Adverbial Modifier

Adverbial parts of the sentence are equally common in English and Ukrainian. Types of Adverbial Modifiers. Peculiarities of adverbial modifiers in English and Ukrainian, heir comparative description of similar and features, basic linguistic study.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид контрольная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 17.03.2015
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1. Adverbial Modifier as a Part of the Sentence

Adverbial parts of the sentence are equally common in English and Ukrainian. They are used in order to modify, characterize or expand the circumstances of the action, process, event or state in terms of entities such as time, place, manner, degree, intensity, reason etc. The syntactic process of adding adverbials to basic sentence and phrase structure is called verb modification.

The Ukrainian linguist A.K. Korsakov distinguished adverbial complements (which cannot be omitted from the sentence without breaking its sense) and adverbial modifier (that brings additional information, explaining some other parts of the sentence, and can be omitted from the sentence).

Very often adverbial modifier is realized by adverbs and adverbial phrases, but it can be realized by a wide range of other syntactic elements.

Another Ukrainian linguist I.V. Korunets came to a conclusion that in the contrasted languages adverbial complements/modifiers may be obligatory or non-obligatory, i.e. optional.

Obligatory adverbials are required by the sentence structure to complete its content. There are some common groups of verbs in the contrasted languages after which the use of adverbials is obligatory. They are: a) statal and durative verbs (to dwell, to live, to wait etc.); b) verbs implying direction (to take, to put, to send); c) verbs of motion and position in space (to arrive, to come, to go, to return, to sit, to stand, etc.); d) verbs such as to act/to behave, to be, to cost, to treat.

Optional (non-obligatory) adverbials in both languages are not required by the predicate verb. Hence, they are not so important either for the structural completion of the sentence, or for its semantic completion and communicative functioning.

Adverbial modifiers in the contrasted languages refer either to a part of the sentence (usually predicate verb, attribute adjective) or to the sentence as a whole.

It is worth to mention that in Ukrainian adverbial modifiers are not attached to any particular position in a sentence. Whereas in English adverbial modifiers have their certain position in a sentence.

2. Types of Adverbial Modifiers

Adverbial modifiers indicate how, when, why or where etc. the activity or situation expressed by the main verb took place. Hence, both contractive languages have adverbial modifiers of: place, time, manner, measure and degree, reason, purpose, result, condition, concession. Besides in English there is one more type - adverbial modifier of attending circumstances.

The Adverbial Modifier of Place may express the following in the contrasted languages: a) place proper; b) direction or destination; c) distance.

John-Paul point-blank refused to go up there. (L. Moriarty). Джон-Пол навідріз відмовлявся йти туди наверх.

He took off the hat and walked shakily toward Gryffindor table. (Rowling J.K.). Він зняв шляпу та невпевнено покрокував у напрямку столу Гриффіндор.

Jude leaped out of arm's length… (T. Hardy). Джуд відскочила на відстань витягнутої руки.

The Adverbial Modifier of Time in both languages expresses time proper, as well as frequency, duration or time relation of an event/action. It may be expressed with the help of:

a) adverbs of time and frequency (now, then, often, tonight etc); b) non-prepositional and prepositional phrases like any day, last week, early in the morning, in September, at 5 o'clock; с) participles/participle phrases, whose Ukrainian equivalents are either temporal clauses or diyepryslivnyks.

Since then she'd been engaged… (A. Christie). С того часу вона була заручена.

You should make effort to go out more often. (L. Moriarty). Тобі варто виходити в світ частіше.

Felicity stayed for dinner last Friday night. (L. Moriarty). Фелісіті залишилася на вечерю минулої п'ятниці.

Reaching Snape, she crouched down and pulled out her wand. (Rowling J.K.) Підійшовши до Снейпа / Коли вона підійшла до Снейпа, вона присіла на витягла чарівну паличку.

The Adverbial Modifier of Manner in the contrasted languages characterizes the action of the verb by indicating the way in which it is performed and the means it is performed by (how? in what way? by what means?).

Henry new that wolf-pack, One Ear and Bill were coming together (J. London) Генри знав, що вовча зграя, Одновухий та Білл йшли разом.

He wanted them to know how much he loved them. (L. Moriarty) Він хотів, щоб вони знали, як сильно він їх любить.

I brought the boat along the bank dipping my blades noiselessly. (Cronin) Я плив човном вздовж берега, нечутно веслуючи лопатями.

The Adverbial Modifier of Cause (Reason) also has common nature in English and Ukrainian. It could be expressed with the help of: a) conjunctive prepositions because of, due to, owing to, thanks to, on account of, which have their semantic and раrtly structural equivalents in Ukrainian; b) prepositions in English and Ukrainian acquire causal meaning before nouns denoting psychological or physical state for, from, out of, with.

But no one came near them … because of the great Lion. (L.F. Baum) Але ніхто не підходив до них через великого Лева.

For some reason or other he had not returned (A. Christie). З цієї або з іншої причини він не повернувся.

The Adverbial Modifier of Purpose in both contrasted languages is optional for the structure of the sentence. In English it may be expressed by an infinitive/infinitival phrase or prepositional gerund. In Ukrainian it often introduced by the conjunctions щоб/так щоб+the infinitive construction or the preposition для+noun.

I smiled to her to show my sympathy. (Maugham) Я посміхнувся їй, щоб висловити своє співчуття.

She used it for keeping small bits and odds (A. Christie). Вона використовувала її для зберігання дрібничок.

The Adverbial Modifier of Result (Consequence), both in English and Ukrainian, refers to an adjective / an adverb accompanied by an adverb of degree (enough, too, sufficiently, so…as). It may be followed in English and Ukrainian by a subordinate object clause.

