Principles of word-formation in English

Definitin and features, linguistic peculiarities f wrd-frmatin. Types f wrd-frmatin: prductive and secndary ways. Analysis f the bk "Bridget Jnes Diary" by Helen Fielding n the subject f wrd-frmatin, results f the analysis.

17.03.2014
106,8 K

. ,

, , , , .

There are als linguistic causes f abbreviating wrds and wrd-grups, such as the demand f rhythm, which is satisfied in English by mnsyllabic wrds. When brrwings frm ther languages are assimilated in English they are shrtened. Here there is mdificatin f frm n the basis f analgy, e.g. the Latin brrwing fanaticus is shrtened t fan n the analgy with native wrds: man, pan, tan etc.

There are tw main types f shrtenings: graphical and lexical.

Graphical abbreviatins are the result f shrtening f wrds and wrd-grups nly in written speech while rally the crrespnding full frms are used. They are used fr the ecnmy f space and effrt in writing.

The ldest grup f graphical abbreviatins in English is f Latin rigin. In these abbreviatins in the spelling Latin wrds are shrtened, while rally the crrespnding English equivalents are prnunced in the full frm, e.g. a.m. - in the mrning (ante meridiem), p.a. - a year (per annum), d - penny (dinarius), lb - pund (libra), i. e. - that is (id est) etc.

There are als graphical abbreviatins f native rigin, where in the spelling we have abbreviatins f wrds and wrd-grups f the crrespnding English equivalents in the full frm. We have several semantic grups f them:

a) days f the week, e.g. Mn - Mnday, Tue - Tuesday etc

b) names f mnths, e.g. Apr - April, Aug - August etc.

c) names f cunties in UK, e.g. Yrks - Yrkshire, Berks - Berkshire etc

d) names f states in USA, e.g. Ala - Alabama, Alas - Alaska etc.

e) names f address, e.g. Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr. etc.

f) military ranks, e.g. capt. - captain, cl. - clnel, sgt - sergeant etc.

g) scientific degrees, e.g. B.A. - Bachelr f Arts, D.M. - Dctr f Medicine. (Smetimes in scientific degrees we have abbreviatins f Latin rigin, e.g., M.B. - Medicinae Baccalaurus).

h) units f time, length, weight, e.g. f. / ft - ft/feet, sec. - secnd, in. - inch, mg. - milligram, etc. [29, p. 49].

The reading f sme graphical abbreviatins depends n the cntext, e.g. m can be read as: male, married, masculine, metre, mile, millin, minute, l.p. can be read as lng-playing, lw pressure.

Initial abbreviatins (achrnyms). Initialisms are the brdering case between graphical and lexical abbreviatins. When they appear in the language, as a rule, t dente sme new ffices they are clser t graphical abbreviatins because rally full frms are used, e.g. J.V. - jint venture. When they are used fr sme duratin f time they acquire the shrtened frm f prnuncing and becme clser t lexical abbreviatins, e.g. BBC is as a rule prnunced in the shrtened frm.

There are three types f initialisms in English:

a) initialisms with alphabetical reading, such as UK, BUP, CND etc

b) initialisms which are read as if they are wrds, e.g. UNESC, UN, NAT etc.

c) initialisms which cincide with English wrds in their sund frm, such initialisms are called acrnyms, e.g. CLASS (Cmputer-based Labratry fr Autmated Schl System).

d) there are als cmpund-shrtened wrds where the first cmpnent is an initial abbreviatin with the alphabetical reading and the secnd ne is a cmplete wrd, e.g. A-bmb, U-prnunciatin, V - day etc. In sme cases the first cmpnent is a cmplete wrd and the secnd cmpnent is an initial abbreviatin with the alphabetical prnunciatin, e.g. Three - Ds (Three dimensins) [30, p. 137].

Clipping is a lexical shrtening. Abbreviatin f wrds cnsists in clipping a part f a wrd. As a result we get a new lexical unit where either the lexical meaning r the style is different frm the full frm f the wrd. In such cases as fantasy and fancy, fence and defence we have different lexical meanings. In such cases as labratry and lab, we have different styles.

Abbreviatin des nt change the part-f-speech meaning, as we have it in the case f cnversin r affixatin, it prduces wrds belnging t the same part f speech as the primary wrd, e.g. prf is a nun and prfessr is als a nun. Mstly nuns underg abbreviatin, but we can als meet abbreviatin f verbs, such as t rev frm t revlve, t tab frm t tabulate etc. But mstly abbreviated frms f verbs are frmed by means f cnversin frm abbreviated nuns, e.g. t taxi, t vac etc. Adjectives can be abbreviated but they are mstly used in schl slang and are cmbined with suffixatin, e.g. cmfy, dilly, mizzy etc. As a rule prnuns, numerals, interjectins. cnjunctins are nt abbreviated. The exceptins are: fif (fifteen), teen-ager, in ne's teens (apheresis frm numerals frm 13 t 19).

4. Wrd-cmpsitin is the way f wrd-building: a wrd is frmed by jining tw r mre stems t frm ne wrd. The structural type f cmpund wrds and the wrd-building type f cmpsitin have certain advantages fr cmmunicatin purpses.

Cmpsitin is nt quite s flexible a way f cining new wrds as cnversin but flexible enugh. Amng cmpunds are fund numerus expressive and clurful wrds. They are als cmparatively lacnic, absrbing int ne wrd an idea that therwise wuld have required a whle phrase (cf. The htel was full f week-enders and The htel was full f peple spending the week-end there). [12, p. 110]

Bth the lacnic and the expressive value f cmpunds can be well illustrated by English cmpund adjectives denting clurs (cf. snw-white - as white as snw).

