Metaphoric verbalization of the concept "Knowledge" in English and Ukrainian

Concept as a linguo-cultural phenomenon. Metaphor as a means of concept actualization, his general characteristics and classification. Semantic parameters and comparative analysis of the concept "Knowledge" metaphorization in English and Ukrainian.

09.10.2020
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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE

LVIV POLYTECHNIC NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER SCIENCES AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

Department of Applied Linguistics

Course paper

Metaphoric verbalization of the concept Knowledge in English and Ukrainian

Cheban D.O.

Lviv - 2020

Table of content

Introduction

1. Theoretical part..5

1.1 Concept as a linguo-cultural phenomenon

1.2 Metaphor: general characteristics. Classification of metaphors

1.3 Metaphor as a means of concept actualization

2. Practical part

2.1 Semantic parameters of the concept Knowledge

2.2 Comparative analysis of the concept Knowledge metaphorization in English and Ukrainian

Conclusions

References

Appendix A

Appendix B

metaphor knowledge english ukrainian

Introduction

In modern philological studies the assertion that phraseological units is the explicator of the culture of a certain ethnos in the context of an anthropocentric scientific paradigm has received the status of an axiom. Therefore, we refer to the paremic fund of language as one of the priority ways of objectifying relevant concepts.

Paremia is a cultural code embedded in a language that fulfills the role of treasury and the instrument for the transmission of human experience, which characterizes the specific nature of the lingua-cultural community, that is, what is commonly called the soul of the people. [Panchenko 1998, 26].

According to the above provisions, naive discourse is dominant in the analysis of concepts, and necessitates the study of paremic units in each of the studied languages as powerful ways of expressing the KNOWLEDGE concept.

In Ukrainian linguistics, it is necessary to highlight the scientific research of A.N. Arkhangelskaya, N.S. Gurko, I.V. Navrotsky, L.A. Nizhegorodsky-Kirichenko, R. Ugrynyuk and others.

However, these works mainly analyze phraseological units denoting the intellectual characteristics of a person, based on the materials of some Indo-European languages. Their study was carried out not only in accordance with the linguistic and cultural point of view, but also with the concept of KNOWLEDGE, especially with regard to its actualization at the discourse level.

The topicality of the research paper is determined by the general direction of modern comparative linguistic studies to identify universal and ethnospecific in ethno-linguistic picture of the world in line with the anthropocentric scientific paradigm.

The aim of the paper is to perform comparative analysis of English and Ukrainian paremic corpus verbalizing the concept of KNOWLEDGE' and to reveal their linguo-cultural peculiarities.

The object of scientific research is English and Ukrainian proverbs, sayings and phraseological units expressed under the general conceptual meaning KNOWLEDGE.

The subject of the study is semantic and linguo-cultural features of the discussed concept verbalizers.

In this paper different methods of linguistic research have been used, such as descriptive and analytical methods, as well as some elements of componential, contextual, distributional and dictionary definition analyses.

The theoretical value of the paper is to expand the research of the concept in linguistics; of the master paper consists in the fact that it contributes to the development of conceptual analysis and linguo-cultural studies.

The practical value of this paper lie in the possibility to use the obtained results in courses of cognitive linguistics, country studies and linguo-cultural studies.

1. Theoretical part

1.1 Concept as a linguo-cultural phenomenon

The development of humanitarian knowledge has put forward a dilemma to work out a new term that would adequately indicate the content of a linguistic sign, which would remove the functional limitations of traditional sense and meaning and which would organically merge logical-psychological and linguistic categories.

Every field of science has concepts that, on the one hand, do not have a clear, precise and universally accepted definition; on the other hand, the term is approximately clear to all professionals in a particular sphere of research. This is due to the fact that each researcher provides his/her understanding of the ultimate elements on the basis of which the theory is developed; however, a number of terms introduced by individual experts for some time become very popular, while the frequency of their use creates a certain visibility of clarity and transparency of their meaning.

