The contrastive analysis of morphological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs

А complex comparison of morphological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs. Typological characteristics, classes and morphological categories of the English and Ukrainian verbs. The categories of person and number, tenses, aspect, voice, mood.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Contents

  • Introductoin
  • 1. Typological characteristics and classes of the english and ukrainian verbs
  • 1.1 Classes of Verbs in English vs. Ukrainian
  • 2. Morphological categories of the english and ukrainian verb
  • 2.1 The categories of person and number
  • 2.2 The category of tenses
  • 2.3 The category of aspect
  • 2.4 The category of voice
  • 2.5 The category of mood
  • Conclusion
  • Resume
  • Bibliography
  • Supplements 1. Tables

Introductoin

Diploma paper is devoted to a complex comparison of morphological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs. It describes the typological characteristics, morphological categories of the English and Ukrainian verbs, their differences and common features.

The paper "The contrastive analysis of morphological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs " is an attempt to fill up some of the gaps at certain points of contrastive morphology, such as the realisation of the categories of person and number, tense, aspect, voice, mood with the help of synthetic means (inflexions) and partly through different analytical means. All this predetermined the importance of the work.

The aim of the present research is to compare the morphological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs.

In accordance with the aim we planned working on the following tasks: - to study the classes of English and Ukrainian verbs; - to determine the morphological categories of English and Ukrainian verbs; - to analyze differences and common features in the categories of person, number, tense of English and Ukrainian verbs; - to analyze differences and common features in the categories of aspect, voice, mood of English and Ukrainian verbs.

The object of research is the verb and its morphological characteristics in English and Ukrainian languages.

The subject of research is the contrastive description of morphological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs.

The Theoretical basis for our paper is the works by KorunetsI. V., IlyishB. A., Rayevska N. M., Kayshanskaya V. L.

The methods of investigation included contrastive, distributive, componential analyses, statistic methods.

The theoretical value of the research is in elaboration of certain aspects of typology of the morphological systems of English and Ukrainian languages.

The practical value is in the possibility to apply its results in special courses of Grammar and Contrastive Typology of the English and Ukrainian languages

1. Typological characteristics and classes of the english and ukrainian verbs

This part of speech in English and Ukrainian has the largest number of features in common. They include first of all the general implicit meaning (the lexico-grammatical nature) of the verb which serves to convey verbiality, i. e. different kinds of activity (go, read, skate), various processes (boil, grow, obtain), the inner state of a person (feel, bother, worry), possession (have, possess), etc. Due to these lexico-grammatical properties the verb generally functions in the sentence as predicate going into some combinations a) with the nominal parts of speech performing the functions of the subject (or the object) of the sentence, for example: The sun shines. The trees grow. The student passed his examinations. Сонце світить. Дерева ростуть. Студент склав іспити; b) The verb goes into combination with verbs (to want to know, to want to read; хотіти вчитися/знати) or with adverbs (to read well гарно читати); с) with prepositions (to depend on smb/smth. залежати від когось) and also with conjunctions (neither read nor write, to work and rest ні читали, ні писати, працювати і відпочивати).

Allomorphic [22: 231] is the combinability of English verbs with postpositional particles (cf. sit down, stand up, put off, read through) which need not be confused or in any way compared to their ability of being identified with the Ukrainian subjunctive mood particles б or би (as in піти б, хотів би, знав би).

As was already mentioned in the foregoing chapter, the verb in the contrasted languages has its characteristic stem building suffixes or postfixes. In English these suffixes are: - ate (antiquate, liquidate), - fy (beautify, defy, exemplify); - en (blacken, darken, deepen); - ise (antagonise, colonise, emphasise): - esce (acquiesce, coalesce, phosphoresce). In Ukrainian these distinguishing suffixes are: - ти/-ть (брати, брать); - тися (братися, знатися); - ться (вчиться, молиться), - сь (вчитись, молитись, обмитись, etc.,).

english ukrainian verb morphological

Ukrainian verbs, unlike the English ones, may also be formed with the help of diminutive suffixes - ки, - оньк-и, - ці (спатки, їстки, їстоньки, спатоньки, питоньки, купці - люпці) and some others.