There are tw characteristic features f English cmpunds:

a) Bth cmpnents in an English cmpund are free stems, that is they can be used as wrds with a distinctive meaning f their wn. The sund pattern will be the same except fr the stresses, e.g. a green-huse and a green huse.

b) English cmpunds have a tw-stem pattern, with the exceptin f cmpund wrds which have frm-wrd stems in their structure, e.g. middle-f-the-rad, ff-the-recrd, up-and-ding etc.

Classificatin f cmpunds.

1. Cmpund wrds can be divided accrding t the parts f speech cmpunds:

a) nuns, such as: baby-mn, glbe-trtter,

b) adjectives, such as: free-fr-all, pwer-happy,

c) verbs, such as: t hney-mn, t baby-sit, t henpeck,

d) adverbs, such as: dwndeep, headfirst,

e) prepsitins, such as: int, within,

f) numerals, such as: fifty-five [22, c. 95].

2. Accrding t the way cmpnents are jined tgether cmpunds are divided int:

a) neutral, which are frmed by jining tgether tw stems withut any jining mrpheme, e.g. ball-pint, t windwshp,

b) mrphlgical where cmpnents are jined by a linking element: vwels r i r the cnsnant s, e.g. (astrspace, handicraft, sprtsman),

c) syntactical where the cmpnents are jined by means f frm-wrd stems, e.g. here-and-nw, free-fr-all., d-r-die.

3. Accrding t their structure cmpunds are subdivided int:

a) cmpund wrds prper which cnsist f tw stems, e.g. t jb-hunt, train-sick, g-g, tip-tp,

b) derivatinal cmpunds, where besides the stems we have affixes, e.g. ear-minded, hydr-skimmer,

c) cmpund wrds cnsisting f three r mre stems, e.g. crnflwer-blue, eggshell-thin, singer-sngwriter,

d) cmpund-shrtened wrds, e.g. batel, turmbile, VJ-day, mtcrss, intervisin, Eurdllar, Camfrd.

4. Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents cmpund wrds are subdivided int:

a) subrdinative cmpunds where ne f the cmpnents is the semantic and the structural centre and the secnd cmpnent is subrdinate, e.g. hney-sweet, eggshell-thin, knee-deep, dg-cheap, etc

b) crdinative cmpunds where bth cmpnents are semantically independent. Here belng such cmpunds when ne persn (bject) has tw functins, e.g. secretary-stengrapher, wman-dctr, xbridge etc. Such cmpunds are called additive [15, p. 69].

5. Accrding t the rder f the cmpnents cmpunds are divided int cmpunds with direct rder, e.g. kill-jy, and cmpunds with indirect rder, e.g. nuclear-free, rpe-ripe.

Secndary ways f wrd-frmatin (sund interchange, stress interchange, sund imitatin, blends, back frmatin)

Sund interchange is the way f wrd-building when sme sunds are changed t frm a new wrd. It is nn-prductive in Mdern English, it was prductive in ld English and can be met in ther Ind-Eurpean languages.

The causes f sund interchange can be different. It can be the result f Ancient Ablaut which cannt be explained by the phnetic laws during the perid f the language develpment knwn t scientists., e.g. t strike - strke, t sing - sng etc. It can be als the result f Ancient Umlaut r vwel mutatin which is the result f palatalizing the rt vwel because f the frnt vwel in the syllable cming after the rt (regressive assimilatin), e.g. ht - t heat (htian), bld - t bleed (bldian) etc. [17, p. 54].

In many cases we have vwel and cnsnant interchange. In nuns we have viceless cnsnants and in verbs we have crrespnding viced cnsnants because in ld English these cnsnants in nuns were at the end f the wrd and in verbs in the intervcal psitin, e.g. bath - t bathe, life - t live, breath - t breathe etc.

Stress interchange can be mstly met in verbs and nuns f Rmanic rigin: nuns have the stress n the first syllable and verbs n the last syllable, e.g. `accent - t ac`cent. This phenmenn is explained in the fllwing way: French verbs and nuns had different structure when they were brrwed int English, verbs had ne syllable mre than the crrespnding nuns. When these brrwings were assimilated in English the stress in them was shifted t the previus syllable (the secnd frm the end). Later n the last unstressed syllable in verbs brrwed frm French was drpped (the same as in native verbs) and after that the stress in verbs was n the last syllable while in nuns it was n the first syllable. As a result f it we have such pairs in English as: t af'fix -`affix, t cn`flict - `cnflict, t ex`prt -`exprt, t ex`tract - `extract etc. As a result f stress interchange we have als vwel interchange in such wrds because vwels are prnunced differently in stressed and unstressed psitins.

Sund imitatin is the way f wrd-building when a wrd is frmed by imitating different sunds. There are sme semantic grups f wrds frmed by means f sund imitatin

a) sunds prduced by human beings, such as: t whisper, t giggle, t mumble, t sneeze, t whistle etc.

b) sunds prduced by animals, birds, insects, such as: t hiss, t buzz, t bark, t m, t twitter etc.

c) sunds prduced by nature and bjects, such as: t splash, t rustle, t clatter, t bubble, t ding-dng, t tinkle etc.

The crrespnding nuns are frmed by means f cnversin, e.g. clang (f a bell), chatter (f children) etc. [2, p. 58]

Blends are wrds frmed frm a wrd-grup r tw synnyms. In blends tw ways f wrd-building are cmbined: abbreviatin and cmpsitin. T frm a blend we clip the end f the first cmpnent (apcpe) and the beginning f the secnd cmpnent (apheresis). As a result we have a cmpund - shrtened wrd. ne f the first blends in English was the wrd smg frm tw synnyms: smke and fg which means smke mixed with fg. Frm the first cmpnent the beginning is taken, frm the secnd ne the end, is cmmn fr bth f them.