Linguo-cultural concept as a subject of study of linguo-culture appears to the researchers as a cultural, mental and linguistic education. Linguo-cultural concept is a mental unit, aimed at a comprehensive study of language, consciousness and culture. The linguo-cultural concept differs from other units in its mental nature. Mentality is perceived as a guided collection of images and perceptions. Bloom defines mentality as the perception of the world in the categories and forms of the native language that connects the intellectual and spiritual qualities of national character in its typical manifestations (Bloom 2000). Many scholars agree that the mentality is easier to describe than to define. Mentality of deeper thinking, standards of behaviour represents the internal willingness of a person to act in a certain way. Linguo-cultural concept differs from other mental units by the presence of the value component. Value is always in the centre of the concept.

A linguo-concept consists of distinct evaluative, figurative and conceptual components. The notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal form. The figurative component is non-verbal and can be described or interpreted.

The concept includes such semiotic categories as the image, the notion and meaning in the reduced form, as a kind of a superordinate (generic term) and is characterized as heterogeneous and multi-featured. The concept acquires the discursive meaning representation from the notion, from the image it appropriated metaphor and emotiveness, and from the meaning it acquired the inclusion of the name (concept).

Concepts as interpreters of meaning are constantly refined and modified. Being a part of the system, they are influenced and modified by other concepts. The very possibility of interpretation suggests that many of the concepts are subject to change, as the world around us is constantly changing and providing us with the opportunity to learn something new.

Concepts have a certain structure that is not rigid; it is a necessary condition for the existence of the concept and its entry into the conceptual realm. The concept includes all the mental characteristics of a phenomenon and provides an understanding of reality. An ordered collection of concepts in the mind of a person forms his/her conceptual realm. Language is one of the means to access the people's mind, their conceptual realm, the content and structure of concepts as units of thinking.

1.2 Metaphor: general characteristics. Classification of metaphors

Definitions of metaphor in the English language are many, complex, vary from a school of language to another, and from a language to another. For example, in the Longman New Universal Dictionary (2891) Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or a phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is applied to another to suggest a likeliness or analogy between them.

Metaphor is a way of describing something by saying that it is something else which has the qualities that you are trying to describe''. Alvarez (2881: 192) mentions in her study of the metaphor that the linguist Brooke-Rose (2891) developed a definition of metaphor which she said: Any identification of one thing with another, any replacement of the more usual word or phrase by another.

All languages contain metaphors. A lot of them are used in our own language. Searle (2898: 89) claims that the metaphorical statement and the corresponding similarity statement cannot be equivalent in meaning because they have different truth conditions.

Moreover, a good creative metaphor is precisely one in which a variety of contextual effects can be retained and understood as weakly implicated by the speaker (Sperber and Wilson, 2899: 119). They (Ibid: 119) add that metaphor thus requires no special interpretive abilities or procedures: it is a natural outcome of some very general abilities an procedures used in verbal communication

Types of metaphor are many. In general, three types of metaphor vary according to the schools of the English language and rhetoric to which they belong. These types are as follows:

- Concretizing Metaphors: It is also called reificatory metaphors. Those that embody the abstract. It adds qualities of concrete to what is non-material, i.e. abstract. For example: - A fat account. Which literally means the financial fat balance.

- Absolute metaphors: Those metaphors are also called paralogical metaphors and absolute antimetaphors. Metaphors are those where there is no apparent similarity, possible perception between the borrowed name to it, and the borrowed name of it, such as: - We are the eyelids of defeated caves. Why we likened by eyelids? And how the caves are defeated? Where is the similarity between the borrowed name to it 'eyelids' and the borrowed name of it 'caves defeated'?

- Active metaphors: They are also called living metaphors. Active metaphors are those that have not yet become part of the daily use of language such as: - You are my sun.

Where the beloved person is likened by the sun because s/he represents the life in the shining sun and provides the other part with warmth and heat

- Clich metaphors: Metaphors are those that have become a mechanism in the language as proverbs and idiomatic expressions. They are ranked between the defunct metaphors and standard metaphors.

- Complex metaphors: Where the beloved person is likened by the sun because s/he represents the life in the shining sun and provides the other part with warmth and heat

- Compound metaphors: They are also called loose metaphors. Metaphors that draw attention to the multiplied similarities between the borrowed name of it and the borrowed to it, such as the description of a runner: - He has the wild stag's foot.