The clanging and crashing were loud enough to wake the whole castle. (Rowling J.K). Ляскіт та гуркіт були такими гучними, що могли розбудити весь замок.

The Adverbial Modifier of Condition in the contrasted languages is usually expressed by a noun / pronoun proceeded by a preposition / a prepositional phrase (but, for, except for, without) or by a participle / adjective preceded by the conjunctions if, unless. All of them have direct semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian.

But for his open eyes, he might have been asleep. (Galsworthy). Коли б не розплющені очі, можна було б подумати, що він спить.

Some modifiers of condition could be conveyed in Ukrainian with the help of conditional

clauses or diyepryslivnyks / diyepryslivnyk phrases.

I would't know where they lived unless they happened to mention it. (A. Christie). Я не знав би де вони живуть, якби вони випадково не спом'янули про це.

Harry Potter rolled over his blanket without waking up. (Rowling J.K). Гарри Поттер завернувся у ковдру навидь не просинаючись.

The Adverbial Modifier of Concession in the sentence points to conditions contrary to the action that takes place (or to the state of object/living being) that continues. The identifying question is «in spite of what»?

Squire and I cooked outside, in spite of danger. (R.L. Stevenson). Сквайр та я готували зовні незважаючи на небезпеку.

Despite the open curtains, the room was dark. (S. Ahern). Попри відкриті штори кімната була темною.

The Adverbial Modifier of Comparison is introduced in English by the conjunctions than, as, as if, as though or by the preposition like, all having direct semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian. It usually modifies the noun or the adjective as a head component of the word combination.

He twisted his head to bury his face in the pillow, as if to hide his tears. (L. Moriarty). Він повернув голову, щоб зануритися обличчям у подушку, немов щоб сховати свої сльози.

Her eyes are bright as diamonds and bluer than the skies above. (R. Kipling). Її очі яскраві, як діаманти, і блакитніші, ніж небеса над нами.

The Adverbial Modifier of Degree in both contrasted languages may complement any of its parts expressed by verbs, adjectives, adverbs, statives and sometimes nouns. The complement characterizes actions, states and quality from the viewpoint of their intensity, hence the identifying questions are «how much?», «to what extent?» The complement is mostly expressed in English and Ukrainian by adverbs / adverbial phrases of degree.

He gets on again pretty easily (L. Carrol). Він досить легко знов сідає у сідло.

His life was extremely hard. (Carnegie). Його життя було дуже важким.

She is quite a beauty. (Sheridan) Вона просто-таки красуня.

Adverbial Complement of Measure in the contrasted languages is expressed by numerals with nouns denoting a unit of measure (length, weight, time, temperature, etc.) as well as by some word combination and adverbs expressing quantity. The adverbial complements follow statal verbs denoting various processes of measurement (to measure, to weigh, to cost, to last, to walk, to run).

It cost about ninety bucks, and all he bought it for was twenty. (Salinger). Річ коштувала близько дев'яноста доларів, а він купив її всього за двадцять.

In three steps the granny reached the door. (Donnell). За три кроки бабуня дійшла до дверей.

He stood still a long while, surveying the hillside. (London) Довгий час він стояв нерухомо, оглядаючи горбистий краєвид.

Score twice, before you cut once. (Proverb). Два рази відміряй, перед тим, як раз відрізати.

3. Peculiarities of adverbial modifiers in English and Ukrainian

linguistic adverbial modifiers

Adverbial Modifier of Attendant Circumstances may be observed mainly in English. Its equivalent in Ukrainian is a modifier of manner expressed by adverbs, prepositional noun phrases or diyepryslivnyks.

…she began to speak in a limping whisper. (W. Trevor) … вона почала своє звертання пошепки й запикуючись.

Jimmi… dived under and began to swim with strong, easy strokes (J. Wain). Джиммі., пірнаючи, відпливав, а потім легко навзамашки плавав.

Ukrainian linguist Zhluktenko U.O. considered the main distinguished feature of the English language as compared with Ukrainian is the availability of complex adverbial modifiers. It may be expressed with the help of predicative construction + preposition «with» or so called «absolute participial construction».

We saw a thick forest with the red sun hanging over.

The lesson being over, I decided to speak to the professor.

Also widely used are adverbial modifiers expressed by gerundial constructions. Their equivalents in Ukrainian are subordinate sentence.

The most exciting thing was his entering the class through the blackboard. (Rowling J.K.). Найбільш захоплюючим було те, як він входив у класну кімнату через дошку.

In Ukrainian there are widely used adverbial modifiers expressed by different case forms of nouns without a prepositions. Most of them have as their equivalents in English prepositional constructions.

Йтимуть всю ніч (О. Гончар). They will move during the whole night.

Bibliography

1. Корунець І.В. Порівняльна типологія англійської та української мов. Навчальний посібник. (Korunets' I.V. Contrastive Typology of the English and Ukrainian languages). - Вінниця: Нова Книга, 2003. - 464 ст.

2. Karamysheva I.D. Contrastive grammar of English and Ukrainian languages. - Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha Publishers, 2012. - 320 ст.

3. Жлуктенко Ю.О. Порівняльна граматика англійської та української мов. Посібник. - К.: Радянська школа, 1960. - 160 ст.

4. Левицький А.Е., Борисенко Н.Д. Борисов О.О., Іванов О.О. Славова Л.Л. Порівняльна типологія англійської, німецької, російської та української мов. Навчальний посібник. - К.: Освіта України, 2009. - 360 ст.

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