Basic English

The lessons of reading and translation of different texts and word-combinations into Ukrainian. The most frequently used expressions with the verbs to be, to have and sentences with them. Reading and translation the dialogue used in the usual speech.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид учебное пособие
Язык английский
Дата добавления 25.03.2010
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Lesson 1

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian

What Is A Computer Language?

Instructing a computer is done with a computer language. A computer language is a set of words, symbols, and commands that a computer can `understand'. Computer languages are not spoken to the computer (except in some experimental systems with limited vocabularies). Instead, you type a computer language on the keyboard. The computer then translates what you typed into electrical impulses that represent 0's and 1's-the form in which the computer can understand and carry out your instructions. To translate your instructions, the computer needs a language processor that is either built-in into the computer itself or loaded into the computer from a disk. The language processor acts somewhat like a human interpreter who listen to someone speaking English and tells you what the words mean in Ukrainian. It does the translating.

There many different computer languages. You may have heard of BASIC, Pascal, Logo, FORTRAN, COBOL, and others. For your computer to understand one of these languages, it needs a translator for that language.

Why are there different computer languages? The reason for this is that different languages work well for different kinds of tasks.

Programming languages allow people to communicate with computers. Once a job has been identified, the programmer must translate, or code it into a list of instructions for a computer. A computer program for a given task may be written in several different languages. Depending on the task, a programmer will generally pick a language that will involve the least complicated program. It may also be important to the programmer to pick the language that is flexible and widely compatible if the program will have a range of applications. C and BASIC or commonly used programming languages.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian

Instructing a computer, a set of words, experimental systems, limited vocabularies, electrical impulses, to carry out instructions, loaded from a disk, human interpreter, to communicate with the computer, depending on a task, the least complicated program, flexible, widely compatible, a range of applications.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences

1. Cathy can't come to the phone because she (wash) her hair. 2. Ann (wash) her hair every other day or so. 3. Cathy (sit, usually) in the front row during class, but today she (sit) in the last row. 4. Please, be quiet. I (try) to concentrate. 5. (You, always, lock) your apartment when you leave? 6. I wrote to my friend last week. She hasn't answered to my letter yet. I (still, wait) for reply. 7. After three days of rain, I'm glad that the sun (shine) again today. 8. Every morning, the sun (shine) in the window and (wake) me up. 9. Look! It (snow). -It's beautiful! This is the first time I've ever seen snow. It (not, snow) in my country. 10. Mike is a student, but he (go, not) to school right now because it's summer.

4. Which form of Past simple or Past Continuous is correct in the following sentences

1. (You, go out) last night or (be) you tired? 2. Mozart (write) more than 600 pieces o music. 3. What (you, do) when I called? 4. My father (teach) me driving when our cousin (come). 5. We couldn't afford to keep our car, so we (sell) it. 6. While I (read), Josh (play) the piano. 7. I was very thirsty. I (drink) the water very quickly.

5. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb `to be' and sentences with them:

To be absent бути відсутнім

To be afraid боятися

To be angry with сердитися на

To be away бути у від'їзді

To be back повертатися

To be pleased with бути задоволеним

To be displeased with бути незадоволеним

To be fond of любити

To be frightened лякатися

To be glad бути задоволеним

To be hungry бути голодним

To be ill (sick) бути хворим

To be in (out) бути присутнім (відсутнім)

To be in a hurry (for) поспішати

To be in high spirits бути в хорошому настрої

To be in low spirits бути в поганому настрої

To be interested in цікавитися

To be late (for) запізнюватися

To be … minutes fast поспішати на … хвилин

To be … minutes slow запізнюватись на … хвилин

Lesson 2

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Structured languages

You've already learned something about the BASIC language. You will probably go on someday to learn other programming languages as well. Different languages are designed for different purposes. BASIC is an all-purpose language, meaning that you can do almost everything in BASIC. But some things will be rather hard to do in BASIC. For example, although you have seen how to write programs with a top-down structure in BASIC, other languages make it easier to write such structured or modular programs.

Logo is a structured language that is often taught in schools and is available for many microcomputers. You may be familiar with Logo because many schools use it to do `turtle graphics'. `A turtle is a cursor on the screen. It's called a turtle because it is often shaped like one. You can tell the turtle to move left, right, up, down, or turn a certain number of degrees. You can see the turtle move on the screen. The turtle can also draw on the screen. If you tell it to put its pen down, it traces a line as it moves, or it can pick up the pen and not draw a line. (There are also mechanical turtles that move on the floor).