- Dead metaphors: They are also called frozen metaphors, fossilized metaphors, and lexicalized metaphors. Originally, they are words that used as metaphors, then their literal meaning had disappeared and integrated into the language and lost all its technical features. They become difficult to distinguish them.

- Mixed metaphors: Usually two metaphors or more are of logical correlation. For example: - Put the ship of state on its feet. Where the matters of the state, likened by the ship and likened the ship by man with two feet. The link between the two metaphors is illogical, where the sailing ship dose not stand on two feet Longman New Universal Dictionary (2891).

- Original metaphors: They are also called creative metaphors. These are poetic metaphors that have been developed for a particular occasion or to a particular express, such as those found in the pioneers writings. An example mentioned by Hasan Ghazala about Newmark is what comes by the words of novelist Evelyn Waugh in her saying: - Oxford, a place in Lyonnesse! (Newmark, by Hassan Ghazala, 2881: 211)

- Simple metaphors: They are also called tight metaphors. Metaphors are those where the similarity between just a borrowed name of it and borrowed name to it, such as: - Cool it! Which means: Calm down, cold temper! One may imagine a man raised his temper as 'the volcano' and can not calm his anger, but cold. Similarities between the borrowed name to it that is 'human rebel anger' and the borrowed name of it that is' the volcano', is the intensity of heat (Ibid).

- Standard metaphors: They are also called stock metaphors. On the contrary, they are defunct metaphors, metaphors that use frequently in the language but have not yet taken root, such as: - A ray of hope. where 'life' is linked the miserable darkness, and 'hope' is linked as the sun issues glittering rays (Newmark, 2891: 99).

- Conceptual metaphors: The third type divides metaphor in terms of the concepts depending on speech of a personal experience or the experience of the society as a whole. This type is called Conceptual metaphors. Some sections of the third type of metaphors are founded the knowledge of the linguists Michael Reddy (2898), George Lakoff (2899; 2881), Mark Johnson (2899), and Mark Turner (2898) who have studied metaphor carefully and in particular Lakoff and Johnson in their book entitled Metaphors We Live By, where their opinion settle that metaphor is originally: " not a linguistic process, but a process of mind. They label it the conceptual metaphor.

The conceptual metaphors are based on individual experience and perception of the world around us. They are conceptual imaginative in which we do not feel it, but, in their expressions 'we live'. The linguists concluded that these sections of metaphor do not encroach three sections in which all the sub-sections of the used metaphor in English are inserted within them. They are, as we shall see in sections of the following three conceptual metaphors, a philosophical approach for metaphor in which they depend on concepts, but do not rely on pillars.

Metaphors are conceptual (mental) operations reflected in human language that enable speakers to structure and construct abstract areas of knowledge and experience in more concrete experiential terms. According to this view of metaphor, speakers make use of a familiar area of knowledge, called the source domain, to understand an area of knowledge this is less familiar, the target domain (Hurford and et al, 1999: 112).

1.3 Metaphor as a means of concept actualization

According to V. Karasyk, the structure of the concept includes conceptual, figurative and value components. A conceptual component is a set of significant features of an object or situation and the result of their cognition. The figurative component is the imprint of sensory knowledge in memory in conjunction with metaphorical transferences. The value component is to establish the positive or negative significance of the objects of the surrounding reality for human, community, society.

Metaphors play an important role in the process of conceptualization of human reality. Metaphor reproduces fragments of the social experience of a certain cultural community and largely shapes this experience (P. Reeker).

Following J. Lakoff and M. Johnson, metaphor is defined as understanding and experiencing the essence of one species through the essence of another. Within the framework of conceptual metaphors, scholars distinguish between traditional and figurative metaphors. Traditional metaphors form a conceptual system of man, based on repeated systematic correlations between phenomena, recorded in our experience. Figurative metaphors reproduce the individual view of the world of the subject of discourse, giving a new meaning to our past, our daily activities. Depending on the type of denotations likened and the context, metaphors can be neutral or emotionally evaluative, depicting a positive or negative attitude.

2. Practical part

2.1 Semantic parameters of the concept Knowledge

The concept is a unit of collective knowledge / consciousness (sending to higher spiritual values), having a linguistic expression and marked by ethnocultural specifics. In fact, the only linguistic and cultural basis for the terminology of the lexeme concept is the need for an ethnocultural authorization of semantic units - relating them to the linguistic personality [1, p. 47-58].

