Allusion as discourse symbol

Classification of allusion according its position in the text, main stylistic functions. Allusion as a category of vertical context its varieties in the eccentric tale "Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland". Stylistic functions in the eccentric tale.

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1.1 Definition of allusion

1.2 Classification of allusion: different approaches

1.3 Stylistic functions of allusion


2.1 Allusion as a category of vertical context

2.2 Varieties of allusion in the eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”

2.3 Stylistic functions of allusion in the eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”




Discourse (from Latin discursus, meaning “running to and from”) generally refers to written or spoken communication. It is a generalization of the concept of conversation to all modalities and contexts. In a poetic text allusion as one of the most frequently used stylistic devices, plays an important role while being a discourse symbol, uncovering its meaning to a reader.

The thesis of the work: the systematic use of the stylistic device of allusion in Lewis Caroll's eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland” depicts great variety of the author's contexts which are the important feature of Caroll's poetic text.

The rationale for the study is conditioned by the fact that major linguistic researches pay great attention to the notion of discourse and the related notions.

The aim of the research is to define the major functions of allusion in Lewis Caroll's eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”.

Achievements of this goal implies a solution of the following problems:

examination of the notion of allusion and its major types;

examination of the functions of allusion;

contextual analysis of the functions examined according to the examples from the text.

The subject of the investigation is allusion as a discourse symbol.

The object of the research are the stylistic functions of allusion in Lewis Caroll's eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”.

The data source of the investigation is the original text of Lewis Caroll's tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”.

The methods of the research: the method of linguistic observation, the method of contextual analysis.

The composition of the research paper. The study consists the introduction, two chapters, conclusion, list of reference and data sources.

In the introduction we substantiate the rationale for the study, its subject, object and aim, formulate the thesis of the investigation and its methods, its theoretical and practical value.

The first chapter deals with the theoretical points of allusion, its definition, major classifications and finally the functions of allusion.

In the second chapter we analyse the varieties of allusion and its stylistic functions mentioned in the first chapter using the examples from Lewis Caroll's tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”.

In the conclusion we summarize all the research and formulate its resume.

Theoretical value of the research is to generalize the theoretical material on the issue of allusion, its major types and functions in a poetic text.

Practical value of the research is that the survey materials can be used in profound studying of stylistic and literature.


1.1 Definition of allusion

There is no universal definition of allusion in modern scientific literature. This can be explained by versatile approaches of analysis of the allusion phenomenon and also by the fact that structural-semantic and functional peculiarities of allusion are different in texts of different styles.

According to scholar Khristenko “allusion is a term denoting a stylistic device” [16, p.38]. In philology allusion is studied as a verbal poetic image [12].

Today while studying the phenomenon of allusion it is important to remember that it was firstly used as a figure of speech. Etymologically this term originates from Latin alludere (from ludere - to joke, to to play, to give a hint) [16, p.39]. Figures of speech were subdivided into verbal figures (figurae verborum) and figures of reflection (figurae sententiarum). Verbal figures always depend on the words; if one component of verbal figure is changed, the figure can not exist. So allusion was treated as a verbal figure [16, p.39].

In online dictionary allusion is defined as “a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication” [19].

A philological reference book gives us a following definition of allusion: “Allusion (Latin allusio - a joke, a hint) - a stylistic device, a hint, a reference to some poetic text, topic, image or historical event counting on the erudition of the reader who will decode the hidden content” [8, p.30].

L.O. Mashkova broadens the understanding of this term. She makes emphasis on the fact that allusion is a kind of “bridge” between two poetic worlds, two different epochs. She comes to the conclusion that allusion provokes complicated and multidimensional interplay between two texts. In this case we can speak about the allusive process. Though the allusive process differs according to the style of texts and various other features Mashkova [11, p, 27] underlines the following its characteristics:

Allusive process is directed. So to say, allusion is the reference to the concrete text (sometimes it can even be several texts).

Allusion makes possible the connection with certain literary source. So for better understanding of every allusion the knowledge of certain allusive fact is important.

Understanding of allusion is not only understanding of the certain allusive fact.

The allusive process is double-sided. Here the most important is interaction of the text under study and the source of allusion.

