The history of development the science of translation in the countries of studied language

The history of translation studies in ancient times, and it's development in the Middle Ages. Principles of translation into Greek, the texts of world's religions. Professional associations of translators. The technology and terminology translation.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
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The great interest causes recently at modern translators become in many respects Walter Benjamin's classical essay "Task of the translator" where as one of requirements of "good" translation the principle of exact copying of syntax of original work is declared. Benjamin recognizes that translation is intended actually not for the "ordinary" reader, the purpose of translation consists in revealing relationship of languages, their ratio among themselves. If for Nida "spirit" of work consists that is, that, according to Benjamin, it is covered in syntactic structure, i.e. in shape. Today's researchers of theory of translation are involved by an originality and dissimilarity of foreign language and thinking that, certainly, is reflected and in syntactic level. Modern researchers more than ever, are anxious with the relations the author -- the translator -- the reader, understanding and preservation of an individual originality of each of participants of this quite often difficult communicative chain. Among the most influential researchers who polemize today with the concept and practice of "natural", "semantic" translation, it is necessary to call J. Stajner, L.Venuti, D. Robinson. Recognizing all dissimilarity of the approaches offered by these authors, it is possible to notice that all of them challenge the status and tasks of the translator in the modern world challenge the idea which has developed by eyelids of the translator as about transparent glass between cultures that the translator acts as the translator nothing introducing "from himself" that each translator "suppresses" himself in translation. Venuti and Stajner accuse natural translation of a cultural narcissism, that translation of this sort is somewhat useless as in the center of attention of such translation -- not foreign culture, not others originality, and own idea of what has to be "foreign" culture. D. Robinson polemizes both with alienating, and with mastering translation. Robinson notes that in the field of theory of translation the unsoluble gap between the theory and translation practice is observed. Robinson suggests considering the translator as the personality creative, conceiving, i.e. to recognize that any translator, carrying out any translation, introduces -- he wants it or not -- in work something and from itself (himself).

2.5 Translation studies development in England

Till V century AD the population of Britain was Celtic. Despite five-century Roman occupation (lasting from I to the V century AD), the Romanization of the British Isles in a little considerable degree didn't occur. From V century migration to Britain of the German tribes (English, saxophones and yuts), substantially pressed Celts begins. Though the first penetration of Christianity on this territory refer to the II century, the original Christianization of the country is dated the end of the VI century when father Grigory I sent to Britain mission from forty monks led by the well-known Augustine who has become the first archbishop Canterbury and based first monastery.

Speaking about the beginning translational (and literary) activity in England, mention usually a name of monk Kedmon (VII century), shifting poetically in Old English language some plots of the Scriptus. A bit later the largest author of that era of Bede (672(673) -- 735), written in Latin "Church history of the english people" and some compositions, made an attempt to translate the Gospel from John, but because of death didn't manage to finish it (translation didn't remain). In the VIII century poetic retellings of separate bible books, processing of church anthems, and also a free translation of the Latin poem about a Phoenix, attributed to poet Kunevulf were created. But original blossoming of Old English translation belongs to the end of the IX century and is connected with activity of king Alfred (849 - the beginning of the 900th). By the time of its accession to the throne the situation in the country was the extremely adverse. Continuous invasions of Danes led to decline and destruction of many monasteries - the centers of medieval culture. Strongly level of the education identified during that time with knowledge of Latin went down. According to Alfred, by the beginning of its board it was difficult to find the person capable at least to translate the letter from Latin of English. On the other hand, the king well realized that the knowledge best of all extends in the country when it is stated in language of people, it occupying. From there was a program of translational activity: "To translate in language which all of us understand, some books which are most necessary for all people" [29, p. 54].

For performance of this task Alfred collected round himself the scientific circle which members became the bishop of Wales Asser - future biographer of the king, bishop Worcester Verfurt who has become subsequently the archbishop to Canterbury, Pleglmund and other persons. Alfred also wrote the letter to France to the archbishop Rheims in which reported about a lack of educated people of own country; in reply the archbishop sent it scientist Grimbold.In general it is possible to assume that the idea of creation of the circle mentioned above was to some extent cast to the English monarch by the similar circle existing almost by century earlier at court of Charles the Great. However the last was a stronghold of Latin education whereas in the center of attention of Alfred was educationally - translational activity in the native language.