V. Zusman emphasizes that between the inner form of the word and its basic meaning there is a tension that can be interpreted as follows: concept contains simultaneously

1) the general idea of a number of phenomena in the understanding of a certain epoch

2) etymological moments, shedding light on how the general idea begins in a variety of concrete, individual phenomena. Concept - at the same time and individual representation and community [2].

The life cycle of any object includes all the stages of the process, encompassing its various states, from the moment of necessity occurrence in it and ending with its complete removal. In the case of the knowledge object, its birth arises from the desire or necessity of obtaining knowledge, and the removal is closely related to the process of forgetting the acquired knowledge by the person. Each stage corresponds to a group of proverbs and sayings that characterize it. Some groups consist of several subgroups classified according to certain significant characteristics of the stage description. Thus, the concept of knowledge was decomposed into eight components.

1. Desire/need for knowledge:

1) to make efforts, to expend forces: If you want knowledge, you must toil for it;

2) invest in knowledge: Investment in knowledge pays the best interest;

3) complexity of obtaining knowledge: Knowledge has bitter roots but sweet fruits.

2. Choice of time to acquire knowledge:

1) all life: It is never too late to learn;

2) in youth, childhood: A young twig is easier twisted than an old tree.

3. Implementation of the process of obtaining / increasing knowledge:

1) knowledge acquisition sequence: A child must learn to crawl before it can walk;

2) acquisition of knowledge through training: Learn not, know not;

3) increase in knowledge - : Increase your knowledge and increase your grief.

4. Availability of knowledge/ possessio of knowledge:

1) knowledge as fact, information: It isn't how much you know, but what you know;

2) knowledge is power: He who has knowledge has force. Knowledge is power;

3) knowledge - value: Lamp of knowledge burns brightly;

4) knowledge is better than wealth: Knowledge is better than riches;

5) knowledge generates the mind, wisdom: Knowledge is the treasure of the mind;

6) knowledge can not be boasted: He that boasts of his own knowledge proclaims his ignorance.

5. Assessment of the volume of knowledge:

1) immeasurability: Weight of knowledge is never measured;

2) adequacy: He that knows himself knows others;

3) failure: Little knowledge is a dangerous thing;

4) absence: Nothing between the ears.

6. Application of knowledge: It is good to know much but better to have use of what we know.

7. Transferring knowledge to others: If you have knowledge, you should let others light their candles by it.

8. Forgetting / losing knowledge: What is quickly done is quickly undone.

Together, all groups represent the semantic field of the concept of KNOWLEDGE. Let's consider each group in more detail.

Group 1 Desire / need for knowledge includes 29 proverbs, representing 13.3% of the total selected collection of pares. The need for or the desire to acquire knowledge, which contributes to its better assimilation, is evidenced by the proverb like A man doesn't learn to understand anything unless he loves it. - - , , . For the emergence of desire you need to know yourself, your goals, opportunities and abilities: Knowledge begins with awareness of self. - . And also not to create obstacles to a person who wants to get knowledge: Let him study who wishes to get knowledge. - , .

The largest subgroup (48.3%) is the subgroup If you want knowledge, you must toil for it. - , , characterizing the need to make an effort, to spend energy to gain knowledge. Representatives of this subgroup are the following paremias: Action is the proper fruit of knowledge. - ij - ; A closed book does not produce a learned man. - ; There is no royal road to learning. - , In order to learn, we must attend. - , .

Closely intertwined with this subgroup are proverbs of the subgroup Knowledge has bitter roots but sweet fruits. - , , characterizing the difficulty of obtaining knowledge. Examples are: If skill could be acquired by watching, dogs would be butchers. - , , '; They that sow in tears shall reap in joy. - , , He who learns the hard way will never forget. - , , , .

The smallest sample of this group is the subgroup Investment in knowledge pays the best interest. - .

Proverbs of the subgroup are proverbs: Education is an investment never to be lost nor removed. - - , ; If a man empties his purse into his head, no one can take it from him. - , .