Logo is the language that can help you to write structured programs. For example, in Logo you can tell a turtle to carry out a set of commands that draws a rectangle on the screen. Then you can call a set of commands `box'. Each time you tell the turtle to `do box', it will draw the rectangle. `Box' has become a module of a program. You can create a whole series of routines that draw different shapes or parts of pictures. Then you can combine them all in one statement and call the whole thing `house'. Then you can make `house' part of another routine, and so on. Your whole program can consist of series of statements defining different routines and then a few statements calling theses routines in the correct order.

Logo doesn't just do turtle graphics, it is a complete language. But whether you use the language t draw a house or compute complex mathematical functions, the modular structure of the language is the same.

Pascal is also a structured language. Pascal has some features that make structured programming easier. For example, it allows you to indent the statements in a loop so that you can see the beginning and the end of each loop. Pascal also has certain requirements that make you plan your program carefully. For example, you requires you to define all your variables before you begin.

One Disadvantage of Pascal is that it is often a compiled language. A compiled language is one that must be translated by a compiler into code that the computer can understand before the program can be run.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To design for different purposes, all-purpose language, to be rather hard, top-down structure, modular programs, to be available, to trace a line, a set of commands, whole series of routine, to combine, in the correct order, to intend the statement, disadvantage.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. He (attend) college from September to may every year, but in summers he (usually, have) a job at the post office. In fact, he (work) there this summer. 2. I (think) about the grammar. 3. I (have) trouble. 4. She (have) a good time. 5. The chef (taste) the sauce. 6. Don (smell) the roses. 7. The doctor (see) a patient. 8. Sue (feel) the cat's fur. 9. I (look) out of the window. 10. The grocer (weigh) the bananas.

4. Translate into English:

1. - Ти ходив куди-небудь учора ввечері? - Ні, я залишився вдома. 2. Коли Нік їздив у Лондон? 3. Чайковський написав багато опер. 4. Що ти робив, коли я зателефонував тобі? 5. Мій батько вчив мене водити автомобіль, коли почався дощ. 6. Ми не змогли дозволити собі утримувати нашу машину, тому продали її. 7. У той час, коли я читав, Джон грав на піаніно.

5. Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

Work for the Future

You may become the bookkeeper after graduating from the technological college and work at the industrial enterprises, banks, churches, hospital, political parties, retail stores, and a wide variety of other organizations. The students of the department `Accounting' study following subjects: bookkeeping, computer studies, marketing, foreign languages, statistics, managements and others.

The bookkeeper has to know organization of industrial management, cost-accounting and audit. High-qualified book-keeper must work quickly and accurately with figures and data and concentrate on details.

Beginners handle routine transactions. After gaining more experience, they are given responsibilities involving payrolls and other records. Good bookkeepers have opportunities to advance to jobs on a higher level and, with additional training, to move into accounting departments. Many skilled, experienced bookkeepers hold positions in management.

More and more organizations depend on computers and other machines in the operation of their bookkeeping systems. Therefore, beginning bookkeepers should have a basic knowledge of data processing and know how to operate various office machines. People in this field must continually keep their skills up to date as employers use increasingly complex equipment to handle all aspects of bookkeeping.

The students are taught by highly-qualified stuff of teachers. Theoretical and practical training on enterprises is combined with scientific work. They operate modern equipment, read scientific literature which deals with their specialty. All these help to turn a student into a highly-skilled bookkeeper, ready for independent work.

6. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb `to be' and sentences with them:

To be in two minds сумніватися

To be of importance мати значення

To be of interest представляти інтерес

To be on іти (про спектакль, фільм)

To be on duty бути черговим

To be over закінчуватись

To be present (at) бути присутнім

To be ready (for) бути готовим (до)

To be responsible (for) бути відповідальним (за)

To be right бути правим

To be sorry for шкодувати (про)

To be sure (of) бути впевненим (в)

To be surprised (at) здивуватися

To be thirsty хотіти пити

To be tired (of) бути стомленим

To be through (with) закінчити (щось)

To be under construction будуватися

To be under consideration розглядатися

To be under discussion обговорюватися

To be under way відбуватися

To be up закінчитися

To be upset бути засмученим

To be worried хвилюватися

To be wrong помилятися

Lesson 3

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Languages for Other Tasks

Some languages are very well suited to tasks that are hard to do in BASIC. For example, FORTRAN is a language that is very similar to BASIC, but it is better for scientific applications. FORTRAN contains commands that make it easier to do engineering problems and use mathematics for solving scientific problems. It allows the programmer to program mathematical formulas more easily than does BASIC. FORTRAN is available for some microcomputers.

COBOL is a language that was developed mainly for large computers and may be available on a few microcomputers. It is designed for business uses and is particularly good for report writing. It makes it easy to set up very complicated reports with rows and columns, and to print these on a screen or a printer.

Assembly language

The language described so far are called high-level languages because they are far removed from the low-level machine language binary command that the computer can understand directly. Many students who begin with BASIC go on to learn to write assembly-language programs. Assembly language is not a high-level language. It is much closer to the machine language of the computer.