As the king, though was trained in Latin, didn't get a systematic school education, the question of extent of personal participation of the English monarch in transfers executed by members of a circle can't be considered solved up to the end. However Alfred's most important role as inspirer and the organizer of the grandiose work which didn't have analogs in Europe of that time, remains indisputable. The following works were translated

1)"History against pagans" bishop Orozy, written in the V century. The author inspired by some ideas of Augustine, created work in which sought to justify Christianity from charges that the Roman Empire through his fault fell. Orozy's book was in the middle Ages very popular and authority that probably and determined a choice by her Alfred as a peculiar textbook of history for compatriots. In translation there are a lot of omissions and changes; seven books of the original were consolidated to six. Besides, data on those countries in which it is widespread "Teutonic" (i.e. German) language are added, and the story of two travelers who have told Alfred about the scene is included.

2) "Church history of the people" mentioned above Troubles Venerable. Here already freedom in relation to the original gives way to aspiration as it is possible to retell more precisely its matter, bringing sometimes to literalism.

3) "About a consolation philosophy" Boetion (VI century). This work "last Roman" wrote in a dungeon waiting for execution. Boetsy's book was respected huge respect in the middle Ages, and in her author saw the Christian martyr who was injured for belief. As the text is very difficult for understanding, Alfred as report sources asked in the beginning one of the associates - Bishop Asser to explain him the original, and already then shifted it in English. The address with the original rather free: its structure changes, many places are excluded, Christian color whenever possible amplifies. Some hints and the hints not familiar to contemporaries of Alfred are replaced with clear examples for his compatriots.

For Boetsy's style the combination of prosaic and poetic statements is characteristic. Two variants of translation one of which is entirely executed by prose remained, and in the second attempt to apply characteristic for Old English an alliterating verse is made.

4) "Duties of the pastor" father Grigory I (VI century). This translation more carefully and strictly follows the original, than all the others and though in it also enough paraphrases often meet, it isn't necessary to speak about a liberty. The choice of the called work representing something like the textbook for clergy probably spoke not only its general meaning for medieval culture, but also a special role of the author in a Christianization of England: at it the group of monks-benedicts led by Augustine for the organization of church life in the south of the country was sent. As in Gregory's I work it is spoken about what ideal of the Christian priest has to be, Alfred considered necessary to extend its translation as it is possible more widely among English clergy and dispatched copies of the last to all bishops. In the preface the king speaks about the happy past of England, opposing former prosperity "in war and sciences" to the sad present: before foreigners came here to look for wisdom, because of decline of education it is necessary to go in its searches abroad. Nevertheless Alfred considers necessary to note undoubted progress in the education development, observed in years of its board. Urging church hierarchs to be released from word affairs and to be given to comprehension of knowledge, the king states a wish that all freeborn young people learned to read well in the native language and those who will study Latin, were appointed to higher posts.

5) "Dialogues" of the same author (т. е. Grigory I), on a content representing conversations of the daddy with the friend about a life and acts of Italian. This book became a source for set of hagiographical compositions of the Middle Ages and also enjoyed the big popularity, than and its choice was defined.

Translations of fragments from compositions of Avgustine "Monologue" and « About vision of the God » are attributed to Al'fried also. Besides it by tradition consider sometimes and the translator of the book of Psalmov David and even the Bible. However the precise information on these translations it was not kept.

After death of king Alfred translational activity in England proceeded, though with smaller intensity. In particular, the Gospel from Matfey was translated and glosses (attributing of the corresponding English equivalents over each word of the Latin text) other three Gospel are made. There were also transfers of medieval ekzegetic and didactic literature. About methods which adhered Alfred and its associates by transfer of latin originals, it is spoken and in the forewords left by them. So, in the foreword to « Duties of the pastor » it is informed, that the English version passes the original sometimes word for word, sometimes - according to sense; in the foreword to « to the Consolation philosophy » - that king Alfred, being the translator of the named work, translated it at times a word behind a word, at times sense behind sense so neatly and clearly, however was able.

Despite of huge volume of work performed under its management, the English monarch well realized, that its successors should make much more. In the foreword to translation of "Monologue" of Avgustin, where the translator assimilates to the builder who has gone the big wood to prepare a necessary material and to deliver therefrom all necessary, it is spoken: « But I did not intend at all to bring from a wood everything even if and was able to do it. In each tree I have seen something useful; and consequently I advise any, having such possibility and possessing necessary number of vehicles, to direct the way to a wood where I have prepared logs. Let it will add to them new, will load with them the vehicles and will create what I have not made, - will construct set of fine houses and will erect fine city in which will live cheerfully and pleasantly as in winter, and in summer » [30, p. 3-4].