Graphical interpretation of the volume of subgroups in the group Desire / need for knowledge is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1. The volume of subgroups in group 1 Desire / need for knowledge

The greatest number of proverbs and sayings given to work, effort, the difficulty of obtaining knowledge. Nevertheless, they have a positive character, create a motivation to acquire knowledge.

Proverbs and sayings of group 2 Choice of time for obtaining knowledge are 7.3% (16 units) and are classified according to two signs of an effective time period for the acquisition of knowledge by a person. The volume of subgroups is equal, which indicates the importance of gaining knowledge in youth / childhood, as well as the continuous increase in knowledge throughout life.

The subgroup It is never too late to learn. - is represented by the following paremias: As long as you live you must learn how to live. - , , ; Learn as you'd live forever; live as you'd die tomorrow. - , ; , ; Live and learn. - .

Analyzing the proverbs of the subgroup A young twig is easier twisted than an old tree. - , , we can state the fact that youth, childhood is the best time for obtaining knowledge: An old dog will learn no new tricks. - ; You can't teach an old horse new tricks. - ; An old tree is hard to straighten. - . Old age is seen as the time of receiving compensation, reaping the fruits from the acquired knowledge in youth: Education is the best provision for old age. - - .

Group 3 Implementation of the process of obtaining / increasing knowledge includes 35 proverbs and sayings, which is 16.1% of the total selected collection of pares. Proverbs and sayings of the first subgroup are devoted to the problem of successive acquisition of knowledge A child must learn to crawl before it can walk. - , . The sequence of acquiring knowledge will allow it to be more effectively learned and subsequently applied in practice, to make the right decisions in the future: Learn to creep before you leap. - , ; You have to learn to walk before you can run. - , - ; Learn to say before you sing. - , - .

Great importance is attached to the learning / education process as a way of acquiring knowledge: Learn not, know not. - , . The characteristic of learning / education in the context of the process of obtaining knowledge is represented by 19 proverbs and sayings. Learn something new every day. - ; It is one thing to get educated and another thing to keep educated. - - , - ; Education makes the man. - . Travels are one of the sources of knowledge, which is confirmed by paremia: He that travels far knows much. - , , ; He that travels much knows much. - , , .

A significant part of the paremias is devoted to learning through mistakes, adversity: Learn from the mistakes of others. - ; We don't learn by others' mistakes. - .

A negative connotation to acquire / increase knowledge is presented by proverbs of the third subgroup: Increase your knowledge and increase your grief. - , ; Health is worth more than learning. - ' , . A significant part of the paresis expresses a positive attitude towards knowledge.

Group 4 Presence / possession of knowledge. In the classification under consideration, the most numerous group consists of paremia expressing the presence of knowledge / possession of knowledge. 75 units were identified, which accounts for a significant part (34.4%) of the total volume of selected pares.

Subgroup of proverbs and sayings It isn't how much you know, but what you know. - , characterizes knowledge in the form of a fact, the necessary information: Better known than trusted. - , ; Know thyself. - ϳ .

The gender approach can be traced in the proverb A man thinks he knows, but a woman knows better. - , , ; as a source of knowledge can be neighbors, enemies: A neighbor is a person who knows more about your business than you do. - - , , ; From the enemy you learn a lot. - ³ .

Knowledge is power, and strength is the property of the individual, through which the goals are achieved. It can be specific knowledge that allows you to become a professional in any one or several industries, and general knowledge that will help translate special knowledge into reality: He who has knowledge has force. - , .

The results of analysis of the proverbs of the subgroup Knowledge is power. - - can be described by referring to the works of M. Foucault, who does not share the concepts of power and knowledge. It is occupied by the mechanisms of power, which make possible and produce these truths production, and these truths produce themselves the power influences that bind us [3]. In American paremiology, this aspect is represented by the following paremics: Knowledge is power. - - ; Knowledge is power, and power is success. - - , - .

Often proverbs and sayings compare knowledge with wealth, and in favor of knowledge: Knowledge is better than riches. - . The paremia reflecting the high value of knowledge are represented by the following units: Better the empty purse then an empty head. - , ; Education is a gift that none can take away. - - , ; Wear your learning like your watch, in a private pocket. - , ; Silver and gold tarnish away, but a good education will never decay. - , .