In assembly language you work with what you might think of as building blocks to create your program. Because you can use these blocks in many ways, you can create commands that don't exist in BASIC. You can also control the computer directly and control external peripherals like home security systems through the computer. A program that is written in an assembly language also runs much faster than a program that is written in BASIC because it does not need to be interpreted like BASIC.

Assembly language can also be used to write programs that will run on several different computers. Any computer with the same computer chip will use the same assembly language.

Unfortunately, assembly language is very difficult to use. It takes much longer to write a program in assembly language than it does in any high-level language. Assembly language is not a structured language, so it is very difficult for someone else to understand your programs.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To be suited to tasks; scientific applications; commands; to do engineering problems; scientific problems; to be available; complicated reports; on a screen; assembly language; security systems.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. Sometimes Tom (be) foolish. 2. I can't afford that ring. It (cost) too much. 3. Look. It (begin) to rain. Unfortunately, I (not, have) my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He (wear) a raincoat. 4. There's a book on my desk, but it (not belong) to me. 5. Who is that woman who (stand) next to the window?-Which woman? (You, talk) about the woman who (wear) the blue and gold dress? -No, I (talk, not) about her. I (mean) the woman who (wear) the blue suit. -Oh, I (not, know) her.

4. Translate into English:

1. Зараз я сиджу в класі. Вчора в цей час я читав детектив. 2. Я не слухав учителя, тому пропустив те, що він сказав. 3. Вони не запросили Сью на вечірку, тому вона і не прийшла. 4. - У тебе вчора був час написати листа? - Ні, не було. 5. Коли я відкрив посилку, то виявив там сюрприз. 6. Я не чув грозу, тому що спав. 7. Я не хотів нікуди йти, тому що йшов дощ. 8. Коли я прокинувся, яскраво світило сонце та співали пташки.

5. Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

A Bus Ride

Charles: Now come along, James. I'm going to take you for a bus-ride through London. Cheap and instructive.

James: Good idea.

Ch: We'll go on top. You see more. In the good old days the top of the bus was open. Still, we can see a good deal.

Conductor: Fares, please.

Ch: What's the fair to Victoria Station?

Conductor: Four pence, please.

Ch: Now we're going over London Bridge. Look, James, there's a `Pool'. Fascinating place, with all the shipping.

J: Yes, I remember that.

Ch: And there's the Monument. It was erected…

J: In memory of the Great Fire, which started in Fish Street in 17th century.

Ch: You know too much. Look, there's the Bank… Passing along Cannon Street, we reach St. Paul's…

J: Erected by sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire. That's the Temple, isn't it?

Ch: Yes, where the lawyers live. Now the bus makes a spurt and we arrive at Trafalgar Square-the National Gallery-finest collection of pictures in Europe.

J: Want to get out?

Ch: No, thank you. Over there is the Haymarket, leading to the theater land and Shaftsbury Avenue, Piccadilly Circus and the shopping district.

J: My turn. On the left, the House of Parliament, containing the House of Lords and the House of Commons…

Ch: And Westminster Abbey, begun by Edward the Confessor. When?

J: I've no idea.

Ch: I do like a bus-ride with the intelligent guide! Victoria Street.

J: Nothing much to say here.

Ch: Look at all the people leaving the continent. Biggest station.

J: You're wrong here. Leipzig is bigger.

6. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb `to have' and sentences with them:

To have breakfast снідати

To have lunch снідати другий раз

To have dinner обідати

To have supper вечеряти

To have coffee (tea) пити каву (чай)

To have soup (beefsteak, salad) їсти суп (біфштекс, салат)

To have a snack перекусити

To have a drink випити

To have a smoke покурити

To have a (good, nice, high) time (добре, чудово) провести час

To have a thin time мати неприємності

To have a quarrel посваритися

To have a row поскандалити

To have a talk поговорити

To have a walk прогулятися пішки

To have a look at подивитись на

To have a bath прийняти ванну

To have a shower прийняти душ

To have a rest відпочити

To have a break (time-out) зробити перерву

To have a rough time терпіти важкі часи

To have a meal поїсти

Lesson 4

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Computer Trespassing

Breaking into a computer system (using it when you don't have the permission) is a crime. It s called computer trespassing.

People break into computer systems for many reasons. They might do it to find our private records, to change or destroy information, to steal money or goods, or simply to show they know how to do it.

Computer trespassing is a serious problem. Important information ranging from medical records to top secret military information is often stored in computer systems. If someone changes, destroys, or steals the information, he or she might cause a serious damage. For example, trespasser in a hospital computer system might endanger a patient's health by changing his or her medical records. In a case of a government computer system, a computer trespasser might threaten national security by stealing military information. A trespasser in a bank's computer system might steal millions of dollars.