Among the many prefixes that form the verb stem in English, the following are the most often used: ex - (exclaim, excavate); in-/il-, ir- (introduce, illustrate, irrigate, irritate); contra - (contradict); con- (contribute); counter - (counteract); re - (restore, reduce); over - (overflow, overlap); under - (undertake, understand); out - (outfit, outflow); super - (superadd, supervise); sub - (subdue, submit); mis- (mislead, mistrust); un - (unbind, uncover). The most productive verbs forming prefixes in Ukrainian are: в-/у - (вбігти/убігти, внести/ унести); ви - (вибігти/вибігати, вискочити); від-/од - (відбити/ відбивати, оддати/оддавати); до - (довести/доводити); за- (завести/заводити, зайти); з-/с-, зі - (злетіти, з'їхати, сплести, зіпхнути); на - (набрати, нанести).

A number of English verbs are formed with the help of suffixes and prefixes at the same time: ex-, - ate: excommunicate, exculpate; ex-, - ise: exsursionise; hyper-, - ise: hypercriticise; in-, - ate: incapacitate; mis-, - ate: misappropriate, miscalculate; over-, - ise: overemphasise, overspecialise; over-, - ate: overestimate; over-, - fy: over-beautify; re-, - fy reputify; sub-, - fy: subclassify; in-, - ate: indeterminate; under-, - ate: underestimate, underpopulate.

In Ukrainian the suffixes are mostly - ти/-ть, - ТИСЯ/-ТИСБ and prefixes are various: над-/наді-: надбити/надбитися, надібрати; о- (об-) - ати/-ути: оглядати/оглянути; оббити, обводити; пере-, - ти: перебігти, пере-, під-/піді-, підо-, - ти: підбігти, підібрати, підозрювати; по-/попо-, - ти: понабігати, попоходити; про-, - ти: пройти, пробити; роз-/розі-: - ти, - тися, - ати, - тися: розвести/розвестися, розігнати/розігнатися.

Many Ukrainian verbs are formed from other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, numerals) by adding suffixes to their stems. The suffixes are: - а-: обід-а-ти, сідл/о/-а-ти, дужч-а-ти, кращ-а-ти, коса - кос-и-ти, барабан-и-ти, білий - біл--и-ти; - і-: розум-і-ти, звір-і-ти; білий - біл-і-ти, двоє - дво-ї-ти; - ува-: зима - зим-у-вати, агітація - агіт-ува-ти, пильний - пиль-н-ува-ти, четвертий - четверт-ува-ти, etc. The suffix - ну-/-ні - is added to adjectival roots: блідий - блід-ну-ти; густий - гус-ну-ти, міцний - міц-ні-ти.

Some suffixes in Ukrainian form aspective (durative, perfective) meanings of verbs. The suffixes are added to prefixal verbs, eg: ува-/-юва-: прочитати - прочит-ува-ти; загоїти - заго-юва-ти; - в-/-ува-: перевиховати - перевихов-ува-ти, etc.

То express a sudden action the suffix - ну - is used in Ukrainian: колоти - коль-ну-ти, штовхати - штовх-ну-ти, копати - коп-ну-ти, нявкати - нявк-ну-ти, мек-ну-ти, etc.

The number of Ukrainian verbs formed by means of suffixes and prefixes is less numerous than their number in English. When formed from verbs, the following prefixes and suffixes are used: під-+-ува-: підсвіч-ува-ти. підтак-ува-ти: по-+-ува-/-юва: посвист-ува-ти. почит-ува-ти. за-+-ти-ся/-сь - засидітись, забаритися', з-/с-, зі+-ся зійтись, змовитися; роз-+-ся: розлетітись, роз'їхатися: над-+-и-: надкусити, надломити, по-надломлюв-а-ти.

Similarly formed are also verbs from noun stems/roots: земля - заземлити: from adverbial stems: інакіие - переінакшити: from adjectival stems: швидкий - пришвидчити: from pronominal stems (never used in English to form verbs): свій - присвоювати: from the stems of numerals: троє - потроювати: двоє - подвоїти.

1.1 Classes of Verbs in English vs. Ukrainian

The main classes of verbs as to their functional significance are common in the contrasted languages. These are a) notional verbs (go, ask, write; іти, запитувати, писати) and b) auxiliary verbs. The latter split into primary (be, do, have; бути, мати), modal (can, may, must, could, should, need; могти, мусити, сміти, мати, etc.) and linking verbs (appear, look, become turn grow; ставати, здаватися).