So reader's background knowledge is the indispensable condition of allusive process. Proceeding from this fact Mashkova states that there are two aspects of the problem under consideration. On the one hand, we can excuse the author who uses allusions only when he caters for the reader's background knowledge. On the other hand, reader's knowledge should be quite extensive for him to understand the poetic texts. But at the same time Mashkova explains that the reader's possibilities are limited as understanding of allusion is not only the knowledge of the literary source but, first of all, the understanding of its content [11, p.28].

Nevertheless the author needs an active reader. According to scientist Tukharelli “while depicting some characters and events the author gives only few details for the reader to finish the picture; the text is characterized by intermittence of the content. This feature is very close to allusion as the text is always full of special images and hints that can help the reader to amplify it using his memory and associations.” [13, p.113]

Allusion is versatile phenomenon. There are such traditional forms of allusion as:

proper name;



We also can not omit the localization of allusion in paragraphs, strophe or even chapter and a literary work itself. The article of Tukharelli gives detailed examination of this problem. Here the scientist provides us with such well known examples as the novel Ulysses by James Joyce [13, p.115].

Characterizing allusion we must also mention its another important feature which is called orientation. In his work researcher Evseev points out that allusion always contains the intention of the author. This intention helps us to differentiate allusion from such phenomena as accidental coincidence, predetermined coincidence, accidental borrowing and influence [7, p.9].

Another important feature, according to Evseev, is the feedback. It is the bond between metatext and prototext which sometimes can be hidden by the author but can not be totally removed. The feedback also helps to differentiate allusion from plagiarism and artistic borrowing [7, p.10].

1.2 Classification of allusion: different approaches

We can not study the phenomenon of allusion without knowledge of its types and their major differences so let us dwell upon various approaches to the classification of allusion.

This topic was the matter of consideration for many scholars. Speaking about structural classification of allusion one of the most profound was created by scholar Evseev. According to Evseev, allusive process can be executed in two ways: nomination and citation [7, p.7]. There are essential differences between this two types of allusion:

In nominative allusion the relation between the representative and the denotatum of allusion is symbolic while in quotation allusion it is iconic;

In nominative allusion the denotatum can be various while in quotation allusion the denotatum can only be the text and objects connected with the text under consideration metonymically.

So he devided allusions into quotation and nominative according to the language and text levels, assuming their representative in the metatext as a basis of the classification [7, p.12].

Evseev differentiates twelve levels on which allusion may occur:

Phonetic level

Morphemic level

Lexical level

Level of word combinations

Level of the sentence

Level of the text

Level of images

Level of means and devices

Level of scenes and mise-en-scenes

Compositional level

Level of the idea

Thematic level

Other scholars state classifications that being no so profound differ from Evseev's a lot. Vast spear is the classification of allusions into simple and extended. There is also a classification of allusion according its position in the text:

Title allusion

Medial allusion

Ending allusion

O.H. Mamaeva points out the classification of allusion on the basis of their relation with one or another category of cultural facts:

Allusions on information which constitute the main stock of facts for the social culture of certain society

Allusions on one-day facts, events and phenomena of mass culture [7, p.14].

Semantic-stylistic classification of allusions is based on methods of meaning actualization of allusion in the context. This classification also takes under consideration different means of amplification associative relations between the source of allusion and the context. According to Mamaeva there are the following ways of meaning actualization of allusions:

Actualization on the basis of comparison of accentuated features of allusive fact with the features of certain character, event or situation in the text

Actualization on the basis of displacement of allusive information and object-logical meaning within a word, phrase or sentence [9, p.14].

Analyzing different approaches to allusion classification we must also mention the semantic approach. According to this classification allusions can be:



Dominant allusions are characterized by the fact that in correlation between allusion and context different directions appear. There are two types of such directions:

allusion > context;

context > allusion

Speaking about the first variant we can characterize it as the direction of allusion to the content of the expression. In this case either the title of the text or some of its chapters (i.e. the introduction of the text) contains allusion which embodies the essence of the whole text becoming its semantic symbol.

The second variant (context > allusion) is characterized by the appearance of allusion from the outline of the whole text.