Blends frmed frm tw synnyms are: slanguange, t hustle, gashl etc. Mstly blends are frmed frm a wrd-grup, such as: acrmania (acrnym mania), cinemadict (cinema adict), chunnel (channel, canal), dramedy (drama cmedy), detectifictin (detective fictin), factin (fact fictin: fictin based n real facts), infrmecial (infrmatin cmmercial), Medicare (medical care), magalg (magazine catalgue) slimnastics (slimming gymnastics), scilite (scial elite), slanguist (slang linguist), etc. [25, p. 40].

Backfrmatin is the way f wrd-building when a wrd is frmed by drpping the final mrpheme t frm a new wrd. It is ppsite t suffixatin, that is why it is called back frmatin. At first it appeared in the languauge as a result f misunderstanding the structure f a brrwed wrd. This mistake is explained by the influence f the whle system f the language n separate wrds. E.g. it is typical f English t frm nuns denting the agent f the actin by adding the suffix - er t a verb stem (speak - speaker). S when the French wrd beggar was brrwed int English the final syllable ar was prnunced in the same way as the English - er and Englishmen frmed the verb t beg by drpping the end f the nun. ther examples f back frmatin are: t accreditate (frm accreditatin), t bach (frm bachelr), t cllcate (frm cllcatin), t enthuse (frm enthusiasm), t cmpute (frm cmputer), t emte (frm emtin) t reminisce (frm reminiscence), t televise (frm televisin) etc. [13, p. 97].

As we can ntice in cases f back frmatin the part-f-speech meaning f the primary wrd is changed, verbs are frmed frm nuns.

Cncluding ur theretical and theretical-practical part, we can state that wrd-frmatin as a means f language develpment is a very imprtant item in lexiclgy as ne f the surces f language develpment. As a subject f study English wrd-frmatin is that branch f English lexiclgy which studies the derivative structure f wrds and the patterns n which the English language builds new wrds.

Wrd-frmatin is the prcess f creating wrds frm the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic frmulas and patterns.

There are different types f wrd-frmatin. It includes prductive and nn-prductive kinds (prductive are used very frequent in cmmunicatin, nn-prductive are nt very cmmn). Wrd-frmatin has a functin f frming f new wrds and replenishing the language.

There are tw main grups types f wrd-frmatin in Mdern English: prductive and nn-prductive. Within the types further distinctin is made between the varius ways and means f wrd-frmatin.

Prductive ways f wrd-frmatin are: affixatin, cnversin, wrd-cmpunding, shrtening.

Nn-prductive ways f wrd-frmatin are: sund interchange, stress interchange, sund imitatin, blends, back-frmatin.

In rder t cnclude a classificatin f wrd-frmatin types, we have made a general table f all types f wrd-frmatin, accrding t R.S. Ginzburg, G.B. Antrushina, I.V. Arnld.

Types f wrd-frmatin

Authr

Prductive types

f wrd-frmatin

Nn-prductive types

f wrd-frmatin

Ginzburg R.S.

affixatin

cnversin

wrd-cmpsitin

sund-interchange

stress-interchange

Antrushina G.B.

derivatin (affixatin)

cnversin

wrd-cmpsitin

shrtening

sund-imitatin

reduplicatin

back-frmatin

Arnld I.V.

affixatin

cnversin

cmpunding

shrtening

blending

sund-interchange

back-frmatin

2. Analysis f the bk Bridget Jnes' Diary by Helen Fielding n the subject f wrd-frmatin

  • 2.1 Aims and bjectives f the analysis
  • Practical part f ur curse paper is devted t researching features f prductive and nn-prductive types f wrd-frmatin.
  • The aim f the practical research is t cnfirm statements f the theretical part.
  • The prblems f the practical research:

- t define the basis f the practical research,

- t write ut sentences with examples f wrd-frmatin,

- t identify the type f wrd frmatin frm the pint f view f prductivity,

- t classify the type f wrd-frmatin and t describe it,

- t make a quantitative analysis f the practical research,

- t reveal the quantity f the prductive and nn-prductive ways f wrd-frmatin.

The basis f the practical research is the wrk f Helen Fielding Bridget Jnes' Diary.

  • 2.2 Prcedure f the analysis

1. New Year's Reslutins. I will nt: Drink mre than furteen alchl units a week. Smke. Waste mney n: pasta-makers, ice-cream machines r ther culinary devices which will never use; bks by unreadable literary authrs t put impressively n shelves; extic underwear, since pintless as have n byfriend.

Reslutins, unreadable, impressively - an example f affixatin.

Reslutin - a nun, frmed frm the verb with the help f nun-frming suffix

- tin with the meaning f the result f the actin.

unreadable - an example f affixatin. An adjective was frmed frm the verb t read with the help f the prefix un - (with the ppsite meaning), adjectival suffix - able with the meaning f quality.

Impressively - an adverb frmed frm the adjective with the help f the prductive suffix - ly.

pasta-makers, ice-cream, byfriend, underwear, pintless are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. The first cmpund wrd (nun) is frmed frm 2 wrds and ending. It is a derivative cmpund.

The secnd (adjective) cnsists f tw stems and is called a prper cmpund.

The third (nun) is a prper cmpund. It cnsists f tw stems.

Accrding t the way f jining the first tw cmpunds are syntactical, the third is neutral.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents these cmpunds are crdinative.