English lexical/nominal verbs split into two subclasses which are not

available in Ukrainian. These are 1) regular verbs forming their past stem and the past participle with the help of the ending, - ed, - d or - t (dressed/worked, paid/said, learnt/sent);

2) irregular verbs having their past stems and the past participle formed by way of alteration of their base vowel (bind - bound - bound, take - took - taken, begin - began - begun). Some irregular verbs also have vowel mutation + the past indefinite/past participle - d or - t ending (tell - told - told, keep - kept - kept, think - thought - thought). There are also some mixed-type verbs in English (show - showed - shown, crow - crew - crowed). A separate subclass of irregular verbs form the so-called invariables, which have the same form for the present and past stem/past participle, eg: cast - cast - cast, cost - cost - cost, let - let - let, put - put - put, etc. They are not available in Ukrainian, thought suppletive verbs are common, however, (cf. be - was - were, go - went; бути - є, іти - пішов, пішла, брати - взяв, узяли).

The subdivision of verbs into classes is based in Ukrainian on the correlation between the infinitival stem of the verb on the one hand and its present or simple future stem on the other. On this morphological basis thirteen classes of verbs are distinguished in Ukrainian (Table 1). In the first class of verbs the infinitival stem has the suffixes - ува-/-юва, and the present tense stem the suffix - y/ю,: куп-ува-ти - куп-y-ють; танц-юва-ти - танц-ю-ють; лупц-юва-ти - лупц-ю-юmь.

The verbs of the second class have the suffix - ва - in the infinitival stem and the suffix ва - in the present tense/simple future stem: бувати - /по/бу-ва-ють. The verbs of the third class have the suffix - а-/-я - in the infinitival stem and the suffix - aю - in the present/simple future stem: баж-a-mu - баж-a-юmь, стріл-я-ти - стріл-я-ють. In the fourth class are verbs with the - i - suffix in the infinitival stem and the - i - suffix in the present/simple future stem: чорн-і-ти - чор-ну-уть; шал-і-ти - шал-i-ють. In the fifth class the verbs have the - а-/-я - suffix in the infinitival stem, the zero suffix in the present/simple future tense stem and the - уть/-ють ending in the third person plural: бра-ти - бер-уть, сл-а-mu - шл-ють, смі-я-тися - смі-ються. In the sixth class are verbs with the - i - suffix in the infinitival stem and the zero suffix in the present stem: рев-і-ти - рев-уть, хот-і-ти - хоч-уть (Table 1).

Morphological Classes of Ukrainian Verbs (Table 1).