The second type of allusion according to the semantic classification is called the localized allusion, or allusion with the limited action. In contrast to dominant allusions they do not define the major topic of the whole poetic text but just contribute to its development acting only in certain limited part of the text. These allusions, in their turn, can be split into the following types:

allusions with the use of proper names (antroponyms, toponyms), or nominative;


Another important differentiation of types of allusion was suggested by above mentioned scholar Evseev. In his work he points out that we should differentiate the notions allusion and reminiscence. Evseev explains that its better to examine the notion reminiscence as a essential part of the notion allusion. ”Reminiscence as the allusion itself can appear not only in the poetic text but also in other different kinds of art such as music, painting etc. The contrast between allusion and reminiscence is in presence/absence of such feature as premeditation.“ [7, p.10]

So reminiscence is a reference unplanned by the author, spontaneous allusion which totally depends on memory and associations of the recipient.

1.3 Stylistic functions of allusion

allusion text vertical context

Any research can not be stated in proper way without pointing out the main functions of the subject under consideration. So now we should pay attention to different functions of allusion and especially to its stylistic functions.

As we have already mentioned allusion is a technique used in literature in which a literary work references another work of literature, work of art, historical figure, place, or event. In general, this passing reference is not explained by the writer, so only readers who are familiar with the source of allusion tend to understand or notice it. The wide use of allusions is caused by many reasons. In some special cases, allusion is used because it already communicated what the author wants to say better than he could have himself. More often, though, the writer uses allusions because of the many emotions or ideas that readers may associate with the text to which the writer alludes.

But in many cases, “allusion serves a more specific purpose than simply tapping into a body of associations. Sometimes a reference to another work is given in a context that is drastically opposed to the original meaning. This technique is often used to refute the meaning of the original and to assert a new meaning.” [20] Other case of the use of allusion in poetic texts actually reference several different sources simultaneously to create new associations and to make the reader to evaluate one or more sources of allusions.

Allusion implies presence of the contextual elements which function consists in indication on the relation between the given text and other texts or reference to the certain historical, cultural and biographic facts.

Stylistic function of allusion consists in the help for the author to depict his attitude towards the world by comparison of two (or several) “realities” or text systems.

Various scholars suggested diverse approaches to differentiation of functions of allusion. Let us firstly innumerate these functions and then proceed to their analysis. So stylistic functions of allusion in the poetic text are the following:

Expression of the idea of the text

Creation of the subtext

Style formation



Microcomponent of the pragmatic structure

Realization of time category


Structure formation

Sense increase

Poetic value

Indication on the authors subtext



Now let us proceed to the brief analysis of above mentioned functions.

In their work scientists Dashtamirova and Serdukova stated the function of allusion that they called the expression of the idea of the text [4, pp.4-54]. Later other scholars continued their work where they stated the position of allusion as the expression of the author's intention in the text. The main idea of the text may be hidden in the allusive process, so as we have already studied from the work of scientist Mashkova, using this function of allusion the author is expecting for the prepared reader [9, p.28].

The next function called the creation of the subtext was studied by various scientists such as Kashkimbaeva [5, pp. 28-33], Mamaeva [10, p.20], Serdukova [4], Fedosiuk. They stated allusion to be the means of creation of associative subtext which is possible by realization of intertextual references. In her work Kashkinbaeva points out that the sense of allusion is “in the interrelation between situational usage of speech means in the context created by the allusion and the new context where the reader can find author's attitude to these means.” [5, p.33] In Mamaeva's work we can also find the examination of this function of allusion. She explains [10, p.20] that allusion is not way different well known facts but just the hint for understanding of the subtext.

Scholar Diadechko [6, pp.117-123] mentioned the style forming function of allusion. He examined this function analyzing the above mentioned type of allusions called reminiscence and their use and influence in poetic text.

Allusion as the means of irony was also studied by different scholars (Dzhilkibaev, Kashkimbaeva [5, pp.28-33], Homleshko [2, p.6]). Homleshko states allusion to be one of the major stylistic devices used for creating irony (together with oxymoron, zeugma, hyperbole [2, p.24].)

Thematic function of allusion was examined by major Russian linguists such as Davydova [3, pp.141-150], Mamaeva [10], Polubychenko, Tukharelli [13, pp.110-116]. Davydova points out that allusion is often used for the explanation of thematic problems raised in the text. At the same time the author is expecting again for the reader's background knowledge [3, p.145].

The main partisan of regarding allusion as the microcomponent of the pragmatic structure was researcher Dashtamirova. This approach became the topic of her major works [4, pp.4-54]. She stated that the pragmatic power of the text as one of the sides of pragmatic influence of the language is based on the special choice of stylistic devices one of which is the allusion.