Underwear - a prper, neutral cmpund was frmed frm tw stems - the first is an adverb, the secnd is a nun (adv + nun). Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents it is crdinative.

Pintless - an adjective frmed frm the nun and adverb less. It is a prper, neutral cmpund. Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents it is crdinative.

2. Allw in-tray t rage ut f cntrl.

In-tray - an example f wrd-cmpsitin. It is a prper, neutral, subrdinative cmpund, cnsisting f tw stems.

3. Fall fr any f fllwing: alchlics, wrkahlics, cmmitment phbics, peple with girlfriends r wives, misgynists, megalmaniacs, chauvinists, emtinal fuckwits r freeladers, perverts.

wrkahlics, girlfriends, megalmaniacs, fuckwits, freeladers - examples f wrd-cmpsitin.

wrkahlic - a cmpund-shrtened wrd, subrdinative, mrphlgical. They are frmed frm tw stems. The secnd stem is abbreviatin frm alchlic.

girlfriend - a cmpund prper, crdinative, neutral. It is frmed frm tw nuns - girl+friend.

Megalmaniac - The wrd megalmania is derived frm the Greek wrds : megal-, meaning large r great, and : mania, meaning madness, frenzy. The first attested use f the wrd megalmania in English is in 1890 as a translatin f the French wrd mgalmanie.

4. My dear, yu flatter me. I certainly have had my share f beauty, but I d nt pretend t be anything extrardinary nw. When a wman has grwn-up daughters, she ught t give ver thinking f her wn beauty.

Certainly - an example f affixatin, an adverb was frmed frm the adjective with the help f the suffix - ly. It is an adverb-frming, deadjectival suffix - ly (certain >certainly). Its ntin is in what manner. It frms a new part f speech and pssesses prductiveness in wrd-frmatin.

Anything - an example f wrd-cmpsitin. The prnun is frmed frm a prnun any and a nun thing.

Extrardinary - example f prefixatin. An adjective is frmed frm the Latin brrwed prefix extra- + adjective rdinary. The prefix dentes a meaning utside f.

grwn-up - an example f wrd-cmpsitin, an adjective is frmed frm the verb t grw + prepsitin up. It is neutral, cmpund prper, subrdinative.

thinking - example f suffixatin. Gerund is frmed frm the verb t think + suffix - ing, which changes the part f speech (t think > thinking) and dentes actin r prcess.

5. It is a truth universally acknwledged, that a single man in pssessin f a gd frtune, must be in want f a wife. Hwever little knwn the feelings r views f such a man may be n his first entering a neighburhd, this truth is s well fixed in the minds f the surrunding families, that he is cnsidered the rightful prperty f smene r ther f their daughters.

Universally, pssessin, feelings, entering, neighburhd, surrunding, rightful, prperty - these are wrds frmed with the help f affixes.

Universally (an adverb) was frmed frm the nun and cnsists f the stem univers - and tw suffixes: - al and - ly. The fitst suffix is an adjective-frming, denminal suffix (universe > universal). Its ntin is relating t and it dentes quality f the subject. The secnd is an adverb-frming, deadjectival suffix - ly (universal > universally). Its ntin is in what manner. Bth suffixes frm a new part f speech and pssess prductiveness in wrd-frmatin.

Acknwledged is a Participle II (nn-finite frm f the verb) frmed frm the verb. It cnsists f the prefix ac-, rt knw, suffix - ledge. Prefix ac - dentes additin r increase, it desn't change a part f speech, Suffix - ledge is archaic and is very rare in the English wrd-frmatin.

Pssessin is nun frmed frm the verb (t pssess > pssessin) with the help f the deverbal, nun-frming suffix - sin which is brrwed frm French. It changes a part f speech and has a ntin f state r quality.

Feeling - nun is frmed with the nun-frming, deverbal, prductive suffix - ing, which changes the part f speech (t feel > feeling) and dentes actin r prcess.

Entering, surrunding - Gerunds frmed frm the verb (t enter, t surrund) with the help f nun-frming, deverbal, prductive suffix - ing, which changes the part f speech (t feel > feeling, t surrund - surrunding) and dentes actin r prcess. In this sentence entering has a functin f the bject, surrunding - in the functin f adjective.

Neighbrhd - nun is frmed with the nun-frming, nn-prductive suffix - hd, which desn't change the part f speech (neighbr > neighbrhd) and dentes state, cnditin r quality.

Rightful - an adjective which is frmed frm the nun right with the denminal, adjective-frming suffix - ful. It has a ntin full f and changes a part f speech.

Prperty - a nun frmed frm the adjective (prper > prperty) with the help f the nun-frming, nn-prductive suffix - ty. It dentes state, cnditin r quality and changes a part f speech.

smene is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. The prnun is frmed frm tw prnuns - sme + ne. It is neutral, cmpund prper, subrdinative.

6. Yu are verscrupulus surely. I dare t say my brther will be very glad t see yu; and I will send a few lines by yu t assume him f my hearty cnsent t his marrying whichever he chses f the girls.

verscrupulus, surely, hearty, marrying - wrds frmed with affixes.

verscrupulus is an adjective which cnsists f the prefix ver - (with the meaning f excessiveness), which is attached t the brrwed frm French wrd scrupulus. The prefix desn't change the part f speech.

Surely - an adverb that was frmed frm the adjective sure and an adverb-frming, deadjectival prductive suffix - ly, which dentes in what manner and changes a part f speech (adj > adv).

Hearty - an adjective frmed frm the nun heart and an adjective-frming, denminal, nn-prductive suffix - ty which changes a part f speech (n > adj). and dentes state, cnditin r quality.