How can we prevent computer trespassing? One way to prevent information stored in computer systems is to use passwords or number codes. The words or codes are programmed into the computer system. The system will admit only those people who enter the correct code. An alarm alerts a security guard if someone enters an incorrect code more than once.

The computer systems use cryptography (secret writing) to protect information. Such systems store information in the computer in coded or scrambled form. F you don't know how to scramble the information, it is meaningless.

Federal and state laws also protect information stored in computer systems. One federal law prohibits people from using a computer system without permission. It also prohibits the use of a computer system: (1) to steal money or goods worth 5000$ or more; (2) to use, change, destroy, or reveal restricted information in government files; (3) to obtain financial information and credit records that are protected by other federal laws.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Computer system; computer trespassing; change or destroy information; secret military information; serious damage; threaten national security; use passwords; to protect information; meaningless; federal laws.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. I'm tired. I (go) to bed now. Good night! 2. We can go out now. It (rain) any more. 3. How is your new job? Not so good at the moment. I (not, enjoy) it very much. 4. Nick phoned me last night. He's on holiday in France. He (have) a great time and doesn't want to come back. 5. I want to lose weight, so this week I (not, eat) lunch. 6. Ruth has just started evening classes. She (learn) Italian. 7. The population of the world (rise) very fast. 8. Josh is still ill but he (get) better slowly. 9. The world (changed). Things never stay the same. 10. The cost of living (increase). Every year things are more expensive.

4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences:

1. He (be) a reporter before he (become) a writer. 2. She (feel) a bit better after she (take) the medicine. 3. Jean was late. The teacher (already, give) the problem, when she (get) to class. 4. The weather was awful, but by the time film (be over), the rain (stop). 5. They got home late. The children (already, fall asleep). 6. You were at your mother's place at 10 o'clock. Where (you, be) before that? 7. Yesterday she (go) to the dentist. 8. I (never, see) any of Rembrandt's paintings before I (visit) the art gallery. 9. They almost (miss) their plane. By the time they (get) to the airport all the passengers (already, board). 10. Yesterday at the library I (see) my old friend Jack. I (not, see) him for many years. At first, I (not, recognize) because he (lose) almost half of his weight.

5. Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

At the Customs

Customs officer: Good afternoon. Will you show me your passport?

Tourist: Certainly. Here you are.

CO: All right. Have you got anything to declare?

T: Yes, I have.

CO: What have you got?

T: I've got some wine and some cigarettes.

CO: How much wine have you got?

T: Two bottles.

CO: That's all right. And how many cigarettes have you got?

T: Two hundred.

CO: O.K. What else have you got?

T: A camera and two watches.

CO: Good. What about perfumes?

T: No, I haven't got any.

CO: Have you got anything of gold or silver?

T: I've got a gold watch with a gold bracelet and a set of silver spoons.

CO: What else?

T: Er… Nothing more.

CO: Now, open your case, please.

T: Pardon?

CO: Open your case, please… Oh, look at what you've got! Four bottles of wine, three cameras, six gold watches, ten gold bracelets, five sets of silver spoons and a lot of perfumes!

T: Oh!

6. Language work: Ask questions in English to the sentences:

a) They can build such a house.

Вони можуть побудувати такий дім?- Так, можуть.

Що ви можете побудувати?

Ви можете побудувати такий дім, чи не так?

Хіба ви не можете побудувати такий дім?

Що ви можете зробити?

b) You could inform us in advance.

Ви могли проінформувати нас заздалегідь, чи не так? - Я міг.

Хіба вони не могли проінформувати нас раніше?

Хто міг проінформувати нас раніше?

Коли ви могли нас проінформувати?

c) She must apply for the job as soon as possible.

Вона повинна подати заяву на цю роботу? - Так.

Що вона повинна зробити якомога скоріше?

Коли вона повинна подати заяву на цю роботу?

Хіба вона не повинна подати заяву на цю роботу?

d) They often have to work overtime.

Їм доводиться часто працювати понаднормово? - Так.

Як багато їм доводиться працювати?

Їм часто доводиться працювати понаднормово, чи не так?

Хіба їм не доводиться працювати часто понаднормово?

Lesson 5

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

What Equipment Is Required?

To run word-processing software, you must, of course, have a computer. If the computer does not come with a display screen, you will need a separate screen. Most word-processing software comes on disks, so a disk drive is required. It's also good to have a couple of blank disks, in case you want to save something that you have written. And if you want to put what you've written on paper, you'll need a printer.

How does word-processing software work?

Word-processing software works like any other computer program-you simply load the program into your computer. Then you type on the computer keyboard just as you would type on a typewriter.