Class

Suffixes

Verbs Representing the Class

Dec lens

Infinitival Stem

Present Stem

Infinitive

Present Tense

I

-ува-

/-юва-/

ва-

-y-

ю-

ю-

буд-ува-ти

прац-юва-ти

да-ва-ти

буд-y-ю /-еш, - уть/

прац-ю-ю /-еш, - уть/

да-ю /еш, - уть/

І

II

-ва-

-вaю-

бу-ва-ти

бу-вaю /-еш, - уть/

І

III

-а-/-я-/

-aю-

/-яю-/

пуск-а-ти

рівн-я-ти

пуск-a-ю /-еш, - уть/

рівн-я-ю /-еш, - уть/

І

IV

- і -

/-iю-/

сив-і-ти

біл-і-ти

сив-i-ю /-еш, - уть/

біл-i-ю /-еш, - уть/

І

V

-а-/-я-/

0

каз-а-ти

смі-я-тися

каж-у /-еш,-уть/

смі-юся /-ешся, - ються/

І

VI

-і-

0

рев-і-ти

хот-і-ти

рев-у /-еш, - уть/

хоч-у /-еш, - уть/

І

VII

-ну-

ону-

-н-

он-

крик-ну-ти

трус-ону-ти

крик-н-у /-еш, - уть/

трус-он-у /-еш, - уть/

І

VIII

0

0

нес-ти, вес-ти

мести, плив-ти

нес-у /вед-у /-еш, - уть/

мет-у /плив-у /-еш, - уть/

І

IX

0

-ю-

ри-ти, кри-ти

ви-ти, пи-ти

ри-ю /кри-ю/ - еш, - ють/

ви-ю /n'-ю/ - еш, - ють/

І

X

-и - /ї/

0

вод-и-ти

по-ї-ти

водж-у/вод-иш, вод-ять/

no-ю /-їш, - ять/

II

XI

-а-

0

крич-а-ти,

мовч-а-ти

крич-у /-иш, - ать/

мовч-у /-иш, - ать/

II

XII

-і-

0

гор-і-ти,

лет-і-ти

гор-ю/-иш, - ять

леч-у лет-иш, лет-ять/

II

XIII

0

0

біг-ти

біж-у /біж-иш, біж-ать/

II

Verbs of the seventh class have the - ну - (-ону-) suffix in the infinitival stem and the - н - (-ну-) suffix in the simple future tense stem: гук-ну-ти, гук-н-уть, крик-ну-ти, крик-н-уть. Verbs of the eighth class have a zero suffix in each of the two stems and the ending - уть - in the third person plural: нес-ти - нес-уть, вез-ти - вез-уть. Verbs of the ninth class have a zero suffix in the infinitival stem, - ю - suffix in the present tense stem and the ending - ють - in the third person plural: pu-mu - pu-ють, кри-ти - кри-юmь. Verbs of the tenth class have the - и- (-ї-) suffix in the infinitival stem, a zero suffix in the present tense stem and the - ать - ending in the third person plural: вод-ити - водж-у.

Verbs of the eleventh class have an - a - suffix in the infinitival stem, a zero suffix in the present tense stem and the - ать - ending in the third person plural: крич-у - крич-ать, мовч-у - мовч-ать.

Verbs of the twelfth class have an - i - suffix in the infinitival stem and a zero suffix in the present stem: гор-і-ти - гор-ю, лет-і-ти - леч-у. Verbs of the thirteenth class have a 0 suffix in both the stems and the ending - ать - in the third person plural: біг-ти - біж-ать. According to their paradigmatic features, verbs of classes I - IX belong to the first declension group, and the rest (classes X - XIII) are of the second declension group. These structural classes of verbs differ from each other by their productivity. The most productive are the first, the third, the fourth, the fifth and the ninth classes. All remaining classes (the second, the sixth, the seventh, the eighth, the tenth, the eleventh, the twelfth, and the thirteenth) are either semantically closed or poorly represented as it is the case with the last two of them.

The personal endings of verbs of the first and of the second declensions do not coincide in Ukrainian as can be seen from the examples below:

Declension IDeclension II

я буваю ми буваємоя ходжу ми ходимо

ти буваєш ви буваєтети ходиш ви ходите

він буває вони буваютьвін ходить вони ходять

As regards their role in expressing predicativity, verbs in the contrasted languages may be a) of complete predication or b) of incomplete predication. Verbs of complete predication split into some common groups singled out on the basis of their implicit dependent grammatical meanings. These groups are:

1. Subjective verbs (always intransitive) like to act, to go, to sleep, to glisten (діяти, йти, спати, блищати and others).2. Objective verbs (only transitive): to give, to take, to envy (брати, давати, заздрити and others).3. Terminative verbs, expressing action having final aims (to close, to open, to come, to find; зачиняти, приходити, заходити).4. Durative verbs, expressing action with no final aim: to like, to love, to hate, to hope, to work (подобатись, любити, ненавидіти).5. Mixed - type verbs, which can have both terminative and durative meaning: to sit, to stand, to know, to remember (сидіти, стояти, знати, пам'ятати, etc).

6. Reflexive verbs, which are formed in English with the help of reflexive pronouns: oneself, myself, himself, ourselves: to wash oneself, to shave himself; to see herself in the mirror, etc.

Reflexive verbs in Ukrainian have some peculiar allomorphic features. Regular equivalents to English verbs can be observed only in the group of the so-called reflexive verbs proper (to wash oneself, to dress oneself, to shave oneself, to powder oneself, etc.), which have also corresponding forms in Ukrainian (вмиватися, голитися, одягатися, пудритися, купатися, etc.).