Monk Elfrik (955 -- 1020) who has become subsequently the abbey of a monastery in Oxford was considered as the largest figure of this period. With it begin history of creation of the English Bible as it was noted above, Alfred's version (if it really existed) didn't reach us literature. The particular interest is represented by prefaces to translation in which Elfrik stated the principles of translation of the Latin text. And the characteristic detail attracts attention: almost all of them (except for the preface to bible "Genesis") are written in Latin. Thus, if translation intended for those whom in the Middle Ages called the term "idiot", addressees of prefaces were first of all scientific "litterati", i.e. those church circles which, based on the theory "threelingua", in general opposed translation from the Bible on local languages.

Possibly, Elfrik also had doubts concerning legitimacy of the work and several times assured that won't be engaged in many translational activities that "a pearl of the Christ", having begun to sound in "English language", it wouldn't be trampled. Even in the preface mentioned above to "Genesis" it is possible to read the statement that his author never won't dare to translation anymore any book from Latin on the native language (that, however, didn't prevent Elfrik to carry out subsequently translation of all Pentateuch and church sermons, also having accompanied them prefaces).

Speaking about rules of translation of the Latin text, Elfrik emphasized need to translate not word for word, and sense to sense, allowing any reductions, the explanation and change. On the one hand, it is explained by need to reckon with audience for which transfer is intended. Elfrik recommends to the translator to use simple style and words clear to all as often the original contains any rhetorical figures and the jewelry, capable to push away the unsophisticated reader and to cause in it boredom. On the other hand, Elfrik stated the fears, as though any fool, having got acquainted with books of the Old Testament, wouldn't began to imitate characters of the last in all details, thinking as if it is possible to live and now as lived at patriarchs and Moisey. Therefore, translating "Genesis", he considered necessary to resort to "reasonable admissions" where it was a question of polygamy of bible patriarchs.

Similarly, transferring Latin sources where the Eastern Roman Empire was mentioned, Elfrik avoided speaking about board of two emperors not to confuse the compatriots who submit to one king and got used to see at the head of the country of one monarch, instead of two. Especially Elfrik emphasizes existence in sacred books of the highest spiritual essence, stipulating that he retells only their external matter. Besides considered above works deserves attention and made by Elfrik in English Latin grammar where he entered some parts of the well-known grammar of Prussian relating to the VI century.

This book contains also translational supervision (for example, about existence in each language of own interjections which are difficult giving in to transfer on other language).If Alfred and Elfrik, choosing texts for translation, were guided mainly by educational and didactic reasons, during the considered period appear already and translate of such works which were intended for entertainment of readers. Here "Alexander's Letter" and "East Miracles" where it was told about any fantastic beings and the phenomena, and also a fragment of translation of the Latin version of the Greek novel about Apollonian Tirsk belong to the story about adventures of the Syrian monk Malkh, adjoining literature, but possessing many lines of the adventure antique story.

Thus, by XI century already there was a tradition of translations into the Old English language, playing an important role in formation of English culture. However in 1066 there is an event which had the major consequences for the country and further development which has in many respects changed it, - a gain of England Norman duke Wilhelm. Already to the middle of the XIII century signs of strengthening of a role of English and gradual replacement of French began to be observed. In 1258 king Henry III addressed for the first time to the population with the appeal written in English. The specified tendency especially amplified a century later. In 1362 capital legal proceedings were translated to English and it began to sound for the first time in parliament. Approximately the statement of English belongs to the same time as language of school teaching. By the end of the XIV century to domination of French there comes the end though separate remnants of the last remained still long time. "English, - it was noted in special literature, - it was accepted as language of oral communication, but it should win still recognition as to the best means for creation of written works. French and Latin were still considered as the most suitable languages for literary expression; thus, XIV and XV century became witnesses of huge popularity of translational activity. In the similar way British expected to give to English translation part of that prestige which original language" possessed. [31, p. 15].

Certainly, it is possible to call translations of the composition of this sort only conditionally. Rather a speech has to go about development of foreign-language literature and assimilation of the artistic touches used then at creation of original works.

The XIV century was marked by also important events in the sphere of bible translation. In the middle of the century there is Psalter Richard Roll from Hempoll (county Yorkshire) was which founder. On different dialects glosses and translations of separate parts of the Scriptus were made. However the central place here belongs to the first full reconstruction of the Bible in English, connected with John Uiklif's activity (1320-1384) - one of the largest religious thinkers of the time, dared to throw down an open challenge of church hierarchy and spread by it any more one century of the notorious theory "tthreelingua".

Speaking about translational tradition of the XIV century, mention usually and a name of the largest medieval author Jeffrey Chaucer (1340-1400), the author of glorified "The Canterbury Tales". Peru Chaucer possesses translates processing from the French, Latin and Italian languages (including some works of Boccaccio with whom the English poet was personally familiar, and also Boetsy's well-known composition "About a consolation philosophy").