As you type, the words appear on the screen. He words that you type are also stored in the computer's memory, so you can save your writing on a disk and work on it later, just as you can save a computer program on a disk and run or change it later. I you have a printer, you can print your writing on paper on much the same way that you print the output from the computer on a paper. In fact, you can print as many copies of your work as you like without having to retype it.

How to use a word-processing program

You're probably thinking, `Word-processing software sounds great, but how do I use it?' There are many answers to that question, because there are many different word-processing programs available. How you operate a program depends on which program you are using. Before you use a word-processing program, you should read the documentation carefully in order to determine exactly what that particular program does and exactly what you have to do to run it. Most word-processing programs perform the same basic functions.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Word-processing software; separate screen; blank disks; load the program; computer keyboard; retype it; sounds great; programs available; read the documentation; particular program.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. I (study) English at Glasgow University. 2. I'm on holiday at the moment and I (work) in a public library, I'm lucky to have this job. I (not get up) early. 3. The library (open) at 10 and (close) at 7. 4. It's an interesting work because people (always, come in) and (ask) me to help them, so I (learn) a lot about different subjects. 5. I (enjoy) the job and (find) it very amusing, too. 6. People (use) the strangest things as bookmarks. 7. My colleagues (always, find) various things -even a 10 note, but I haven't been so lucky. 8. I often (think) of a photo of a beautiful girl which I found. On the back there were the words, `I (love) you. I (miss) you and I'll never forget you.' 9. Young people (become) more and more aware politically these days. 10. She (drive) to te country at weekends.

4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences:

1. Thomas wasn't at the party last night. He (arrange) to do something else. 2. Last year we (go) to France. We (never, be) in this country before. 3. Jack went to Jill's house but she wasn't in. She (go out). 4. Andrew didn't want to go to the cinema because he (already, see) the film. 5. I didn't know that man. I (never, see) him before. 6. When I phoned Colin (just, get) home. He (be) in Paris. 7. They weren't hungry. They (just, have) dinner.

5. Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

City Transport. Travelling in the City.

Mr. Black's friend Rodney Williams is in hospital. He fell and broke his leg. Mr. Black decided to call on him after classes, but he doesn't know exactly where St. James hospital; is located. He is asking a passer-by the way.

Mr. Black: Excuse me, could you tell me the way to St. James hospital? I know it's somewhere over here.

Passer-by: Yes, sure. Go down this street four blocks straight ahead. You'll see a church at the corner. Turn left at the traffic lights.

B: Is it far from the church?

P: Not very far. You should go straight and then take the second turn to the right. There is a supermarket there. You can't miss it. You won't get lost.

B: Thanks a lot. Is there a bus?

P: No. There is a tram. But you'd better go there on foot. All the trams are packed. It's rush-hour.

B: Thank you. I'll take your advice. I can get on a tram on my way back. Is there a tram going to the center from there?

P: Sure. It's a number three tram. The stop is just in front of the hospital entrance. It'll take a quarter of an hour to get to the center from there.

B: Thank you. You've been extremely helpful.

P: No thanks at all!

B: Good luck.

6. Language work: Ask questions in English to the sentences:

a) Jane has to tidy the flat every day.

Джейн доводиться прибирати квартиру щодня?

Як часто їй доводиться прибирати квартиру?

Що їй доводиться робити щодня?

Їй доводиться прибирати квартиру щодня, чи не так?

b) I had to phone him once again.

Вам довелось подзвонити йому ще раз?

Що вам довелось робити?

Вам довелось подзвонити йому ще раз, чи не так?

Хіба вам не довелось подзвонити йому ще раз?

c) They have got to correspond with many foreign firms.

Вони повинні переписуватись з багатьма іноземними фірмами?

Кому доводиться переписуватись з багатьма фірмами?

З ким їм доводиться переписуватись?

Хіба їм не доводиться переписуватись з багатьма фірмами?

d) I'll have to change my plans.

Вам доведеться змінити плани.

Що вам доведеться зробити?

Вам доведеться змінити плани, чи не так?

Хіба вам не доведеться змінити плани?

Lesson 6

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Formatting a Document

Before you print your document, you can choose how you want it to look on a paper. This is called a formatting. Some word-processing programs ask you to do this before you start writing. Others wait until you are ready to print your document and then give you a list of choices. The instructions that you use to tell the computer how to print your document are called formatting commands.

What are some of the choices that you have for formatting text? Most word-processing programs allow you to adjust the line spacing on your document. That means that you can select the amount of empty space between printed lines. You can print your document using either single-spaced or double-spaced text.

Some word-processing programs have a formatting command that prints justified lines. Justified lines form straight margins on both sides of paper.