Other groups of Ukrainian reflexive verbs have no equivalents in English" and form an allomorphic feature in the contrasted languages. These verbs are identified as follows:

1. Reciprocally reflexive/взаємно-зворотні: зустрічатися, змагатися, вітатися, листуватись, цілуватись.2. Indirectly re-flexive/непрямо-зворотні: радитися, збиратися (в похід), лаштуватися (в дорогу).3. Generally reflexive/загально-зворотні: милуватися, дивуватися, злитися, журитися, мучитися and others.4. Active-objectless/reflexive verbs (активно-безоб'єктні) кусатися (собака кусається), хвицатися (корова хвицається), дряпатися (кішка дряпається), жалитися (кропива жалиться), колотися (стерня колеться).5. Passively-qualitative/reflexive пасивно-якісні: гнутися, битися, ламатися, м'ятися, колотися (дерево гарно колеться), кривитися (залізо гнеться, скло б'ється, дитина кривиться).6. Impersonal-reflexive verbs/безособово-зворотні: не спиться, не їсться, погано/гарно живеться, не лежиться (Cf. the Ukrainian folk-song: I не спиться й не лежиться, І сон мене не бере.).

Closely connected with impersonal and reflexive verbs in Ukrainian are a number of impersonal verbs used to form impersonal sentences. These verbs constituting semantically different groups are as follows: вечоріє, дніє, сіріє, розвидняється, примерзає, нудить, хочеться, віриться; не було, не стало, таланить; бракує, вистачає and others.

Verbs of incomplete predication are of isomorphic nature. They are presented in English and Ukrainian in four common groups, which are as follows:

1. Auxiliary verbs (to be, to do, to have, shall/will), which are used in English in the corresponding person and tense form to express the following categorial meanings of the verb: a) the continuous aspect, i. e. the present, the past and future continuous/progressive tenses (/ am/ was, shall be reading); the interrogative and negative or future tense forms of the Indefinite group of tenses (Does he speak English? He did not know me. Will he come soon?); the imperative mood/imperative and incentive meanings: Do it now! Do come, please! The perfect aspect forms of the verb: I have done it. He had had his dinner by then already. We shall have translated the text by then. To express the so-called subjunctive form of the verb: He ordered that everybody be present. Whoever you be you have no right to offend him.

To express other subjunctive mood forms: His aunt would not give the photograph. (Hardy) I suggest we should meet here. (Snow) I wish / were fifteen. (Maugham)"If they could be answered, surely they'd have been answered by now." (Ibid). Auxiliary verbs in Ukrainian are restricted only to one verb бути, which is polyfunctional and is used to form some categorial meanings: a) the passive voice (текст був перекладений); b) the analytical future tense form (текст буде перекладений); с) some subjunctive mood forms (якби я був знав, я був би прийшов); d) the pluperfect tense form, which fully corresponds to the English past perfect. (Cf. Ніби й задрімав був зразу, але щось приверзлося, то й проснувся. (Головко) Я заходив був до вас якось улітку, але вас не застав тоді вдома).

2. Close to the auxiliary by their function (and often by their lexical meaning, too) are English and Ukrainian modal verbs. Their number and nomenclature is larger in English (allomorphism) than in Ukrainian. Cf.: English: can, may, must, should, Ukrainian: вміти, могти, мусити, would, ought (to), have/be, shall, слід/треба, мати (маєш знати, він will, dare, daresay, need. має бути), сміти, потребувати.

Linking verbs (дієслова-зв'язки) in both contrasted languages form a verbal, nominal or mixed-type compound predicate. They fall into three main groups:

Linking verbs of being, which do not always have direct equiv alents in English and Ukrainian. Cf. to be, to feel, to look, to seem, to taste, to smell - бути, виявлятися, зватися, вважатися, доводитися (Не looks young/tired) or in Ukrainian: Це зветься роботою. Це здається правдою).

Linking verbs of becoming (not all of which have equiva lents in Ukrainian): to become, to get, to grow, to turn - ставати, робитися (They grew stronger/Вони стали міцнішими. Ліс зробився рудим.). Не became a teacher - Він став учителем. But: He turned gray/ Він посивів. Вона постаріла. She grew older.

Linking verbs of remaining (to remain, to keep, to stay, to continue): He remained silent/satisfied. Він зостався задоволений. The winter continued damp and wet. (Cronin) The weather kept obstinately hot and dry. (Wells) Погода вперто стояла жаркою і сухою.