In the XV century John Lidgeyta's translational activity (1370 was allocated? -- 1451? ) whose compositions took place and at Chaucer represented a peculiar synthesis foreign-language (Latin and French) sources and original creativity. At the beginning of the century appeared (some decades later after Chaucer's version) the new translation of the book of Boetsy, executed by John Walton. English first printer William Kekston (1422 was engaged in translation also? -- 1491? ) whose method of transfer of the foreign-language original wasn't always free from literalism (though in prefaces and epilogs it didn't hide own doubts concerning results of the work). The generous patron was found by translators of antique classics in the person of John Giptrof, the column Uorchesters (1420-1470) which and translated Cicero and Caesar.

Thus, it is possible to note that by the boundary separating the Middle Ages from Renaissance, in England there was the rich translational tradition which has passed in the development a big and difficult way.

The development of world culture from the perception of translation reveals a stable group of thoughts and forms, of cultures continually fascinating new influence for the reason that of the labor of translators. It dispels the supposition that the whole thing starts in the West and undermines the thought of rigid limitations flanked by East and West. India, China, Iraq and Spain have in dissimilar ways wrought European culture. India shaped ties with the Mediterranean in the sixth century BC and medicinal theories establish in Greek thinkers like Plato and Galen which came from India. In 9 and 10century Baghdad, the technical and theoretical works of Ancient Greece were translated into Arabic and this knowledge spread to Europe via Spain which was practically a Muslim state from the early 9 century 400 years.

The programs reached it climax from side to side the School of Toledo where translations were made from Arabic to Latin and afterward to Spanish and helped the technical and scientific development for the European Renaissance. A narration of translation charts these intersections. They may be entrenched in aggressive historical disagreement and regal expansions but it is not at all a easy procedure of translation for misuse.

A number of of the history of translation is well-charted - the translation of the Bible, the work of missionaries, the Orientals translators in India - but present remains huge unidentified territories. Scholars contain lately begun to mark about the role of entity translators. Translators as Constance Garnett in England or Gregory Rabassa in the United States have been answerable for transforming inscription in English by their individual translations of Russian and Latin American fiction. Come around of new subsequent freedom in Eastern Europe have come translations of best-selling American and English authors. The history of translation is the history of the fundamental but often imperceptible intersections in world culture.

Translation was a important activity in Britain in the Eighteenth Century, and the field was separated into two distinct areas: translation from classics (focus on Latin and Greek authors) which was a male-dominated territory, and translation from contemporary languages (French, German, Italian and Spanish) which was one of the few fictional genres. Yet, there were some important exceptions in the area of the classics. As well as in many other things the countries, in England the first attempts of hypothetical generalizations in the ground of translation have been undertaken by translators amongst whom there were many protruding writers and poets.

Many of them accompanied with the translations by widespread commentary in which they proved or necessary move toward to the choice of a variety problems of translation, tried to state some system and main beliefs of translation. In XVI and XVII centuries when translational activity in England has got especially wide scope, practice of similar translational comments has received significant propagation. More fundamental works under the theory of translation have appeared in England only in second half XX centuries. Here it is possible to note, first of all, T.Sevori's book « art of translation ». In it the author, tried to consider the broad audience of translational problems. Though the linguistic basis of this research was obviously insufficient, the author managed to state is glad positions which have received the further progress in works under the linguistic theory of translation.

In structure of the work of T. Sevori in many respects follows tradition. Here still there is no statement of the general principles of construction of the theory of translation; the subjects of sections and their sequence are substantially any. First of all it is offered to distinguish 4 types of translation. Offered classification reflects at the same time distinctions in a range of accuracy and in character of translated materials. Terms which are used at classification, are not always successful, but the author in sufficient detail opens their content.

In V.N. Komissarov's opinion «T. Sevori allocates following types of translation:

- The perfect translation - translation of cleanly information phrases-announcements.

- Adequate translation - translation of subject works where the content and as it is expressed is important only, insignificantly. In this type of translation the translator freely lowers words or the whole offers, which sense it seems to it unclear, will paraphrase sense of the original as to it will like. (T. Sevori believes, that so detectives, books Dyuma, Bokkacho, as well as, strangely enough, Servantes and L. Tolstoy should translate.)

- The third type of translation which are not receiving the special name, is a translation of classical works where the form as is important, as well as a content. The qualitative characteristic of this type of translation is given by the indication that not maybe "accomplished" and that it requires so long time and such major efforts that it brings to nothing commercial value of translation.

