Principles of word-formation in English

Definitin and features, linguistic peculiarities f wrd-frmatin. Types f wrd-frmatin: prductive and secndary ways. Analysis f the bk "Bridget Jnes Diary" by Helen Fielding n the subject f wrd-frmatin, results f the analysis.

17.03.2014
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Intrductin

linguistic wrd frmatin

An imprtnt distinctive feature f any language is that its wrd-stck may be replenished by new wrds. They are either brrwed frm the ther languages r frmed frm native vcabulary with the help f sme types f wrd-frmatin.

Vcabulary changes are bserved daily thrughut a life f ne generatin: any innvatin in the technician, in scial life, in the area f plicy, ecnmy and culture is accmpanied by ccurrence f new wrds and expressins.

Any language needs t elabrate its frms and functins f cmmunicatin t equip itself t meet the demand f different fields f knwledge. There are different essential means f mdernizing a language, and ne f them is frmatin f new wrds.

Prcess f expansin f vcabulary system f a language prceeds during the perids f deep plitical and technical shcks and changes especially intensively. The language vcabulary reacts actively t the phenmena caused by these public changes.

Replenishment f the vcabulary by frming new wrds is imprtant feature f transfrming f vcabulary stck.

S, language needs t elabrate its frms and functins f cmmunicatin t equip itself t meet the demand f different fields f knwledge.

The prcess f expanding the vcabulary f the language is particularly intensive in perids f majr scial and plitical upheaval, scial and cultural change. Language vcabulary is actively respnding t the phenmenn, brught t life by these scial changes.

The XXI-th century has witnessed the explsin f knwledge particularly due t the advancement in the field f wrd-frmatin. We can see that new wrds appear intensively in a shrt perid f time. S much it is prbably bvius that the new wrds are initially used in the English language and later have been translated int ther languages.

Thus, the theme f ur curse paper is relevant.

The gal f ur curse paper is: t describe prductive and secndary ways f the wrd-frmatin in the English language n the base f the wrk by Helene Fielding Bridget Jnes' Diary.

The bject f ur curse paper: wrd frmatin as a means f the language develpment.

The subject f ur curse paper: types f wrd-frmatin in the English language.

Hypthesis f ur research: varius types f wrd-frmatin are very prductive way f the mdern English language develpment and prgress.

The gal, bject and subject have demanded the decisin f the fllwing bjectives:

- t study theretical and practical surces n the prblems f the research;

- t give definitin f wrd-frmatin in the English language;

- t cnsider varius types f wrd-frmatin and their peculiarities;

- t make a practical research f using varius types f wrd-frmatin

Methds f ur curse paper: scientific analysis f the infrmatin surces and references, descriptin, cmparative analysis and interpretatin f surces, cnceptual analysis f the literature, synthesis, study, cntent-analysis.

Methdlgical basis f ur curse paper: R.Z. Ginzburg's and F. Ungerer's theries f wrd-frmatin as a brunch f lexiclgy, I.V. Arnld's thesis f derivatin, classificatin f wrd-frmatin types, frmed by R.Z. Ginzburg, I.V. Arnld, G.B. Antrushina, E.M. Dubenetz.

Practical value: ur curse paper can be useful fr students at classes in the English lexiclgy and teachers f the English language.

ur curse paper cnsists f the intrductin, tw chapters (1 theretical and 1 practical), the cnclusins, references and appendix.

Intrductin includes the frewrd, the gal, the hypthesis, the subject and the bject, bjectives, methdlgical basis and methds f the research.

The theretical part cnsists f three divisins which describe main theretical issues f the research, in the practical part we analyze types f wrd-frmatin in the wrk f the mdern American writer Helen Fielding Bridget Jnes' Diary. Cnclusin includes drawings frm the theretical and practical parts. References cmprise 30 surces. Appendix shws tables and figures.

1. Wrd-frmatin as a means f the language develpment

1.1 Definitin and features f wrd-frmatin

Wrd-frmatin as a means f the language develpment was widely studied by many linguists, freign and native. All f them agree that wrd-frmatin is ne f main ways f language replenishment and enriching.