Marrying - a Gerund (nn-finite frm f the verb) in the functin f bject frmed frm the verb t marry and a prductive deverbal suffix - ing and dentes actin r prcess.

Whichever - is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. The prnun is frmed frm ne prnun and ne adverb - which + ever. It is neutral, cmpund prper, subrdinative.

7. There is n happiness like that f being lved by yur fellw-creatures, and feeling that yur presence is an additin t their cmfrt.

Happiness - an example f affixatin. A nun was frmed with the suffix-ness is a prductive nun-frming, deadjectival suffix, it jins an adjective and expresses value f a cnditin f a subject. It changes a part f speech (adj > n).

fellw-creature - is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. The nun is frmed frm tw nuns. It is neutral, cmpund prper, crdinative.

Creature - an example f affixatin - a nun frmed frm the verb t create with the help f the nn-prductive, brrwed, nun-frming, deverbal suffix - ure (dentes cnditin, actin). This suffix changes a part f speech (v > n).

Being, feeling - examples f affixatin - Participles I (nn-finite frm f the verb) frmed frm verbs with a prductive deverbal suffix - ing that dentes actin r prcess. This suffix changes a part f speech (v > Part. I).

Additin - an example f affixatin - a nun, frmed with the help f the prductive, nun-frming, deverbal suffix - tin, it jins a verb, frms nuns frm verbs and expresses abstract value. It changes a part f speech (adj > n).

Presence - an example f affixatin - a nun, frmed with the help f the prductive, nun-frming, deverbal brrwed suffix - ence, it jins t a verb (t present), frms nuns frm verbs and expresses abstract value. It changes a part f speech (v > n).

8. But cnsider yur daughters. nly think what an establishment it wuld be fr ne f them. They are determined t g, merely n that accunt, fr in general, yu knw, they visit n newcmers. Indeed yu must g, fr it will be impssible fr them t visit him if yu d nt.

Establishment, merely, impssible - examples f affixatin.

Establishment - a nun, frmed with the help f the prductive, nun-frming, deverbal suffix - ment, it jins a verb, frms nuns frm verbs and expresses the actin r result f actin. It changes a part f speech (v > n).

merely - an example f affixatin. An adverb was frmed frm the adjective mere and an adverb-frming, deadjectival prductive suffix - ly, which dentes in what manner and changes a part f speech (adj > adv).

Impssible - an example f prefixatin. An adjective was frmed frm the adjective pssible and a brrwed prefix im - with negative meaing, which dentes ppsite quality and desn't change a part f speech.

Newcmers - an example f wrd-cmpsitin. A nun is frmed frm tw stems - adj new + nun cmer, which is frmed by suffixatin. It is neutral, cmpund prper, subrdinative.

9. My brther was s dd a mixture f quick parts, sarcastic humur, reserve, and caprice, that the experience f three-and-twenty years had been insufficient t make his wife understand his character. And my sister was less difficult t develp. She was a wman f mean understanding, little infrmatin, and uncertain temper. When she was discntented, she fancied herself nervus. The business f her life was t get her daughters married; its slace was visiting and news.

Mixture, sarcastic, experience, insufficient, understanding, infrmatin, uncertain, discntented, nervus, business, visiting - examples f affixatin.

Mixture - a nun was frmed frm a verb t mix with the help f the nn-prductive, nun-frming, brrwed frm French, deverbal suffix - ure, it frms nuns frm verbs and expresses the measure f the bject. It changes a part f speech (v > n).

Sarcastic - an adjective was frmed frm a nun sarcasm with the help f the nn-prductive, nun-frming, brrwed frm Latin suffix - ic, it frms adjectives frm nuns and expresses the quality f the bject. It changes a part f speech (n > adj).

experience - a nun, frmed with the help f the nn-prductive, nun-frming, brrwed frm French, deverbal suffix - ence, it frms nuns frm verbs and expresses the state f the bject. It changes a part f speech (v > n)

three-and-twenty - is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. The nun is frmed frm tw nuns. It is mrphlgical, cmpund prper, crdinative.

insufficient - an adjective, frmed frm the adjective sufficient with the help f the negative prefix in-, which gives an ppsite meaning t the wrd. It desn't change a part f speech (adj > adj).

understanding, visiting - Gerunds frmed frm verbs (t understand, t visit) with the help f nun-frming, deverbal, prductive suffix - ing, which changes the part f speech (v > Gerund) and dentes actin r prcess. In this sentence entering has a functin f the bject, surrunding - in the functin f adjective.

uncertain - an adjective, frmed frm the adjective certain with the help f the negative prefix un-, which gives an ppsite meaning t the wrd. It desn't change a part f speech (adj > adj).

infrmatin, cmpassin - examples f affixatin. Nuns were frmed frm verbs with the help f the prductive, nun-frming, brrwed frm French, deverbal suffixes - tin, - sin, they frm nuns frm verbs and express the state f the bject. They change a part f speech (v > n).

nervus - an example f affixatin - an adjective, frmed frm the verb t nerve with the help f the nn-prductive, nun-frming, brrwed frm French, deverbal suffix - us, it frms nuns frm verbs and expresses the state f the bject. It changes a part f speech (v > adj).

business - an example f affixatin - a nun, frmed with the help f the prductive, nun-frming suffix - ness (expresses a prcess) frm the adjective busy. It changes a part f speech (adj > n).

10. He lved argument. He was smetimes shamed f the harshness that leapt t his tngue, but when he let himself g, argument made him fierce, cheerful, quite spntaneus and self-frgetful.

argument - the nun frmed frm the verb with the help f prductive, nun-frming, deverbal suffix - ment, expressing value f the actin, result.