- The fourth type of translation is defined as close to "adequate". It is translation of scientific and technical materials, whose occurrence is caused by a practical indispensability. It requires good knowledge the translator of subject matter about whom there is a speech in the original [32, p. 6].

Approving, that the essence of translation always reduces to a choice, T. Sevori specifies, that at a choice the translator should answer 3 questions consistently:

1) That the author has told?

2) that it wished to tell it?

3) How do you say it?

Thus, T. Sevori alongside with content and the form of the original allocates as object of translation and that now would name communicative intention of the author.

Translators and their labor engage a essential hole in translation theory: in current years translation studies has been more and more sketch attention to their vital intervention. Skopos theory is a case in top. In spite of the reality that the outgoing point of translation behavior is the middle preoccupation of this come up to, Hans Vermeer has brought attention to the amount of liberty, on the one hand, and of liability, on the other hand, bears on language mediators (Vermeer 1998: 54). Translators are presented as experts who ought to aim and realize those strategies which allow them to get their purpose, i.e. their scopes. This column of consideration takes translators to the centre of the phase, and yet it involves a certain total of risk too: the concept of “accountability” is the other side of the coin, as translators might be considered answerable for the consequences of their performance. Thus, it is no accident that proper debates are successful in translation studies

3. Prospects of the theory of translation development

3.1 Schools in Canada

10th of 20 century are regarded as a decade of teaching has got hoarse. Educational institutions on preparation of translators existed in Canada and before. At University of Ottawa for professional translators have started to prepare in 1934 the Pioneer translation in Montreal there was George Panton, the person from mind and the rare general culture, passionately keen the literature and art. In January, 1942 under its initiative the College of translation which in 1944 is a part of university of Montreal is looked for. In 1945 Platon -- the president of College of translation -- represents at philological faculty of University of Montreal the dissertation first in Canada about translation. [23, p. 27].

46 its have published entitled « Transposition and type of translation ». But, as will write about it of its colleague, Platon thought after itself not one work, it has created tradition, which continues in works of its disciples and on activity of the college created by it. To 70th training to translation is developed countrywide. The most fruitful it appears in provinces Quebec and also where preparation of translators gets special scope. Now in these provinces it is concentrated 75 % of universities of the country leading training of translators. Almost at all universities of these provinces programs on training open to translation, new teaching materials are developed. Textbooks also protect dissertations under the theory of translation. Z.Denil cites following statistical data: with 1968 on 1984 Every year any new program of training opened To translation, each two years -- the new program of a level of the bachelor And each four years -- a level of the master.[23, p. 28].

Now preparation of translators is carried out at 11 Canadian universities. These are the basic educational establishments where preparation on the given speciality is conducted, multilevel curriculums are developed. Training to translation assumes six levels of preparation accordingly and diplomas which are shown in three cycles: the first cycle of training allows to receive the certificate (le certificat) the bachelor's degree of the first degree (la mineure), as well as the bachelor's degree of the second degree (la majeure) or the bachelor-expert (le baccalaureat specialise); the second cycle assumes reception of the diploma about higher education (le diplome d'etudes supericun the diploma of the master (la maitrise); the third cycle brings to reception of a doctor's degree (le doctorat).

However, as it is marked in the new report of Branch committee of the Canadian industry of translators, experts-translators with university diplomas cannot provide completely demand for the given activity yet. At annual release of 300 and 320 translators with diplomas of the bachelor-expert and the master accordingly the demand for experts of the given qualifications is made annually by 360 and 400 person. The usual bachelors, who are not having special preparation, cannot compete to professionals any more. The raised demand from businessmen on the licensed experts-translators shows how much has increased in a society a level of that understanding, that in translation professionalism is necessary, that translation is not simply mechanical recurrence of that has been already told or written up to that, and the most complicated process of interlingual the intermediaries, requiring solid vocational training. This position puts before universities new problems in preparation of qualified personnel in the field of translation. The interesting form of preparation of professionals-translators accepted at some universities (the University of Ottawa and University " Concordia " in Montreal), a little reminding system of preparation of engineers existed in a soviet-era and factories-high schools, is the program « combined educating-(programme cooperatif) when training alternates with practical work.