R.Z. Ginzburg states that wrd-frmatin is that branch f lexiclgy which studies the derivative structure f existing wrds and the patterns n which a language, in this case the English language, builds new wrds [1, p. 111].

The appearance f a great number f new wrds and the develpment f new meanings in the wrds already available in the language may be largely accunted fr by the rapid flw f events, the prgress f science and technlgy and emergence f new cncepts in different fields f human activity.

The influx f new wrds has never been mre rapid than in the last few decades f this century. Estimates suggest that during the past twenty-five years advances in technlgy and cmmunicatins media have prduced a greater change in ur language than in any similar perid in histry. The specialised vcabularies f aviatin, radi, televisin, medical and atmic research, new vcabulary items created by recent develpment in scial histry - all are part f this unusual influx. Thus, the XXI-th century has brught int English such vcabulary items as blackut, fifth-clumnist, paratrps, A-bmb, V-Day, etc.; the develpment f science gave such wrds as hydrpnics, psychlinguistics, plystyrene, radar, cycltrn, mesn, psitrn; antibitic, etc.; the cnquest and research f csmic space gave birth t sputnik, lunnik, babymn, space-rcket, space-ship, space-suit, mnship, mn crawler, Lunkhd, etc. [2, p. 81].

F. Ungerer recgnizes, that Wrd-frmatin is ne f thse linguistic terms that may be unsatisfactry n a mre theretical level, but that are immensely useful when ne tries t survey prcesses f extending the lexicn [3, p. 5]. Wrd-frmatin ranges frm prefixatin and suffixatin t prcesses nt even reflected in the phnlgical frm f the item invlved (e.g., cnversin); there, wrd-frmatin brders n purely semantic prcesses f metaphr and metnymy. Between these tw extremes may be placed the many ways in which wrds can be cmbined, fused, and cndensed (as in cmpunds, lexical blends, back-frmatins, clippings, and acrnyms). Since English is ne f the languages that makes use f all these prcesses, mstly English examples will be chsen fr illustrative purpses, but it shuld be kept in mind that sme f the prcesses, in particular affixatin, are much mre widespread and mre differentiated in ther languages.

The grwth f the vcabulary reflects nt nly the general prgress made by mankind but als the peculiarities f the way f life f the speech cmmunity in which the new wrds appear, the way its science and culture tend t develp. The peculiar develpments f the American way f life fr example find expressin in the vcabulary items like taxi-dancer - a girl emplyed by a dance hall, cafe, cabaret t dance with patrns wh pay fr each dance; t jb-hunt - t search assiduusly fr a jb; the plitical life f America f t-day gave items like witchhunt - the screening and subsequent persecutin f plitical ppnents; ghstwriter - a persn engaged t write the speeches r articles f an eminent persnality; brinkmanship - a plitical curse f keeping the wrld n the brink f war; t sit in - t remain sitting in available places in a cafe, unserved in prtest f dwn f a grup f peple in a public place t disrupt traffic as a frm f prtest r demnstratin; t nuclearise - t equip cnventinal armies with nuclear weapns; nuclearisatin; nuclearism - emphasis n nuclear weapns as a deterrent t war r as a means f attaining plitical and scial gals.

All these examples demnstrate ne f the ways f a language develpment - wrd-frmatin.

By wrd-frmatin I.V. Arnld understands prcess f prducing new wrds frm the resurces f this particular language, rthe system f derivative types f wrds and the prcess f creating new wrds frm the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic frmulas and patterns. [2, p. 95]. Tgether with brrwing, wrd-building prvides fr enlarging and enriching the vcabulary f the language.

1.2 Linguistic peculiarities f wrd-frmatin

Wrd-frmatin has sme features that can be cnsidered frm varius pints f view: mrphemic, structural r semantic.