Harshness (haste) - the nun frmed frm the verb with the help f the suffix

- ness which expresses value f cnditin f the subject. It is a prductive nun-frming, deadjectival suffix, it jins an adjective and changes a part f speech (adj > n).

cheerful, self-frgetful - adjectives frmed frm verbs with the help f the prductive adjective-frming, denminal and deverbal suffix - ful. This suffix changes a part f speech (n > adj) and expresses value full, fraught, verflwn with that the basis

self-frgetful - an example f wrd-cmpsitin. An adjective is frmed frm a nun self (with the meaning type f a persn) + adj. frgetful.

It is an example f neutral, derivative, subrdinative.

spntaneus - the adjective frmed with the help f the brrwed adjective-frming suffix - us frm basis f the nun, but this basis des nt functin in the English language as an independent wrd.

11. 'Mum. It's eight thirty in the mrning. It's summer. It's very ht. I dn't want an air-hstess bag.'

'Julie Enderby's gt ne. She says she never uses anything else.'

Exhausted, I held the phne away frm my ear, puzzling abut where the missinary luggage-Christmas-gift zeal had stemmed frm. When I put the phne back she was saying: ' in actual fact, yu can get them with a cmpartment with bttles fr yur bubble bath and things. The ther thing I thught f was a shpping trlley.'

air-hstess, luggage-Christmas-gift are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. The first cmpund wrd (adjective) is frmed frm 2 wrds. It is a cmpund prper.

The secnd (adjective) cnsists f three stems.

Accrding t the way f jining all cmpunds are syntactical.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents all cmpunds are crdinative.

12. When I gt t the Alcnburys' and rang their entire-tune-f-twn-hallclck-style drbell I was still in a strange wrld f my wn - nauseus, vile-headed, acidic.

entire-tune-f-twn-hallclck-style, wn-nauseus, vile-headed are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. The first cmpund wrd (adjective) is frmed frm 6 wrds. It is a cmpund prper, syntactical, crdinative cmpund.

The secnd and the third (adjectives) are derivatives, neutral, cmpunds prper, crdinative.

13. I was als suffering frm rad-rage residue after inadvertently getting n t the M6 instead f the M1 and having t drive halfway t Birmingham befre I culd find anywhere t turn rund.

rad-rage, halfway are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. It is nun, cnsists f tw stems, a cmpund prper. Accrding t the way f jining it is syntactical cmpund. Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents cmpund wrd is crdinative.

Rad-rage is als an example f cnversin. It is an adjective cnverted frm the cmpund nun (n > adj).

M6, M1 - are examples f abbreviatins. M means a kind f a rad in Britain.

Inadvertently - an example f affixatin. An adverb was frmed frm the adjective advertent with the help f the negative prefix in - and adverb-making suffix - ly.

14. She seemed t manage t kiss me, get my cat ff, hang it ver the banister, wipe her lipstick ff my cheek and make me feel incredibly guilty all in ne mvement, while I leaned against the rnament shelf fr supprt.

lipstick is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. It is nun, cnsists f tw stems, a cmpund prper.

Accrding t the way f jining it is neutral cmpund.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents this cmpund wrd is crdinative.

Incredibly, guilty - examples f affixatin.

Incredibly - an adverb was frmed frm the adjective incredible with the help prductive, adverb-making suffix - ly.

guilty - an adjective was frmed frm the nun guilt with the help f the prductive suffix - ty.

15. She led me thrugh the frsted-glass drs int the lunge, shuting, 'She gt lst, everyne!'

frsted-glass is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. It is an adjective, cnsists f tw stems, a derivatinal cmpund.

Accrding t the way f jining it is syntactical cmpund.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents cmpund wrd is subrdinative.

16. 'Bridget! Happy New Year! said Geffrey Alcnbury, clad in a yellw diamnd-patterned sweater.

diamnd-patterned is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. It is an adjective, cnsists f tw stems, a derivatinal cmpund.

Accrding t the way f jining it is syntactical cmpund.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents this cmpund wrd is subrdinative.

17. 'Junctin nineteen! Una, she came ff at Junctin nineteen! Yu've added an hur t yur jurney befre yu even started. Cme n, let's get yu a drink. Hw's yur lve-life, anyway?'

lve-life is an example f wrd-cmpsitin. It is nun, cnsists f tw stems, a cmpund prper.

Accrding t the way f jining it is syntactical cmpund.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents this cmpund wrd is crdinative.

18. Everyne knws that dating in yur thirties is nt the happy-g-lucky free-fr-all it was when yu were twenty and that the hnest answer is mre likely t be. Actually, last night my married lver appeared wearing suspenders and a darling little Angra crp-tp, tld me he was gay/a sex addict/a narctic addict/a cmmitment phbic and beat me up with a dild.

happy-g-lucky, free-fr-all, crp-tp are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. These are tw nuns and an adjective. Nuns cnsist f three stems, adjective cnsists f tw stems.

Accrding t the way f jining the first and the last are neutral cmpunds.

The secnd is a syntactical cmpund.

The third is a cmpund prper, cnsisting f tw stems.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents these cmpund wrds are crdinative.

19. 'Big beynd all sense. Hw are the ear-hair clippers?' The rich, divrced-by-cruel-wife Mark - quite tall - was standing with his back t the rm, scrutinizing the cntents f the Alcnburys' bkshelves: mainly leather-bund series f bks abut the Third Reich, which Geffrey sends ff fr frm Reader's Digest.

ear-hair, divrced-by-cruel-wife, leather-bund are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. All these cmpunds are adjectives. The first and the third cnsist f tw stems (cmpund prper), the secnd - f three stems.