Printing a document

Your word processor and printer work together to carry out formatting commands. Some printers are capable o performing more formatting functions than others. For example, your word-processing program may allow you to print italic type, but if your printer can't produce italic type, the command is useless. The reverse is also true. A printer can't produce italic type if it's hooked up to word-processing program that won't allow it.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

How you want it to look; formatting; start writing; a list of choices; formatting commands; word-processing programs; select the amount; printed lines; justified lines; formatting functions.

3. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Будь ласка, не гомоніть так голосно. Я намагаюся зосередитися. 2. Мої друзі будують дім. Я намагаюся допомогти їм. 3.-Джон працює цього тижня, - Ні, він у відпустці. 4. Ідемо на вулицю. Дощ уже припинився. 5. Вам сподобалася ця вечірка? 6. - Де Кріс? - Він приймає ванну. 7. - Ти сьогодні так напружено працюєш. - Так, у мене багато роботи. 8. Зазвичай я слухаю музику вечорами. 9. Він постійно губить свої окуляри. 10. Що ти робиш? 11. Я вважаю, він добра людина. 12. У нього є машина. 13. Він грає в теніс тричі на тиждень. 14. Ті квіти гарно пахнуть. 15. Я бачу метелика. А ти бачиш його?

4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences:

1. By the time we got to the cinema the film (already, begin). 2. Yesterday I (see) Tom. I (not, see) him for six years. 3. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed. 4. The house was quiet when they came. All children (go) to bed. 5. Sorry, I am late. My car (break down) on my way here. 6. I (try) to phone Ann in the morning, but she (already, go out). 7. I (meet) Jim two days ago. He (just, come back) from holiday. 8. After we (discuss) it on the phone, I (write) him a letter about it.

5. Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

Mass Media

A Serious Discussion

-Don't you think advertisements sometimes cause people to buy things they don't need? Those who write them are so clever! They persuade us to buy a new washing machine or a new fridge to keep up with the neighbors.

-You are quite right. Some advertisers do make use of social snobbery. But they mustn't be blamed for that. I've known people who've bought a thing just because they've seen that their neighbors have one.

-You know I never buy widely advertised brands. They are more expensive. Goods could be much cheaper if the advertising costs were cut down.

-I'm not sure that's always true. Advertising results in higher sales and the manufacturers may be able to use mass production. That usually means lower prices and cheaper goods.

-Won't there be mass production anyway if the article is something that everybody needs?

-Cars are mass produced. Still the car manufacturers spend millions on advertising.

-That's because there's so much competition. If there were only one company producing cars, advertising would be unnecessary and the cost could be saved.

-That raises quite a different question-whether the competition serves any useful purpose. We'd better not start discussing that.

6. Language work: Say the sentences using can or could in requests. Use the words given bellow. Translate the sentences:

1) Lend lift ask come bring borrow name cope give trim put out explain give let borrow collect ask carry do fix

1. …you… my luggage, please?

2. …you… me a favor?

3. you…your cigarette, please?

4. you… me this question again, please?

5. you… me some money?

6. …you… to me how to fill in this form, please?

7. you me have a day of tomorrow, please?

8. you… my dress from the cleaner's?

9. just… my hair at the back?

10. …I… a book to read?

11. …you…for lunch on Saturday?

12. …I…your calculator - I left mine at home.

13. …you… the door?

14. …I…my dog? She's well-behaved.

15. …you… me some advice?

16. …you… the next patient to come in, please?

17. …you… me a description of your attacker?

18. …your hospitals… with major obstacles like a train crash?

19. …you… the actress who starred in `Gone with the wind'?

20. …you… this box?

2) Say the sentences in English using can or could after the verbs of perception: see (in the meaning of understand), hear, understand, feel, taste, smell.

1. Том не бачить нічого без окулярів.

2. Я не пам'ятаю, скільки це коштує.

3. Я чула, що вона сперечалася, розмовляючи з кимось по телефону.

4. Ти не розумієш цей фільм, тому що ти не достатньо дорослий.

5. Ми чули кроки в коридорі.

6. Я розумію, чому він не подобається людям.

7. Я відчуваю цвях в черевику.

8. Я відчуваю, щось горить.

9. Ти відчуваєш щось дивне в цьому супі?

10. Якщо ви сильно застудились, ви нічого не відчуваєте на смак.

Lesson 7

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Special Word-Processing Features

Most word-processing programs allow to create, edit, format, print, and save document. Some of them also allow you to perform more complex functions. The following are two examples of the sophisticated features that some programs have.

Spelling Checkers

Some word-processing programs come with a spelling checker. A spelling checker works with a word-processing program to find misspelled words in your document. It does this by matching each word in your document with a list of words that have been programmed into its memory. This list is usually called a dictionary, but the name is misleading. Spelling checkers have no way of knowing what a word means. Their `dictionaries' are simply lists of properly spelled words.