Frm themrphemic aspect the analysis is limited t stating the number and type f mrphemes that make up the wrd, r hw the wrds are maid: the wrd girlishness may be analysed int three mrphemes: the rt - girl - and tw suffixes - ishand - ness.The mrphemic classificatin f wrds is as fllws: ne rt mrpheme - a rt wrd (girl), ne rt mrpheme plus ne r mre affixes - a derived wrd (girlish, girlishness), tw r mre stems - a cmpund wrd (girl-friend), tw r mre stems and a cmmn affix - a cmpund derivative (ld-maidish). The mrphemic analysis establishes nly the ultimate cnstituents that make up the wrd.

A structural wrd-frmatin analysis prceeds further: it studies the structural crrelatin with ther wrds, the structural patterns r rules n which wrds are built.

This is dne with the help f the principle f ppsitins, i.e. by studying the partly similar elements, the difference between which is functinally relevant; in ur case this difference is sufficient t create a new wrd. Girl and girlish are members f a mrphemic ppsitin. They are similar as the rt mrpheme - girl - is the same. Their distinctive feature is the suffix - ish. Due t this suffix the secnd member f the ppsitin is a different wrd belnging t a different part f speech. This binary ppsitin cmprises tw elements.

Structurally new vcabulary items represent tw types f lexical units: wrds, e.g. blackut, micrfilm-reader, unfreeze, and wrd-grups, mstly phraselgical units, e.g. bld bank - a place where bld plasma are stred; atmic pile - reactr, etc. [4, p. 67].

Wrds in their turn cmprise varius structural types:

1. - simple wrds, e.g. jeep- a small, light mtr vehicle esp. fr military use; zebra - street crssing-place, marked by black and white stripes;

2. - derived wrds, such as cllabratinist (stem + suffix) - ne wh in ccupied territry wrks helpfully with the enemy; centrism - a middle-f-the rad r a mderate psitin in plities, a preppie (slang) - a student r graduate f a preparatry schl;

3. - cmpunds, e.g. crpsman - a member f a hspital squad trained t administer first aid t wunded servicemen, script-shw - a serial prgram n radi and televisin; huse-husband (American English) - a married man wh manages a husehld. The analysis f new wrds fr their derivatinal structure shws a marked predminance f derived and cmpund wrds and a rather small number f simple wrds [5, p. 37].

Wrd-grups cmprise a cnsiderable part f vcabulary extensin. Structurally, the bulk f the wrd-grups belng t theattributive-nminal type built n the A +N (attribute + nun) and N + N (nun +nun) frmulas, e.g.frequency mdulatin, jet engine, ttal war, Cmmn Marketeer, machine time, etc.

Wrd-grups and different types f wrds are unequally distributed amng varius lexical stylistic grups f the vcabulary, with a predminance f ne r anther type in every grup. Fr example, new wrds in the field f science are mstly f derived and cmpund structure, but the technical sectin f the vcabulary extensin is characterised by simple wrds [6, p. 49]. The greater part f wrd-grups is fund amng scientific and technical terms; the plitical layer f vcabulary is rather pr in wrd-grups. Besides this peculiar distributin f different types f wrds, every type acquires its wn specific peculiarity in different lexical stylistic grups f the vcabulary, fr example, althugh derived wrds are typical bth f scientific and technical terms, wrds frmed by cnversin are fund mstly amng technical terms.

Semantic analysis deals with semantic structure f the new wrds which are frmed frm thers.

I.V. Ginzburg mentins that new vcabulary items in Mdern English belng nly t the ntinal parts f speech, i.e. nly t nuns, verbs and adjectives; f these nuns are mst numerus [1, p. 183].

New vcabulary units are as a rule mnsemantic and mst f them are marked by peculiar stylistic value - they primarily belng t the specialised vcabulary. Neutral wrds and phrases are cmparatively few. Terms used in varius fields f science and technique make the greater part f new wrds.