Wisdom is interpreted as the ability to use knowledge competently; a deep mind based on life experience. Knowledge stands at the origins of the emergence of the mind and wisdom of man: Knowledge is the treasure of the mind. - - .

The following paremias emphasize that excessive praise of acquired knowledge speaks of his scarcity: He that boasts of his own knowledge proclaims his ignorance. - , ; To be proud of knowledge is to be blind with light. - - .

Thus, knowledge in English paremiology ennobles a person, is one of the main components of his life, his social value.

Group 5 Assessment of knowledge includes 66 proverbs and sayings, which is 30.3% of the total selected fund of the pares. It is difficult to measure the amount of knowledge in a person, but you can consider four of its main properties: immeasurability as an infinite knowledge, sufficiency, insufficiency (little knowledge) and its absence. Characterization of the amount of knowledge that a person possesses is directly related to his intelligence: What we know is the measure of what we see. - , , , .

Subgroup of proverbs and sayings Weight of knowledge is never measured - devoted to the unlimited knowledge: how many people did not study, he still can not get the full amount of available knowledge: When you open a door, you do not know how many rooms lie beyond. - , , .

Proverbs and sayings of the subgroup He that knows himself knows others. - , describe the existence of a sufficient amount of knowledge for a person (his vital activity): He knows enough who knows how to mind his own business. - , , .

Proverbs and sayings of the subgroup Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. - - characterizes insufficiency or a small amount of knowledge: A little knowledge is a bad thing. - - ; An educated fool is dangerous. - .

The final subgroup Without knowledge there is no sin or sinner. - , includes proverbs and sayings that describe the lack of knowledge. The lack of knowledge in a person, on the one hand, is a vice: Nothing between the ears. - ͳ ; Zeal without knowledge is a fire without light. - , .

On the other hand (and such proverbs are the majority), the lack of knowledge is good, there is no need to acquire it or increase it: He who knows nothing never doubts. - , , ; He who never learns anything never forgets anything. - , , .

Considering all the subgroups (Figure 4), we can conclude that in American paremiology the importance of each component of the assessment of the volume of knowledge is clearly visible. A positive characteristic aimed at increasing the volume of knowledge, motivating the acquisition of knowledge, can be traced in most proverbs. However, the proportion of proverbs and sayings that contradict the expansion and increase in the volume of knowledge is 12.12%, most of them are justified.

Fig. 2. The proportion of proverbs that include different properties of the volume of knowledge

Proverbs and sayings of group 6 Application of knowledge make up 6.4% of all selected paires. Under the application of knowledge is understood the process of using acquired knowledge in various types of human activity. The application of knowledge contributes to the development of skills, skills, in the future - the accumulation of experience as a unity of knowledge and skills: Experience is the father of wisdom (the mother of knowledge). - - ( ); It's not what you know that counts; it's how you use what you know. - , , , ; It is good to know much but better to have use of what we know. - , ; Knowledge and timber shouldn't be much used until they are seasoned. - , .

Group 7 Transfer of knowledge to others. It is believed that when a person transmits knowledge to others, thereby harmonizing his inner world and outer world: If you have knowledge, you should let others light their candles by it. - , . The main way to transfer knowledge is to teach others: Teaching others teachers yourself . - , ; Tell not all you know, and tell only what you know right well. - , , , .

The final stage of the life cycle of knowledge is presented by group 7 Forgetting / losing knowledge. In a broad sense, forgetting refers to the loss of the ability to remember and reproduce previously acquired knowledge, which depends on the content of the information, the volume, the frequency of the use of knowledge in the process of human activity. In the revealed proverbs much attention is paid to such a property as the strength of mastering knowledge. If a person has learned the knowledge firmly, then it will be difficult for him to forget them, or he will never be able to forget them: It is a task to learn, but it is much harder to unlearn. - - , ; To learn is hard, but to unlearn is harder. - , ; Live and learn; die and forget all. - - ; .

2.2 Comparative analysis of the concept Knowledge metaphorization in English and Ukrainian

The working tool seems logical to choose the reception of the association of paramees in the logico-semantic groups - the logem proposed by P.V. Chesnokov [Chesnokov 1966]. Logem is understood as a generalized outlook, which unites groupscertain characteristics and evaluations of certain culturally significant meanings, which are found in the paroemiological fund.