In English and Ukrainian Due to these lexico-grammatical properties the verb generally functions in the sentence as predicate going into some combinations a) with the nominal parts of speech performing the functions of the subject (or the object) of the sentence, b) The verb goes into combination with verbs с) with prepositions and also with conjunctions

The verb in the contrasted languages has its characteristic stem building suffixes or postfixes. In English these suffixes are: - ate, - fy, - en, - ise, - esce. In Ukrainian these distinguishing suffixes are: - ти/-ть; - тися; - ться; - сь. Ukrainian verbs, unlike the English ones, may also be formed with the help of diminutive suffixes - ки, - оньк-и, - ці. Among the many prefixes that form the verb stem in English, the following are the most often used: ex-; in-/il-, ir-; contra-; counter-; re-; over-; under-; out-; super-; sub-; mis; un-.

The main classes of verbs as to their functional significance are common in the contrasted languages. These are a) notional verbs b) auxiliary verbs. The latter split into primary, modal and linking verbs. English nominal verbs split into two subclasses which are not available in Ukrainian. These are 1) regular verbs 2) irregular verbs. The subdivision of verbs into classes is based in Ukrainian on the correlation between the infinitival stem of the verb on the one hand and its present or simple future stem on the other. On this morphological basis thirteen classes of verbs are distinguished in Ukrainian. Verbs ending - уть,-ють belong to the first declension group, the verbs-ать,-ять are of the second declension group. As regards their role in expressing predicativity, verbs in the contrasted languages may be a) of complete predication or b) of incomplete predication. Verbs of complete predication split into some common groups singled out on the basis of their implicit dependent grammatical meanings. These groups are:

1. Subjective verbs,

2. Objective verbs,

3. Terminative verbs,

4. Durative verbs,

5. Mixed - type verbs,

6. Reflexive verbs. Some groups of Ukrainian reflexive verbs have no equivalents in English" and form an allomorphic feature in the contrasted languages. These verbs are identified as follows:

1. Reciprocally reflexive/взаємно-зворотн,

2. Indirectly re-flexive/непрямо-зворотні,

3. Generally reflexive/загально-зворотні,4. Active-objectless/reflexive verbs (активно-безоб'єктні),

5. Passively-qualitative/reflexive пасивно-якісні,

6. Impersonal-reflexive verbs/безособово-зворотні Verbs of incomplete predication are of isomorphic nature. They are presented in English and Ukrainian in four common groups, which are as follows:

1. Auxiliary verbs 2. Modal verbs

2. Morphological categories of the english and ukrainian verb

The finite verb in the contrasted languages has six common morphological categories which are realised partly with the help of synthetic means (inflexions) and partly through different analytical means. Thus, the categories of person and number are realised in both contrasted languages synthetically, whereas the category of tense is realised both synthetically and analytically; the category of aspect is realised in English synthetically or analytically (continuous) but only synthetically in Ukrainian; the category of voice is realised only analytically in English but it may be realised synthetically and analytically in Ukrainian. Similarly with the category of mood, which is realised in both languages synthetically and analytically.

An illustrative presentation of these ways of realisation of all above-named morphological categories is given in Table 2 below.

Table 2

Morphological category

Means of Realisation in the Contrasted Languages

In English

In Ukrainian

Person

I know. He knows. She is. We are.

Я знаю. Він/вона знає. Воно знає. Ми знаємо. Ви знаєте. Вони знають.

Number

He reads. They read good books.

Він читає. Вони читають книжки.

Tenses (present, past, future) 1. Absolute use of tenses

I work. He works. I worked. He will work. He said she had been seen in London. They asked if 1 could translate that passage into Japanese.

Я працюю. Я працював. Він читає. Він читав. Він читатиме. Він буде читати весь свій вік. Він прокинувся був, а потім знову заснув.

2. Relative use of tenses [47, 144 - 146

/ when he comes she will ask - when he came/had come \ when he will come

/ Де він мешкає тепер я запитаю - Де він мешкав \ Де він мешкатиме потім

Aspect (common, continuous, perfect)

He works. He is working (common/ continuous). He will work. He will be working (future). He has worked (perfect).

Він читав. Він прочитав це. Вона зараз тренується. Дощ пройшов. (недоконаний - доконаний вид)

Voice (active - passive)

He reads much. The house is/was built. The house is being built. It will be/will have been built.

Хату ставлять. Хата збудована/ була, буде збудована. Хід зроблено. Школу відкрито/ буде відкрито.