Accrding t the way f jining the secnd wrd is syntactical cmpund, the first and the third are neutral.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents these cmpund wrds are subrdinative.

20. I racked my brain frantically t think when I last read a prper bk. The truble with wrking in publishing is that reading in yur spare time is a bit like being a dustman and snuffling thrugh the pig bin in the evening. I'm halfway thrugh Men are frm Mars, Wmen are frm Venus, which Jude lent me, but I didn't think my friend, thugh clearly dd, was ready t accept himself as a Martian quite yet. Then I had a brainwave.

Dustman, halfway, brainwave are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. These are nuns, cnsist f tw stems, cmpunds prper.

Accrding t the way f jining these are neutral cmpunds.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents this cmpund wrd is crdinative.

21. They attacked him in varius ways; with barefaced questins, ingenius suppsitins, and distant surmises; but he eluded the skill f them all; and they were at last bliged t accept the secnd-hand intelligence f their neighbr.

Barefaced, secnd-hand are examples f wrd-cmpsitin. The first cmpund wrd (adjective) is frmed frm 2 wrds and ending. It is a derivative cmpund.

The secnd (adjective) cnsists f tw stems it is called a prper cmpund.

Accrding t the way f jining the first is neutral, the secnd is syntactical.

Accrding t the relatins between the cmpnents bth cmpunds are subrdinative.

22. Laughter seems t signal an attempt t ingratiate neself in a sciety.

T signal is an example f verbalizatin frm a nun t a verb: n > v. It is a cmplete cnversin. The verb t signal was frmed frm the nun a signal in rder t shw a kind f cmmunicatin. Denminal verb dentes instrumental use f an bject. The new verb pssesses all grammatical characteristics f the verb as a part f speech, in ur example it is an infinitive as a part f cmpund verbal predicate.

23. Why? I haven't left the cuntry. I was nt abut t leave the cuntry. But I handed ver my passprt just the same. He leafed thrugh it, pausing at the entry-and-exit stamps f ther jurneys. He inspected my phtgraph, pened the yellw small-px vaccinatin certificate stapled t the back cver. At the bttm f the last page he saw penciled in a faint set f letters and figures.

Handed, leafed, pausing, stapled, penciled are examples f full cnversin. Type f cnversin - verbalizatin - frming verbs frm nuns.

Denminal verbs dente instrumental use f an bject. The new verb pssesses all grammatical characteristics f the verb as a part f speech, in ur example it is Past Indefinite, Active vice.

Verbs were frmed frm nuns in rder t shw persn's activity. Denminal verb dentes the same meaning f the nun - activity f the bject.

24. Billy rlled the lids back frm the mare's eyes with his thumb and frefinger. He felt the lwer lip and fingered the black, leathery teats.

The verb t finger was cnvertedly frmed frm the nun finger with meaning ' t pint ut with the finger '. It is an example f verbalizatin frm a nun t a verb: n > v. It is a cmplete cnversin. Denminal verb dentes instrumental use f an bject (finger). The new verb pssesses all grammatical characteristics f the verb as a part f speech, in ur example it is Past Indefinite, Active vice.

Fr realizatin f this meaning in all cases the same micrcntext cnsisting f a verb t finger+ a nun, being by a direct bject t this verb is used.

23. He had never been as striking, as stand-up as Aileen, thugh pssibly she might have mre sense. Jve! If he culd find a wman like Aileen t-day. Life wuld take n a new luster.

Stand-up - an example f adjectivizatin f the verb, a new adjective was frmed frm the verb t stand-up which has a meaning straight. It is a cmplete cnversin. But the new adjective was frmed with the help f affixatin (suffix - ish). It has the same meaning with the verb, but dentes an attendant feature f the persn being upright, hnest.

2.3 Results f the analysis

We have researched 23 abstracts frm the nvel f the mdern American writer Helen Fielding Bridget Jnes' Diary.

We have fund 98 examples f wrd-frmatin.

Within these cases there are 49 examples f affixatin (42 suffixatins and 7 prefixatins), 7 examples f cnversin, 2 abbreviatins, 40 cmpunds.

Practical research has cnfirmed ur theretical prpsals.

The English language has a great versatility f ways in replenishing vcabulary.

As we can cnclude frm ur practical research, the mst prductive way is affixatin, and specifically, suffixatin. There are a lt f prductive suffixes in English that are used in frming new wrds: - er, - al, - ing, - tin, etc. There are nn-prductive archaic suffixes in English that were used early times and nw they are very rare (-hd, - ic).

The secnd prductive means f wrd frmatin is wrd-cmpsitin. The mst frequently using cmpunds in mdern English, as we can see frm the mdern fictin, are cmpunds cnsisting f three and mre stems with syntactical way f jining.

The third prductive technique f wrd-frmatin is cnversin. The mst cmmn type f cnversin is verbalizatin - frming verbs frm nuns.

Cnclusin

n the basis f the analyzed theretical and practical material we came t the fllwing cnclusins.

The term wrd-frmatin has tw majr values which shuld be distinguished precisely. In the first value it is used fr expressin f cnstant prcess f frmatin f new wrds in a language. The language is in a cnditin f the cntinuus develpment including certain language prcesses, including prcess f creatin f new lexical units. This prcess has received the name f wrd-frmatin.

Wrd-building is ne f the main ways f enriching vcabulary.