Preparation of professional translators has demanded development of such curricula in which the general disciplines and disciplines special harmoniously would mesh. The big merit of the Canadian teachers is a rational area of expertise in training translators. In the beginning of 70th one of the most outstanding Canadian researchers in the field of history and theories of translation, wrote: « the Problem of the translator -- to translate the text from-one language in another, trying as far as possible to pass the message which it contains. But as well to translate, it is needed to know area of translation. It is impossible to require of the translator, that it was the walking encyclopedia, the trade of the translator, similarly too many assumes some area of expertise. Therefore there are art translators, technical, legal, translators of advertising, etc. » [33, p. 75]. So, the curriculum of preparation of the expert in the field of translation on 1999/00 at University Lavalja (Quebec) alongside with the block of mandatory disciplinesprovides the block of disciplines special-purpose, including such janr-thematic differences translational activity, as commercial translation, biological, sociological, medical, legal, and art.

At University of Montreal where training to translation is conducted now at faculty of arts and special-purpose rates of translation (scientific and technical, commercial and economic, legal and administrative, medical and pharmacological, as well as art translation, translation in a cinema, translation in area of the information) mesh with rates of studying of sublanguages of separate specialities (language of commerce and economy, language of the right and dialogue, language of medicine and pharmacology, etc.).

3.2"Genre" specialization

The "genre" area of expertise is distinctly shown and in the environment of professional translators. The list of branches to which those or other professional translators carry themselves, officially recognized translators of Quebec consisting in Board made by a "genre" principle, shows very interesting picture. All "market" of work of translators is divided into following areas of socioeconomic activity:

1) art and the literature;

2) the communications;

3) economy, a policy, management;

4) the right;

5) technics and the industry;

6) the humanities;

7) tourism and entertainments. [34, p. 101-194].

Certainly, each of these branches is subdivided into fineer areas of the appendix of work of translators. So, the branch "right" includes such thematic areas, as the commercial right, criminal law, the immigrant right, international law, constitutional right, a notariate, the labour right. In total in the list it is named about 200 thematic areas as which professional translators of Quebec rank them.

Thus, the Canadian teachers and theorists of translation for a long time have answered for themselves a question which quite often arises in Russia and in other countries when it is a question about training the translator to speak is better -- the translator of the wide structure possessing fundamental linguistic preparation, common cultural knowledge and having an idea about methodology of translational activity, but unfamiliar with a specific character of the speech communications in specific social and economic area, or to shape translators of experts of the most various trades, training in their foreign languages? In the first case it is available insufficiency of special knowledge, and in the second rather weak language and translational preparation is inevitable.

In Canada branch an area of expertise of translators begins already within the limits of the first cycle of university training (preparation of bachelors) and then fixes during all professional work, being supported by participation of translators in work of numerous branch translational associations.

In other words, in Canada in the field of preparation by the translator there is no visible break between curriculums and inquiries of a labour market. However it is not necessary to forget, that translation in Canada many other things of the countries including Russia, substantially is activity interstate, instead of international. It is caused by internal language conditions -- Friench-English bilingualizm. Therefore the vast majority of translators works with these two languages. The list of translators, Board of officially recognized translators of Quebec, than 1400 person from which less than 150 work with other combination of languages, rather than French and English totals more.

In such conditions the area of expertise of translators is quite natural and easily enough achievable.

Economic divisibility of translational activity reflects aspiration of the Canadian professionals to reach optimum results in the work, to finish translational skills in the narrow let enough narrow, thematic area to perfection. Certainly, such aspiration is maybe caused by requirements of competitive struggle in conditions of the market, high quality of production -- a primary factor of success. But it is doubtless, even more important reason is the talent of the translator as any artist, completely taming material with which it works, to subdue the text, with words to force them to shine in other language environment so brightly, as well as primary.

And in the art text where a word -- means of creation of forms and in the informative texts functioning in scientifically technical, economic or legal areas where it is the basic means of expression of concepts, from accuracy of a choice of a word depends success in a formulation of idea.

The area of expertise in preparation and in professional work of translators goes not only on a thematic line, but also in the steps translational activity, as well as on in what thinking translation is conducted: from French on English or to the contrary. Now in Canada four translational specialities are distinctly divided: the written translator, the translator of conferences (interprete de conference), the judicial translator (interprete judiciaire) and terminology (terminologue). The written translator -- the expert in the field of the written communications -- will transform the text written in one language, to the text in other language, aspiring at the most truly to pass a message occurring the text.

The translator of conferences --is the expert in the field of the oral communications -- provides simultaneous interpretation (transfer of the message in parallel its expansion in speech on the source language by means of the electronic equipment) Or consecutive (oral translation after each performance) during the congresses, meetings, conferences, etc. the Judicial translator -- the expert in the field of the oral communications -- provides translation during judicial and administrative trials, translating or is consecutive, when readings of the person subpoenaed, or synchronously with use of the electronic equipment when in interests of one of sides it translates all course of judicial debate hearings.