Mood

Indicative: We love our parents. Will he come? He has taken the exam. Imperative: Don't speak so loud! Let me sing you. Let us sing you smth. Subjunctive: Come what may! If she had come, he would have met her. Had 1 been there, I would have helped him.

Ми любимо своїх батьків. Чи прийдете ви взавтра? Він склав іспит. Не розмовляйте так голосно! Сядьте. Нум я вам заспіваю! Будь, що буде! Було б краще мабуть піти. Якби він був прийшов, він був би зустрівся з нею.

The tabulated examples above testify to the existence of both isomorphic and allomorphic features in the nomenclature and means of expressing some morphological categories of the verb in the contrasted languages.

2.1 The categories of person and number

The categories of person and number must be considered in close connection with each other, since in language of the Indo-European family they are expressed simultaneously, i. e. a morpheme expressing person also expresses number.

We shall, however, start by considering the meaning of each of these categories, and then proceed to the analysis of their state in Modern English and Ukrainian.

The category of person in verbs is represented by the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person, and it expresses the relation between the speaker, the person or persons addressed, and other persons and things. The 1st person, of course, expresses the speaker or a group of which the speaker makes a part; the 2nd person, the person or persons spoken to, and the 3rd, that person or thing (or those persons or things) which are neither the speaker nor the person (s) spoken to.

The category of number expresses the quantity of the subjects (one or more than one). Speaking deductively, we might build the following system of personal and numerical categories:

1st person singular - the speaker 1-ша особа однина (пишу, малюю)

2nd person singular-one person spoken to 2-га особа однина (пишеш, малюєш)

3rd person singular - one person or thing 3-я особа однина (пише, малює)

1st person plural - the speaker and another person or other persons 1-ша особа множина (пишемо, малюємо)

2nd person plural - more than one person spoken to 2-га особа множина (пишете, малюєте)

3rd person plural - more than one person or - thing (neither speakers nor spoken to) 3-тя особа множина (пишуть, малюють)

However, this system does not hold good for the Modern English verb, and this for two reasons,

First, there is no distinction of persons in the plural number. Thus, the form live may, within the plural number, be connected with a subject of any person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd).

Second, there is no distinction of numbers in the 1st or 2nd person. Thus, the form live in these persons may refer both to one and to more than one subject.

So what we actually find in the Modern English verb is this:

3rd person singular - lives All the rest - live

If we analyse this state of things in the Modern English verb in exact terms we shall reach the following conclusion. The opposition lives I live, or, in general terms, stem + s / stem + Ш, expresses the relation: 3rd person singular / any person of both numbers except 3rd person singular.

It is quite clear that the first item of the opposition is marked both in meaning (3rd person sing.) and in form (-s), whereas the second item is unmarked both in meaning (everything except the 3rd person sing.) and in form (zero-inflection). We ought to add that the category of mood is implied in this opposition, the form lives belonging to the indicative mood only, whereas live may also be any person of both numbers in the subjunctive mood (as far as we recognise its existence at all). Another consequence of this analysis is, that the - s-inflection in verbs conveys 4 meanings:

1) 3rd person,

2) singular number,

3) present tense,

4) indicative mood. The present tense is of course characterised by other signs as well: by the absence of the - d (or - t) morpheme denoting the past tense in regular verbs, and by alternation of the root vowel (e. g. [э] in drinks as against [ae] in drank) in irregular verbs. But in verbs of the type put the - s is the only distinctive sign of the present.

The ending - s having four meanings to express simultaneously is of course a synthetic feature, standing rather by itself in the general structure of Modern English.

Some verbs do not fit into the system of person and number described above and they must be mentioned separately both in a practical study of the language and in theoretical analysis. We will limit ourselves to the verb can (the verbs may, shall, and some others sharing some of its features) and the verb be, which stands quite apart and, of course, is very widely used.

The verb can, as is well known, takes no - s-inflection parallel to such forms as lives, writes, takes, etc. Hence it follows that this verb has no category of person or number at all.