Paramedical funds of the studied languages record the high socio-cultural value of knowledge. Therefore, the cross-cultural universality here is logem :

ENG. Knowledge is power - - [ODEP, 436];

With Latin, a horse, and money, you may travel the world - , ;

UKR. , [, 277];

, [, 255];

, [, 237];

, [, 280];

- , - [, 280].

As V.V. Zhaivoronok accurately notes, the ethnosymbolism of the realities surrounding a person, reveals the phenomenal phenomena of ethnoculture, which live first of all in the word [Zhaivoronok 2006, 1]. In Ukrainian folklore (), in contrast , - a symbol of life and knowledge. In Christian doctrine, Jesus Christ is the Light of the World, therefore, the light represents God. [Zhaivoronok 2006, 529]. (, ), as , which is the embodiment of darkness, has a negative connotation in the national and Christian worldviews: it represents non-cultures, ignorance, something incomprehensible and unknown. With the darkness associated rage of evil spirits.

In the Old Testament, the ninth punishment of the Lord is darkness itself [Zhaivoronok 2006, 591; 338]. In the Ukrainian linguistic culture, we distinguish idioethnical logem - :

, [, 225];

, , , [, 246];

, [, 241].

Indeed, linguistic material shows a true inconsistency of material wealth with mental abilities. However, we encounter and antonymic views, therefore, we distinguish logem - :

, [, 225];

- [, 237];

, [, 237].

The last proverb proves that it was put into use until the twentieth century, because it contains the names of the initial letters of the ancient Cyrillic alphabet and .

As for the mental asymmetry, this is an inevitable phenomenon, because in the mentality of the whole ethnos, diametrically opposite views are necessarily present. Universal for the studied lingual cultures is a logem , .

Paremias-verbalizers of this logem explode its meaning mainly metaphorically:

ENG. No sweet without (some) sweat - [ODEP, 794];

No pains, no gains - , [ODEP, 607];

The best fish swim near the bottom - [DPW, 46];

UKR. , [, 238];

, [, 238];

, [, 238].

Anglo-Saxon linguistic culture emphasizes diligence and tolerance as important components of the knowledge acquisition process:

Diligence is the mother of good fortune - ' [ODEP, 188];

Rome was not built in a (one) day - [ODEP, 683];

Little strokes fell great oaks - [DPW, 345];

No man is his craft's master the first day - ͳ ົ [ODEP, 570];

He that shoots oft at last shall hit the mark - , [ODEP, 727];

Patient men win the day - [ODEP, 613];

Patience, time and money accommodate all things - , [ODEP, 570].

The last paremiic units, which is recorded in lexicographic sources in 1640, is without equivalence to the Ukrainian linguistic culture.

The above paremiic units are a representation of English idiotal logem , - . In English, this logem is presented in some detail, recorded in the example of the ancient origin, which indicates the dominant role of such traits as perseverance, patience and zeal for the representatives of this etnospolnota. In contrast to the English language, the Ukrainian language captures only a single paremic expression of the indicated logem ( ; , , [, 279]).

According to the researchers, the more diverse is the potential of a symbolic expression of the concept, the more ancient this concept is and the higher its value significance within a certain ethno-lingual community [Vorkachev 2004, 97; Karasik 2004, 40]. Therefore, the absence or insignificant number of pares of a certain subject indicates the weightlessness of this postulate for a particular linguistic culture. It should be noted that in English paremic funds we find paremia

Zeal without knowledge is a runaway horse - - , [, 1037];

Zeal without knowledge is fire without light - - [ODEP, 930],

in which it is emphasized that diligence without knowledge is worthless.

Both investigated lingvocultures serve logem , :

UKR. , [, 224];

, [ 1955, 204].

It seems that the semantic load is in the paremic units of the English language:

He that will thrive, must rise at five - , ' [ODEP, 819];

The early bird catches the worm - ' [ODEP, 211];

Go to bed with the lamb and rise with the lark - , [ODEP, 38].

Note that the considered paremic units in a metaphorical form verbalize the squatting of the installation of ethnic groups that the early rise provides a positive result in general and is the way to obtaining knowledge in particular. English paremia Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise - ', [, 297] has an ethnocultural marking.

