Prospects for translation, in our time translation theory is well developed and now has all the conditions to facilitate the task of the translator, such as a variety of dictionaries, tools for text recognition, electronic dictionaries and translators of texts. And I believe that the translators will be an important profession as it is now and a few decades later. Translators will always be needed as well as teachers and doctors.
List of used literary sources
1.V.N. Komissarov “Общая теория перевода”
2. Henri Van Hoof “histore de la traduction” en Occident Paris 1991 p.7
3. N.K Gorbovskii “Теория перевода” p 12, [4. p 214]
4. A. Tytler “Принципы перевода” p 66
5. A.B. Fedorov Основы общей теории перевода p 14
6. Shweicer A.D. “Теория перевода, статус проблемы, аспекты” 1988 p75
7. G. Steiner “After Babel” Oxford 1975 p 224
8. Нелюбин Л. «Наука о переводе» Мировые религии и их роль в развитии перевода 2008 p 22
9. “Вопросы теории перевода в современной зарубежной лингвистике” 1978
10. M.T. Ciero «Три трактата об ораторском искусcтве» 1972 p 104 [12.]
11.Цит по книге Kloepher R. Die theorie de literarischen Uebesetzung 1967 P 22
12. Plinii junior writes 1983 p 122
13. Семенец О.Е. Панасьев А.Н. История перевода p 64
14.Nelyubin l.l. «наука о переводе» учебное пособие 2008 P 18
15.Coutun L.S. “указ. соч” 10
16.Bulanin D.M. Указ. Соч. p 48, [19.p 50] [20, p. 37]
17. Sobolevskii A. I. “Западное влияние на литературу Московской Руси 15-17 вв” 1899 с 12-13
18. Rijski I.M. указ. Соч. С 112
19.цит по книге Буланин Д.М. указ. соч с 33
20. Чин Миллера в соответствии c «Табелью о рангах»
21. Винокур Г.О. «Избранные работы по русскому языку 1959» с 131
22 in several works of Shaplein “Советский энциклопедический словрь” 1980 с 1515
23. Delisle J. Op. cit. P. 54--55. 41 44
24. См.: Daviault P. Traducteurs et traduction au Canada // Mйmoires de la Sociйtй royale du Canada. Troisiиme sйrie, 1944. T. XXXVIII. P. 67 et alii
25. Cormier M.C. Francoeur A. bibliographie(1988-1999) Lexicologie, lexicographie, terminologie et terminographie, traduction et interprйtation, langues et linguistique, dictionnaires, cйdйroms. Document de travail. Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie. Rйseau LTT. Lexicologie , Terminologie, Traduction. Montrйal, 2000
26. Nida, Eugene A. Bible Translating: an Analysis of Principles and Procedures. N.Y., American Bible Society, 1947. P 54
27. Nida, Eugene A. Language Structure and Translation. Essays. Stanford (Calif.), 1975. p 125
28. Опубликована в сборнике статей №29 Московского государственного областного университета "Проблемы теории языка и переводоведения". М.:Изд-во МГОУ, 2006. - С.50-63.
29. Melnikova E.A, “Меч и лира Англосаксонское общество в истории и эпосе” 1987 с 54
30. Amos F.R. Early theories of translation New York 1920 p 3-4
31. Blake N.F. The English language in Medieval literature London 1978 p 15
32. V.N.Komissarov Общая теория перевода. Москва, 1999. P 6
33. Horguelin P. La profession du traducteur. Sociйtй des traducteurs du Quйbec
1974. P. 75
34.Traduction. Terminologie. Interprйtation. Rйpertoire 1999--2000. Ordre
des traducteurs et interprиtes agrййs du Quйbec. P. 101--194.
35.«Синие книги» -- сборники дипломатических документов. Delisle J. Op. cit. P. 23.
36. Цит. по.: Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод. М., 1975. С. 231.
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