The essence f wrd-frmatin prcesses cnsists in creatin f the new names, new secndary units f a designatin and as such names are wrds, the term wrd-frmatin is first f all the name f prcess f frmatin f wrds.

In the secnd value the term wrd-frmatin designates the sectin f a science engaged in studying f prcess f frmatin f lexical units.

There are fur main ways f wrd-building in mdern English: affixatin, cmpsitin, cnversin, abbreviatin. There are als secndary ways f wrd-building: sund interchange, stress interchange, sund imitatin, blends, back-frmatin.

As practical research has shwn the mst prductive ways are the first tw because basically new wrds are frmed by such ways. The affixal way shares n prefixal and suffixal.

The analysis f affixal derivatives has shwn that the fllwing characteristics are inherent in affixes: jining t a making basis, the affix expresses the certain value and is easily allcated as prductive wrd-frming element, and the making basis pssesses ability t be used in language withut an affix.

Research has shwn that the suffixal way f frmatin f nuns frm verbs mre ften is used.

Cnversin is widely used in English. It is a characteristic feature f the English wrd-building system. It is als called affix-less derivatin r zer-suffixatin. By this surce f frming new wrds there are verbalizatin, substantivizatin as the mst prductive ways.

Wrd-cmpsitin is als a very prductive means f wrd-frmatin, in mdern English there are mstly cmpunds with tw-stems, but there is a tendency t frm wrds with three r mre stems.

ther ways - sund interchange, stress interchange, sund imitatin, blends, back-frmatin - are nt very prductive and are nt used s frequently in English.

References

1. A Curse in Mdern English Lexiclgy \ R.S. Ginzburg, S.S Khidekel and thers. - M.: High Schl, 2001. - 269 p.

2. Ungerer F. The xfrd Handbk f Cgnitive Linguistics. - xfrd: xfrd University Press, 2010. - 376 p.

3. Arnld I.V. English Lexiclgy. - .: High Schl, 1986. - 295 p.

4.  ..  . - .: , 2007. - 288 .

5. Eschlz P. Language Awareness / P. Eschlz, V. Clark, A.R. - 5th editin. - New Yrk: St. Martin Press, 1990. - 482 p.

6. Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G. and Jan Svartvik. A Cmprehensive grammar f the English language. Lndn: Lngman, 1997. - 325 p.

7. Wischer I. The xfrd Handbk f Grammaticalizatin. - xfrd: xfrd University Press, 2011. - 324 p.

8. Bauer L. English Wrd-frmatin. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. - 369 p.

9. Bauer L. Mrphlgical Prductivity. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. - 318 p.

10. Lipka L. 2002. English Lexiclgy: Lexical structure, wrd semantics and wrd-frmatin. - Tbingen: Gunter Narr, 2002. - 311 p.

11. Mdern English Lexiclgy / ed. L.E. Grinberg. - M.: High Schl, 1998. - 321 p.

12.  ..  : . / .. , .. , .. . - .: , 1999. - 288 .

13. \ ..  . - .: , 1975. - 238 .

14. : / .  [ .]. - .: , 2003. - 366 .

15.  ..  . - .: , 1977. - 303 .

16. Burchfield R.W. The English Language. - Lnd.:McMillan, 2008. - 276 p.

17.  ..  ( ). - .: , 1977. - 240 .


  • The morphological structure of a word. Morphemes. Types of morphemes. Allomorphs. Structural types of words. Principles of morphemic analysis. Derivational level of analysis. Stems. Types of stems. Derivational types of words.

    [11,3 K], 11.01.2004

  • The place and role of contrastive analysis in linguistics. Analysis and lexicology, translation studies. Word formation, compounding in Ukrainian and English language. Noun plus adjective, adjective plus adjective, preposition and past participle.

    [34,5 K], 13.05.2013

  • Identification of the main features of a subject in the sentence which is based on theoretical and scientific works of Russian, English, American and Romanian authors. Research of a subject and its features in works of the American and English fiction.

    [59,5 K], 05.05.2011

  • English songs discourse in the general context of culture, the song as a phenomenon of musical culture. Linguistic features of English songs texts, implementation of the category of intertextuality in texts of English songs and practical part.

    [26,0 K], 27.06.2011

  • Study of different looks of linguists on an accentual structure in English. Analysis of nature of pressure of the English word as the phonetic phenomenon. Description of rhythmic tendency and functional aspect of types of pressure of the English word.

    [25,7 K], 05.01.2011

  • Origin of the comparative analysis, its role and place in linguistics. Contrastive analysis and contrastive lexicology. Compounding in Ukrainian and English language. Features of the comparative analysis of compound adjectives in English and Ukrainian.

    [39,5 K], 20.04.2013

  • Main types of word formation: inflection and derivation. Types of clipping, unclipped original. Blending, back-formation and reduplication. Sound and stress interchange. Phonetic, morphological, lexical variations. Listing and institutionalization.

    [24,3 K], 30.12.2011

  • The essence and distinctive features of word formation, affixation. The semantics of negative affixes and their comparative analysis. Place in the classification of morphemes, affixes and classification of negative affixes. Function of negative affixes.

    [34,7 K], 03.03.2011

  • The general outline of word formation in English: information about word formation as a means of the language development - appearance of a great number of new words, the growth of the vocabulary. The blending as a type of modern English word formation.

    [54,6 K], 18.04.2014

  • Adverbial parts of the sentence are equally common in English and Ukrainian. Types of Adverbial Modifiers. Peculiarities of adverbial modifiers in English and Ukrainian, heir comparative description of similar and features, basic linguistic study.

    [25,3 K], 17.03.2015

, , ..
PPT, PPTX PDF- .
.