When a spelling checker finds a word that does not match any of the words in its dictionary, it displays this word. Then you decide whether to change it or, if it is spelled correctly, add it to the spelling checker's dictionary. This is often necessary, since the dictionary does not contain every word you will want to use. Unusual words, technical terms, and proper names will usually need to be added to the dictionary.

While a spelling checker can help you with your writing, it is not a substitute for good language skills. Because it only matches combinations of letters, a spelling checker cannot determine whether you are using words correctly. For example if you use too in a sentence that requires two, a spelling checker will not detect the error because too is spelled correctly.

If you are typing the sentence `I wish I were at the beach' and you make a mistake and type `I fish I were at the beach', the spelling checker will not detect the error, since fish is properly spelled.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To create; save document; complex functions; sophisticated; spelling checker; misleading; properly spelled words; spelled correctly; technical terms; substitute.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Perfect are correct in the following sentences:

1. I (not, attend) any parties since I came here. 2. Try not to be absent from class again for the term. You (already, miss) too many classes. You (miss) two classes just last week. 3. Last December, I (see) snow for the first time in my life. 4. In her whole lifetime, Anna (never, see) snow. 5. I (know) Nick for ten years. 6. So far this week I (have) a quiz and two tests. 7. Up to now, Professor Higgins (give) our class five tests. 8. What (lean, you) since you (come) here? 9. How many new friends (you, make)? 10. I hope you (already, meet) a lot of interesting people.

4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences:

1. They (look) the gates before I (get) there. 2. By the time we (arrive) to the party, it (finish). 3. I (ring) at the shop as soon as I (check) the contents of the box. 4. We (have) a good rest when our guests all (leave). 5. When he (ring) to the office this morning, Ann (already, leave). 6. We've had to wait two hours at the airport because the bad weather (delay) all the flights. 7. They missed their train, so by the time they reached the theater, the play (end) and they (leave) the theater. 8. At the end of their meal they found that they couldn't pay the bill because they (not, bring) money with them. 9. When I came out of the cinema I (find) that a thief (take) my car radio. 10. When a film star came into the restaurant I (not, recognize) her because I (not see) any of her films.

5. Read and translate the text and use it in your own speech:


Ukraine is situated in the east of the European continent. It is bordered by the Black sea and the Sea of Azov. The total area of Ukraine is 603,700 square kilometers. The country is known for its mild climate and attractive scenery, with numerous lakes, rivers, the forested Carpathian mountains in the west and the Crimean Mountains in the South.

Ukraine is rich in mineral resources such as iron ore, manganese ore and coal. Agriculture is also extremely important. Grain, industrial crops (maize, sunflower, and sugar beet), potatoes, fruit and vegetables are produced. There are a lot of enterprises in the fields of engineering, metal working, chemical engineering coal mining, fuel production, light, and food industries. Diesel locomotives, sea-going ships, aircraft, buses, television sets, microscopes, computers and many other commodities are produced in Ukraine.

The population of the country is about 50 million, some 65% of whom live in the cities. The country is divided into 24 regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is an integral part of Ukraine. The capital city is Kyiv.

The Supreme Council of Ukraine passed the Act of Proclamation of Independence of Ukraine on August 24, 1991. The Constitution of Ukraine was adopted by the Supreme Council in June 1996. The Ukrainian currency, the hryvnya, was introduced in September 1996.

Our country is a member of the United Nations and its representatives are active in the work of UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) and other international organizations.

6. Language work: Say the sentences using to be able to or to be unable in the correct form. Use the words from the box. Translate the sentences:

1) Walk think rent reach help look come describe attend have finish come walk carry do come and pick work improve write sleep

1. My hands were shaking so much that I … … my name on the exam paper.

2. She… … this computer program next month.

3. He lay awake all night ….

4. … you …these bags on your own?

5. I ……. Faster because I was too tired.

6. She … … tonight she had an accident on the way home.

7. Fortunately, she … … her attacker in great detail.

8. I … … the report in a week.

9. Three weeks after the accident, she … … even exercises in the gym.

10. As senior students, we … … some university classes.

11. Unfortunately, Tina … … children.

12. Unfortunately, I … … them.

13. I'm afraid I … … to the meeting after all.

14. Many passengers … … the lifeboats in time.

15. I'm afraid that I … … on Friday.

16. That's fine. I … … at the station.

17. In the end, we … … a suitable office near the Central Station.

18. Now I've got an extra weekend, I ……. At the proposal in more detail.

19. I … … of anything.

20. Greg … … since he was injured in a riding accident.

2) Say the sentences in English using may to express permission or polite requests:

1. Ви можете подзвонити мені додому ввечері.