Diadechko also examined allusion as the realization of time category [6, pp.117-123]. According to him allusion can be one of major stylistic devices dealing with this function.

Diadechko states that allusion (so as the phraseology) can provide the economy of expression [6, p. 118]. This function was also studied by Evseev [7] and Kashkimbaeva [5, p.28-33].

Speaking about such type of allusion as the citation various scholars (Davydova [3, pp.145-150], Diadechko [6, pp.117-120], Tukharelli [12]) mtention its structure forming function. According to Belozerova allusions can depict the structure of characters and events in the poetic text [1].

Sense increase function of allusion was firstly mentioned by Tukharelli [14, p.163]. He points out that active interrelation between texts content (and their stylistic peculiarities) and the author's mind depicts one of the major intertextual principles which consists in the following phenomenon - the appeal to them “creates productive semantic fluctuation - leads to sense increase and sense transformation”. Other scholars such as Dashtamirova [4] and Evseev [7, p.10] also paid attention to this function. Examining their works we can come to a conclusion that allusion lead to sense increase not only because allusion markers create the relation with the source text but also because in the sense of the new text the source text is also transformed. This transformation changes the semiotic structure of the new text [18]. So we can treat the allusive process as a kind of exclusive circle.

Poetic value as a function of allusion was studied by Polubychenko and Fedosiuk [15]. It is ease to understand that allusions (as other stylistic devices) increase the poetic value of the text.

One of the most important functions of allusion in the poetic text is the indication on the author's subtext. Linguist Dzhilkibaev [5, pp.28-33] and later his colleague scolar Tsyrenova [17, pp.115-161] mentioned this major function in their research. According to Tsyrenova allusion is one of the means of realization of intertextuality [17, p.155] which, in tern, often becomes the basis for the author's subtext.

Characterological function of allusion helps authors to provide the reader with the special features of any character. It is can be often examined while allusion is used in dialogues. Such scientists of Dashtamirova [4, pp.48-50], Dzhilkibaev [5, pp.28-33], Diadechko [6, p.118] and Polubychenko also pointed out the interrelation between characterological function and the influence of allusion on the intertextuality in poetic texts. Linguist Davydova states that allusion can be used “as the contextual synonym of any character” [3, p.147].

Symbolic function of allusion studied by Serdiukova and Dzhilkibaev [5, p.30] consists in symbolic meaning of events and characters referred to in allusive process.

After examining the theoretical points according the allusion phenomenon, major approaches to its classification and the most important functions of allusion we should proceed to more profound analysis the use of allusion in poetic texts.


2.1 Allusion as a category of vertical context

The context is a fragment of the text verbal background of the text element chosen for the analysis, a certain group of words, grammatical forms and constructions where the certain word of any other unit equal to it is used. Speaking about this notion we must differentiate horizontal and vertical context.

Horizontal context is the closer background of the word in sentence while vertical context is a large part of the text, where the meaning of the word can go under serious semantic transformations.

Linguist Vinogradov states that the term vertical context can be understood as the background information, situational, subject historical and philosophical information that the text contains. “The usual categories of vertical context are allusions, symbols, idioms etc. Vertical context may contain the hidden information which is independent from the author's intentions. But on the other hand, vertical context may be totally controlled by the sender of the message who creates the text in such a way that it contains a hint to some literary, lingual, social fact. Allusions are the major distinctive device of realization of vertical context.” [21, pp.41-42]

Scholar Hubbenet characterizes vertical context as [22, pp.7-8] “the historical and philological context of a poetic text and its parts”. And literal allusion is its major element [24, p.25].

Let us proceed to the examples from Lewis Caroll's tale Alice's Adventures in Wonderland to understand the role of allusion in vertical context and analyze the interrelation between the given poetic text and source texts and information (events, characters) executed through the allusive process.

2.2 Varieties of allusion in the eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”

After giving the classification of allusion we should analyze those its types which we can find in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

Let us start with character allusions which are quite frequently used in the text.

Character allusions from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland are studied profoundly by American writer and scientist Martin Gardner. In his work The Annotated Alice he provides background information for all the characters.