Terminologist -- the expert of area of the communications developing terminology of the certain field of activity. Leaning on documents and databanks, it makes lists of terms of studying of branch, gives them definition, finds equivalents in other language, defines norms of the use of terms in professional work and makes unification of terms.

3.3 Translation and special terminology

The Canadian translators, by virtue of a social specific character of activity more tempted in informative texts, art, already for a long time have addressed to problems of terminology. As early as in 1902 Jozeph-Evarist Prens has published in magazine « the Bulletin of the French speech in Canada » the first terminologic the research, devoted to terms of the railway. [23, p. 62].

Then was published English-French and the French-English military dictionary. In 1953 director (superquartermaster) Feder the first bureau of translations Bob'en, having returned from headquarters of the United Nations in New York where it adopted experience of the organization servise of translation, initiates creations central servise terminology. In the end of the same year such service creates the Federal bureau of translations. It joins created hardly before Technological association of French language Leke the ecological center. Already in following year the Federal bureau of translations lets out the first « Terminological bulletins » and « Terminological instructions ». In 1960 at University of Montreal is created the first of its kind bank of terminology. In 1978 г within the limits of the Society of translators of Quebec the Section of terminologists -- the first-ever association professional terminologists is created. Thus, in bowels of translation the new speciality --terminologist which the uniform objective -- unites with translation maintenance interlingual communications was born.

The area of expertise in preparation of translators is marked and in an orientation of training at this or that university. Four leading universities of the country preparing translators -- University of Montreal, University of Ottawa, University Lavalja in Quebec and University «Concordia " -- have distributed « areas of influence » as follows. At University Lavalja mainly prepare for written translators in different areas of professional work. University " Concordia " gives much attention to art translation. The University of Montreal appears the leader in preparation of oral judicial translators (consecutive translation). University of Ottawa while unique university where prepare for simultaneous translators (translators of conferences)

Along with two categories of oral translators traditional for Canada (the translator of conferences and the judicial translator

It is necessary to note one more -- a so-called category interprete communautaire. It is a question of professional translators who are called up to provide the oral communications in conditions when in contact there is one of official languages of Canada and foreign or languages of national minorities of the independent population of the country.

The given category of translators has arisen after immigrants politicians of Canada easily enough accepting workers from other countries. The quantity of translators of this category while is insignificant, but in recent years they starts to use escalating demand. Their number, as well as division on languages varies from one province to another depending on national structure of the population and size of immigrant communities.

3.4 Professional associations of translators

The leading role in professional work of translators in the country, in perfection of their preparation, and settlement of their relationships with clients, as well as in business of protection against poor-quality translation is played with professional associations of translators. Z. Delil has named Canada not only paradise for translators whereas possibilities to find work - working conditions of translators and the sizes of payment are regarded as one of the best in the world, but also paradise for translational professional associations. Since 1919 when the first translational association -- « the Circle of translators of books » has been created, the next professional association of translators arises on the average each two years. [35, p. 23].

Among set of operating translational associations the first seat borrows Advice of officially recognized translators of Canada (Conseil des traducteurs et interpretes agrees du Canada -- | TIC), created in 1970 and being with the successor of the Society of translators of Canada (La Societe des traducteurs et interpretes du anada -- STIC). Since 1975 Advice is engaged main in carrying out of the unified promotion examinations. The successful passing examinations allow receiving the status « officially recognized », i.e. the professional translator. The second important field of activity of Advice --is to represent translators on international scene. Advice assisted, in particular, to creation in 1986 regional North-American center, into which besides it have entered American (Amcru Translators Association) and Mexican (Asociation de Traducti » Profesionales de Mexico) associations of translators.

The basic corporate activity of translators develops inside of regional (provincial) associations. Among them quite considerable position borrow translation associations of Quebec.

In 1940 in this province the first professional association of translators -- the Society the translator of Montreal (Societe des traducteurs de Montreal -- STM), played a key role in development of translation as trades has been created. Really, in 40th in translation at the enterprises the bilingual secretaries who are not had special translational preparations mainly were engaged. Translation of the industrial documentation often represented for them the hardest problem.

Heads of the enterprises did not reckon with that bilinguists-- the people who are known English and French languages at a household level, were not ready to translation of the engineering specifications, sated by special terminology, had no skills translational activity, did not know receptions interlingual transformation Creation of the Society answered, thus, to a pressing need in rendering assistance to those bilingual secretaries and stenographers who, not having vocational training, has been compelled to be engaged by virtue of the industrial duties in translation.