2. Можна поставити вам два запитання?

3. Можна у вас попросити цю книгу?

4. Можна я запізнюсь на 5 хвилин?

5. Можна пронести вашу сумку?

6. Ви можете прийти завтра?

7. Ти можеш взяти гроші у мене в гаманці.

8. Можна зробити пропозицію?

9. Ви можете прийти, якщо хочете.

10. Можна скористатися вашим телефоном?

11. Можна запитати, хто телефонує?

12. Можна подивитись ваші рекомендації?

13. Можна запитати, як вас звати?

14. Ви можете піти з роботи раніше сьогодні.

15. Можна мені взяти відгул в п'ятницю?

16. Я можу пожити у вас деякий час?

17. Ти можеш піти в банк завтра.

18. Можна запросити вас в ресторан?

19. Ви можете показати ці документи нашому гостю.

20. Можна відправити ці листи завтра?

Lesson 8

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian

What makes a good word-processing program? That depends entirely on how the person who is buying it intends to use it. A novelist would want certain features. A student might want different ones. And the owner of a store might want still others. Someone who is choosing a word-processing program should start by asking three questions:

Selecting a Word-Processing Program

1. What tasks do I want to accomplish?

2. What tasks can this word-processing program accomplish?

3. How easily can this word-processing program accomplish these tasks?

The first question is the most important one. Potential buyers must know what kind of writing they plan to do with a word-processing program before they can choose the program that's best for them. For example, someone who plans to use the program for simple writing tasks like letters and school reports doesn't need sophisticated program with many features, such as one that allows the user to select a variety of type styles.

Once a potential buyer has made a list of necessary features, it should be a simple matter to find a program that offers just those features. It should be, but it often isn't. Many software packages will have all the features except one or will come with one or two extra features that are not on the list. Then the buyer will have to decide whether it is worth it to pay extra for features that aren't really necessary or if it's better to give up a feature or two in order to save some money. Last but not least, the buyer should check how easily the word-processing program performs these functions. The best way to do that is to load the program, type in some text, and try editing it. Some programs are easier to operate than others. Buyers have to determine which software is the easiest for them to work with.

2. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Word-processing program; certain features; to accomplish; potential buyers; sophisticated program; type styles; necessary features; save some money; to pay extra; programs are easier to operate.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. Since classes began, I (not, have) much free time. I (have) several big tests to study for. 2. Last night my roommate and I (have) some free time, so we (go) to a show. 13. I admit that I (get) older since I last (see) you, but with many luck at all, I (get, also) wiser. 14. The science of physics (advance) a great deal in the 19th century. 15. Since the beginning of the 20th century, medical scientists (make) many important discoveries. 16. Libraries today are very different from those in the 1800s. For example, the contents of libraries (change) greatly through years. In the 1800s, libraries (be0 simply collections of books. However today most libraries (become0 multimedia centers that contain tapes, computers, films, magazines, music, and painting. The role of the library in the society (change). In the 1800s, libraries (be) open only to certain people, such as scholars or the wealthy. Today libraries serve everyone. 17. Are you talking Chemistry this semester? - No, I (take, already). I (take) it last semester. - No, I (take, already). I (take) it last semester.

4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences:

1. When we reached the city center we couldn't find a parking place, so we (decide) to go by the next time. 2. I couldn't find my bag on the bench. Somebody (take) it. 3. I wasn't hungry because I (have) a big breakfast. 4. We were late. The lecture (start) half an hour before. 5. We (finish) all the work by 5 o'clock. 6. He was more worried after he (see) his lawyer. 7. After (see) a lot of sights, we (feel) a bit tired. 8. She (read) the book before Ann (call) her. 9. My parents (already, eat) when I (get) home. 10. After the guests (leave), I (go) to bed.

5. Read and translate the text and use it in your own speech:

Healthy Way of Life

Sport is one of the few things that make people healthy. The general belief if that a person who goes in for sports can't be weak and ill. Physically inactive people get old earlier than those, who find time for sport activity. And of course good health is better than good medicine.

Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It was raising with the development of human society. In ancient times men competed with each other in strength and deftness to decide who was the worthiest. Nowadays sport is being widely popularized all over the world and in our country in particular.

Thus, children are taught to love sport since early childhood. In kindergartens a child takes his first sporting steps. He learns to run, jump and dance. In schools and colleges sport is a compulsory subject. Many young people attend sport sections. Some of them dream to become professional sportsmen; others would like to stay an amateur.

As for me, I'm fond of aerobics. First of all aerobics helps to keep myself fit. It also attracts me because it resembles dancing and is carried with the accompaniment of music. Besides, twice a week I go to the swimming pool. Such sport activity helps me to feel cheerful, active and full of energy.

6. Language work:

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