The verb be has a system of its own both in the present indicative and in the past. Its system in the present indicative is as follows:

1st person singular 3rd person singular

- am - is

2nd person (without distinction of number) Plural (without distinction of person)

- are

In the past tense the system is:

1st and 3rd person singular

- was

2nd person (without distinction of number) Plural (without distinction of person)

were

In analysing the system of person and number we have so far bypassed the forms of the type livest, takest, livedst, tookest. These forms are associated with the personal pronoun thou and are only used in religions and occasionally in poetical texts and among Quakers. As they stand outside the received grammatical system we need not go into details concerning them. Suffice it to say that with these forms the category of number appears within the category of the 2nd person and the whole system of person and number (including the past tense) must be presented in a different shape.

2.2 The category of tenses

In English there are the three tenses (past, present and future) represented by the forms wrote, writes, will write, or lived, lives, will live.

Strangely enough, some doubts have been expressed about the existence of a future tense in English. O. Jespersen discussed this question more than once. [37] The reason why Jespersen denied the existence of a future tense in English was that the English future is expressed by the phrase "shall/will + infinitive", and the verbs shall and will which make part of the phrase preserve, according to Jespersen, some of their original meaning (shall an element of obligation, and will an element of volition). Thus, in Jespersen's view, English has no way of expressing "pure futurity" free from modal shades of meaning, i. e. it has no form standing on the same grammatical level as the forms of the past and present tenses.

However, this reasoning is not convincing. Though the verbs shall and will may in some contexts preserve or indeed revive their original meaning of obligation or volition respectively, as a rule they are free from these shades of meaning and express mere futurity. This is especially clear in sentences where the verb will is used as an auxiliary of the future tense and where, at the same time, the meaning of volition is excluded by the context. E. g. I am so sorry, I am afraid I will have to go back to the hotel. Since the verb will cannot possibly be said to preserve even the slightest shade of the meaning of volition here, it can have only one meaning - that of grammatical futurity. Of course numerous other examples might be given to illustrate this point.

It is well known that a present tense form may also be used when the action belongs to the future. This also applies to the present continuous, as in the following example: "Maroo is coming, my lad," he said, "she is coming to-morrow, and what, tell me what, do we make of that?" The adverbial modifier of time, to-morrow, makes it clear that the action expressed by the verb come in the present continuous tense actually belongs to the future. So it might also have been expressed by the future tense: Maroo will come, my lad, she will come to-morrow. But the use of the present continuous adds another shade of meaning, which would be lost if it were replaced by the future tense: Maroo's arrival to-morrow is part of a plan already fixed at the present; indeed, for all we know, she may be travelling already. Thus the future arrival is presented as a natural outcome of actions already under way, not as something that will, as it were, only begin to happen in the future.

So the three main divisions of time are represented in the English verbal system by the three tenses. Each of them may appear in the common and in the continuous aspect. Thus we get six tense-aspect forms.

Besides these six, however, there are two more, namely, the future-in-the-past and the future-continuous-in-the-past. It is common knowledge that these forms are used chiefly in subordinate clauses depending on a main clause having its predicate verb in one of the past tenses, e. g., This did not mean that she was content to live. It meant simply that even death, if it came to her here, would seem stale. However, they can be found in independent clauses as well. The following passage from a novel by Huxley yields a good example of this use: It was after ten o'clock. The dancers had already dispersed and the last lights were being put out. To-morrow the tents would be struck, the dismantled merry-go-round would be packed into waggons and carted away. These are the thoughts of a young man surveying the scene of a feast which has just ended. The tenses used are three: the tense which we call past perfect to denote the action already finished by that time (the dancers had dispersed), the past continuous to denote an action going on at that very moment (the lights were being put out) and the future-in-the-past to denote an action foreseen for the future (the merry-go-round would be packed and carted away). The whole passage is of course represented speech and in direct speech the tenses would have been, respectively, the present perfect, the present continuous, and the future.

The future-in-the-past and future-continuous-in-the-past do not easily fit into a system of tenses represented by a straight line running out of the past into the future. They are a deviation from this straight line: their starting point is not the present, from which the past and the future are reckoned, but the past itself. With reference to these tenses it may be said that the past is a new centre of the system. The idea of temporal centres propounded by Prof.I. Ivanova as an essential element of the English tense system seems therefore fully justified in analysing the "future-in-the-past" tenses. It should be noted that in many sentences of this kind the relation between the action denoted by the verb form and the time of the utterance remains uncertain: the action may or may not have taken place already. What is certain is that it was future from the point of view of the time when the action denoted by the verb form took place [14].


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