He explans that the members of the boating party that first heard Carroll's tale are shown up in Chapter 3 ("A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale"). Alice Liddell herself is depicted as Alice, while Carroll is caricatured as the Dodo (because Dodgson stuttered when he spoke, he sometimes pronounced his last name as Dodo-Dodgson). The Duck refers to Canon Duckworth, the Lory to Lorina Liddell, and the Eaglet to Edith Liddell (Alice Liddell's sisters) [8, p.27]. There is also another allusion to Liddell sisters. The Dormouse tells a story about three little sisters named Elsie, Lacie, and Tillie. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L.C. (Lorina Charlotte), Tillie is Edith (her family nickname is Matilda), and Lacie is an anagram of Alice [28, p.75].

Speaking about other characters Bill the Lizard may be a play on the name of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli [26, pp.69-70]. This idea of Will Brooker was also confirmed in the above mentioned work of Martin Gardner. He pays reader's attention to Tenniel's illustrations in Through the Looking-Glass where the character referred to as the "Man in White Paper" (whom Alice meets as a fellow passenger riding on the train with her), is depicted as a caricature of Disraeli, wearing a paper hat [28, p.172]. The illustrations of the Lion and the Unicorn also bear a striking resemblance to Tenniel's Punch illustrations of Gladstone and Disraeli [28, p.226].

According to the work of Martin Gardner the Hatter is most likely a reference to Theophilus Carter, a furniture dealer known in Oxford for his unorthodox inventions. Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter, on Carroll's suggestion [28, p.69].

Another allusive character mentioned by Gardner is a Drawling-master. The Mock Turtle speaks about him as “an old conger eel”, who came once a week to teach “Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils”. This is a reference to the art critic John Ruskin, who came once a week to the Liddell house to teach the children drawing, sketching, and painting in oils [28, p.98].

We can also point out the allusion with a use of parody. The Mock Turtle sings Turtle Soup. This song is a parody of a song called Star of the Evening, Beautiful Star, which was performed as a trio by Lorina, Alice and Edith Liddell for Lewis Carroll in the Liddell home the same summer when he started telling them the story of Alice's Adventures.

Another type of allusion that we can find in Caroll's text is the reminiscence. Caroll adored the works of Shakespeare who was one of his favourite writers. And in Caroll's book we can found a lot of citations, the reminiscences to Shakespeare which are sometimes the means of building the dialogue. Let us look at the following example [27, chapter 3]:

“'Crawling at your feet,' said the Gnat (Alice drew her feet back in some alarm), `you may observe a Bread-and-Butterfly. Its wings are thin slices of Bread-and-butter, its body is a crust, and its head is a lump of sugar`.

`And what does it live on?'

`Weak tea with cream in it.'

`Then it would die, of course.'

`But that must happen very often,' Alice remarked thoughtfully.

`It always happens,' said the Gnat.”

This dialogue between Alice and the Gnat is the reminiscence for Shakespeare's Henry IV where the structure of the dialogue between Hotspur and Owen Glendower looks quite alike [32, chapter 1, III].

Another type of allusion called the citation is also widely spread in Caroll's texts. As the example we can take the favorite phrase of the Queen of Hearts:

“'Off with her head!' the Queen shouted at the top of her voice. Nobody moved.”

This phrase is a direct citation of Shakespeare's Richard III [35, 3, IV]:


If I thou protector of this damned strumpet

Tellest thou me of 'ifs'? Thou art a traitor:

Off with his head! Now, by Saint Paul I swear,

I will not dine until I see the same.

Lovel and Ratcliff, look that it be done:

The rest, that love me, rise and follow me.”

There are a lot of other allusions to Shakespeare's works, for example [LC, chapter 9]:

“Oh, 'tis love, 'tis love, that makes the world go round!”

Most scholars accept it to be the allusion to A Midsummer Night's Dream [32, IV, 1].

Another appropriate example is the conclusion made by Cheshire Cat when he mat Alice for the first time:

“`How do you know I'm mad?' said Alice.

`You must be,' said the Cat, `or you wouldn't have come here.'”

It reminds us the lines of Shakespeare's Macbeth [34, I, 5]:


The king comes here to-night.


Thou'rt mad to say it:

Is not thy master with him? who, were't so,

Would have inform'd for preparation.”