Development of the program of actions on improvement of their professional knowledge and skills has been declared as a primary objective of a new Society. At the first assembly of the Society three primary goals creation of curriculums to translation on February, 14th, 1940 have been stated; cooperation with employers, required services of competent bilingual secretaries and translators; improvement of economic working conditions of translators and bilingual stenographers. At the same assembly the first president of the Society --Jozeph Lariv'er has been selected -- and the name is approved: the Society of translators of Montreal (Socieu des Traducteurs de Montreal / Montreal Translators Society). Creation of the Society is regarded as a birth of a new trade in Canada -- trades of the translator.

In the same 1940 in Montreal rates of translation where employment are conducted under direction of George Pantona will be organized. These rates also became a prototype of College of the translation opened by Platon in two years. In the first year of existence there is also light the first number of the bulletin of the Society -- magazine " Translator " (The Translator), the first special periodical, the translation devoted to questions. All materials were published in magazine symmetrically in two official languages of the country.

However the magazine could not exist and year -- the edition has suddenly stopped in July, 1941, and only later five years, in 1946, there was its successor -- magazine " Аргус ". In this periodical it was published not only the information on activity of the Society, but also results of researches in the field of the theory of translation and translational practice. The society was not limited only to a problem of association of translators and increases of a level of their professional competence. It aspired to draw attention of the public to a trade all possible means.

Per 1941 General meeting of the Society has accepted the resolution, addressed to Municipal council of Montreal, with the offer to name one of streets

Name of the known journalist and translator Lui Fran. Per 1965 the Society of translators of Montreal will be transformed to a society of translators of Quebec (Societe des traducteurs du Quebec) and becomes, thus, not so city, and the provincial organization.

For this period in Canada there are some more translational professional associations. In 1956 is created a society of translators of Canada (Societe des traducteurs et interpretes in Canada -- STIC), in 1957 -- Corporation professional in translators of Quebec (Corporation des traducteurs professionnels du Quebec -- CTPQ), in 1958 -- Association of judicial translators Asociation des interpretes et des traducteurs judiciaires -- AITJ). Translator associations merge and changing the status and scales of their activity, there are new organizations, names old change.

For this period in Canada there are some more translational professional associations. In 1956 is created a society interestingly to track destiny of one of such translationalassociations. In 1946 the Association of graduates of College of translation of University of Montreal (Association des diplomes ik % rinstitut de traduction de l'Universite de Montreal -- ADITUM) which in 1955 has received the national status has been created and was renamed in the Canadian association deplumed translators (Association canadienne des traducteurs diplomes -- ACTD). (Association there was an edition with 1955 of theoretical magazine on translation -- « Magazine of translators » (Journal des tra-ilucteurs) which with 1966 and on present time leaves entitled МЕТА. Per 1959 the Association will be transformed to the Society of graduates of College of translation (Societe des diplomes de rinsiiin de traduction -- SDIT), and per 1965 -- in the Circle translators (Cercle des traducteurs -- CDT). In two years members of associations together with members of Corporation of professional translators of Quebec make a decision on dissolution of the organizations and about the introduction the uniform block in the Society of translators of Canada as occurs a year later.

In the book « Translation in Canada » Z.Delil divides the translational organizations of the country which all it is totaled more than two , into five groups: 1) provincial associations and National Advice; 2) professional associations of Quebec; 3) the Canadian associations; 4) the various organizations; 5) associations of the students trained translation.

In Quebec the most authoritative professional association of translators long time remains the Society of translators of Quebec. Per 1992 it has been transformed to Professional corporation of officially recognized translators of Quebec (Corporation professionelle des traducteurs et interpretes agio du Quebec -- CPTIAQ). Since April, 1994 and on present time this organization refers to as Board of officially recognized translators of Quebec (Ordre des traducteurs et interpretes agrees du Quebec -- OTIAQ). The board unites more than 1400 professional translators (all in Canada nearby 5000 officially incorporated translators now are totaled). The board sees the main task in improving quality and efficiency of the communications by perfection of knowledge and skills of the members, increase of their competence of areas of written and oral translations and terminology, as well as in protecting the consumer from substandard translational production.

It is possible to notice, that in documents of translational association's widely economic terminology is used. It once again emphasizes that in Canada translational activity became branch of economy, the present industry with the laws and regulating documents, bodies of quality assurance of production and bodies of accreditation of new workers, with the periodicals and educational institutions.

So, we have got acquainted with experience of predecessors and our contemporaries, colleagues from some foreign countries where the cardinal importance is given to translation. The analysis of this experience not only shows a role of translation in progress of a human civilization, in propagation of religious and scientific knowledge, among national languages and literatures, in maintenance between representatives of the most various cultures, helps to understand more deeply problems which face the modern theory of translation.

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