Health, wealth and wisdom are the three whales of the Anglo-Saxon mentality. The British have a cult of money, which is an indicator of a person's success. This idiocy trait takes its roots from the religion of Protestantism, especially its currents of Calvinism in England, one of the dogmas of which is the idea of ??God's chosenness (certain souls are pre-elected by God), success in professional activity is a confirmation of his chosenness, so her followers have a desire to reach, and labor, respectively, is the spiritual vocation of man [Golovashchenko 1999, 188-210].

Health and a high level of knowledge, in the view of the British, are the necessary tools for prosperity. Therefore, these areas require permanent investment. The language material testifies to the mental directive on the need to always strive for knowledge, so we distinguish logem :

ENG. Never too old (late) to learn - [ODEP, p. 563];

Live and learn - ³ , [ODEP, 473];

UKR. , [, 224];

³ - [, 281];

, [, 238].

Draws attention to the semantic group of paremia, which embodies logem :

UKR. , [, 237];

- , - [, 281];

[, 239];

- , - [, 238];

, [, 240].

The fact of the existence of physical punishment is also evidenced by phraseological units ( ) [Ӳ, 21]; ( -) [Ӳ, 155]. We can also distinguish the following phraseology of the English language: To be under the ferule - (to be a student, to study; to be in a subordinate state; in which - a line to punish students) [, 127]; To pass the mark - (this sign was worn by the student for the fault, which was transferred to another schoolboy who later committed the same fault) [, 749].

As we can see, the phraseological units of this group are marked with both positive and negative connotations, which demonstrates in general the acceptability of physical punishment as an element of popular pedagogy, and is reflected in naive discourse.

Within the framework of the English paremic corps, there is an opinion that it is better to know nothing at all than to know badly: A little knowledge (learning) is a dangerous thing - - [, 615]. The given linguistic material will explode the logem - and gives grounds to state the extreme responsibility of the carriers of the West European mentality with their orientation to a high result, which requires profound knowledge to achieve it.

In the Ukrainian naive discourse, encyclopedic knowledge is contrasted with practical skills, so we distinguish logem - :

, 쳺 [, 224];

³ , 쳺 [, 224];

, [, 282].

The content of this logem is entirely motivated, since the petitioners were the nominee, and consequently the phraseological units expressed the interests and needs of the peasant population, for which the day-to-day type of knowledge is of paramount importance.

Other researchers point out this feature: the formation of the Ukrainian national phraseology was mainly due to the social consciousness of the social groups, mainly the peasantry, as well as the artisanship and the Cossacks, although in English - the feudal nobility and other wealthy strata are clearly represented [Ajnjuk 1990, 84].

Conclusions

A comparative analysis of the paremic embodiment of the KNOWLEDGE concept in English and Ukrainian showed that in both languages the number of defined cognitive features and their actualization by certain language means coincide. Among the idiotically-minded world-perceptual installations identified the following: the dominant of pragmatism, responsibility, commitment and perseverance for the Anglo-Saxon mentality and emphasis on day-to-day practical knowledge in Ukrainian linguistic culture.

In further scientific research, the lingua-cultural analysis of the concept of KNOWLEDGE in literary and artistic discourse seems promising.

In this fragment, the proverbial picture of the world of the American version of the English language is quite vividly represented by the concept of knowledge.

The conventional wisdom of the American people highly appreciates the presence of knowledge and the possession of knowledge. It is this group of paremias that forms the core (34.4%). It includes proverbs and sayings that say that the light is well-known brightly, knowledge is the treasury of the mind, knowledge is better than wealth, who has knowledge, and that's power, and who boasts of knowledge-only declares his ignorance. In the subnuclear zone there are paremia verbalizing the assessment of the volume of knowledge (30.3%).

Then follow groups of proverbs and sayings representing the implementation of the process of obtaining / increasing knowledge (16.1%) and the desire / need for its receipt (13.3%). On the periphery, paremia verbalizing the application of knowledge (9.6%), knowledge transfer by the second (7.8%), timing of knowledge acquisition (7.3%) and forgetting / loss of knowledge (4.6%).

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