2.3 Stylistic functions of allusion in the eccentric tale “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland”

In the first chapter we have already examined various functions of allusion. Some of them we can observe and analyze on the examples from Lewis Caroll's tale Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. They are:

structure formation;

indication on the authors subtext;

realization of time category;

symbolic function;


Now we should examine the above mentioned functions in details.

The main function executed by allusion in Caroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass is its role in building the dialogue. Here allusion often goes in close interrelation with parody [23, p.22].

For example, the golden key could be referred to George MacDonald's The Golden Key [30]. The poetry under the same title was firstly published in 1861 in the book called Victoria Regis, but his famous allegory tale The Golden Key was published only in 1867 in the book Dealings with the Fairies. But MacDonald's friends liked to read his works before the publication so Caroll could be familiar with most of them [23, p.22].

In Through the Looking Glass Caroll works out the topic of the mirror which was also the idea of MacDonald suggested in his romantic insert novel from his tale Phantastes [31].

The White Knight reflects the Sad Knight from MacDonald's Phantastes and in some interpretations even Don Quixote [29]. This conception was popularized by John Hinz. Moreover Hinz's worked out a theory concerning Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as the ideological continuation of Don Quixote.

Scientist Gardner mentioned the allusion to Dickens' The Cricket on the Hearth in Chapter 1 of Through the Looking Glass [28, p.114]

The function of indication of the author's subtext can be exemplified by very interesting are the reminiscence to MacDonald. His character got the golden key at once (while Alice dies not) but the door for this key would become the aim of all his life. His way to the Country if the Golden Key is depicted as a multidimensional allegory of life as a way to some kind of absolute truth. The dream about a sacramental door to be opened by the golden key joins in character's imagination with the dream about a country in description of which we can find the echo of Plato's ideas and Christian mythology united in the ramified system of symbols. So the allusion of golden key has much deeper interpretation which can be understood not only on the background of MacDonald's text but on more profound level. Here we can see allusion for the allusion.

The character of MacDonald's text found the dreamed country only in the Death. Macdonald understands Death is as a part of life and that way to absolute truth is not finished even after the death. So here we can find a great difference between Caroll's and Macdonald's golden key. Caroll's miraculous garden which Alice using her golden key has nothing in common with MacDonald's idea. Here we can not find well-composed allegories, only chaos, senselessness and lawlessness. So we can point out that the branched system of reminiscences, direct and indirect allusions created by Caroll in his tales turn them from visually simple texts into the space surrounded by dozens of other texts rich in allusions themselves.

Allusion also performs its characterological function. Using the above mentioned character allusion the author provides reader with the important information about main characters of the tale giving them the names of living people.

In tales of Lewis Caroll we can also examine such important functions of allusion as realization of time category (also an allusion to texts of Shakespeare [32-35]) and structure formation [32, 36]. Thus in the structure of both tales Caroll uses the principle of diffusive metaphor which is a distinctive feature of such works of Shakespeare as A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Tempest.


This research paper has focused on allusion as a discourse symbol. The investigation was carried out by means of linguistic observation and contextual analysis. In the result of the investigation it has been concluded that:

1. Allusion as one of the most frequently used stylistic devices, often performs a remarkable role in a poetic text. In helps to unfold all the variety of meanings of the author's subtext.

2. Huge amount of linguists used to study the stylistic device of literal allusion. They worked out different approaches to the allusion classification. Among the most important types of allusion are the following: nominative allusion and citation, dominant and localized allusion, reminiscence.

3. Allusion can perform a great variety of stylistic functions; the major of them are: expression of the idea of the text, creation of the subtext, realization of time category, structure formation of the text or its parts, poetic value, symbolic function.

4. Allusion is the major element of the vertical context. The analysis of the author's context is impossible without a deep insight into the allusive system of the poetic text.

5. In his tales Lewis Caroll preferred to use difficult multilayer allusions; most of them were the hints from William Shakespeare texts.

6. Using the examples from Caroll's tales Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass we analyzed the major stylistic functions of allusion such as structure formation, indication on the author's subtext and characterological function. An experimental data have confirmed, that most of above mentioned functions of allusion reveal an interrelated system of the author's subtext.

Further research in the area is possible. It should deal with the allusive system of Shakespeares works as this can unfolding the next range of Caroll's multilayer allusions and deeper interrelation between poetic texts.


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