Semantic wrd-building can be divided int shrtening, sund - and stress-interchange which traditinally are referred t minr ways f wrd-frmatin. [7, p. 87] By semantic wrd-building sme linguists understand any change f wrd-meaning, e.g. stck - the lwer part f the trunk f a tree; smething lifeless r stupid; the part f an instrument that serves as a base, etc.; bench- a lng seat f wd r stne; a carpenter's table, etc. The majrity f linguists, hwever, understand this prcess nly as a change in the meaning f a wrd that may result in the appearance f hmnyms, as is the case withflwer-a blssm andflur-the fine meal, pwder made frm wheat and used fr making bread; magazine-a publicatin and magazine-the chamber fr cartridges in a gun r rifle, etc. The applicatin f the term wrd-frmatin t the prcess f semantic change and t the appearance f hmnyms due t the develpment f plysemy seems t be debatable fr the fllwing reasns: as semantic change des nt, as a rule, lead t the intrductin f a new wrd int the vcabulary, it can scarcely be regarded as a wrd-building means [8, p. 112].

ne f the features f wrd-frmatin is an aspect f prductivity. All types f wrd-frmatin can be divided int prductive and nn-prductive. Prductive ways are used mre ften fr frming new wrds. Fr instance, affixatin has been a prductive way f frming wrds ever since the ld English perid; n the ther hand, sund-interchange must have been at ne time a wrd-building means but in Mdern English its functin is actually nly t distinguish between different classes and frms f wrds.

Prductivity f wrd-building ways, individual derivatinal patterns and derivatinal affixes is understd as their ability f making new wrds which all wh speak English find n difficulty in understanding, in particular their ability t create what are called ccasinal wrds r nnce-wrds [9, p. 48]. The term suggests that a speaker cins such wrds when he needs them; if n anther ccasin the same wrd is needed again, he cins it afresh. Nnce-wrds are built frm familiar language material after familiar patterns. The fllwing wrds may serve as illustratin: (his) cllarless(appearance), alungful (f smke), aDickensish(ffice), t unlearn (the rules), etc. [10, p. 183]

Prductivity f derivatinal means is relative in many respects. Mrever there are n abslutely prductive means; derivatinal patterns and derivatinal affixes pssess different degrees f prductivity. Therefre it is imprtant that cnditins favuring prductivity and the degree f prductivity f a particular pattern r affix shuld be established.

Three degrees f prductivity are distinguished fr affixes: I) highly-prductive, 2) prductive r semi-prductive and 3) nn-prductive [11, p. 57].

Prductive affixes are thse used t frm new wrds in the perid in questin.

The mst prductive prefixes in Mdern English are: de - (decntaminate), re - (rethink), pre - (prefabricate), nn - (nn-peratinal), un - (unfunny), anti - (antibitic).

The mst prductive English suffixes are

Nun-frming suffixes

-er (manager), - ing (fighting), - ness (sweetness), - atin (autmatin), - ee (evacuee), - r (reactr), - ics (cybernetics),

Adjective-frming suffixes

-able (tlerable), - ish (smartish), - ed (learned), - less (jbless)

Verb-frming suffixes

-ize (vitaminize), - ate (xidate)

Adverb-frming suffixes

-ly (equally).

Nn-prductive affixes are the affixes which are nt able t frm new wrds in the perid in questin. Nn-prductive affixes are recgnized as separate mrphemes and pssess clear-cut semantic characteristics. Nn-prductive suffixes in English are as fllws:

Nun-frming suffixes

-th (truth), - hd (sisterhd), - ship (cshlarship)

Adjective-frming suffixes

-ful (peaceful), - ly (sickly), - sme (tiresme)

Verb-frming suffixes

-en (strengthen)

An affix may lse its prductivity and then becme prductive again in the prcess f wrd-frmatin. This was happened t the suffix - dm. Fr a lng perid f time it was nn-prductive, but in the last years it gt a new lease f life s that a great amunt f wrds was cined with its help; serfdm, slavedm, etc.

The prductivity f an affix shuld nt be cnfused with its frequency f ccurrence. The frequency is understd as the existence in the vcabulary f a great number f wrds cntaining the affix. An affix may ccur in hundred f wrds, but it is nt used fr wrd-frmatin. Fr example, the adjective suffix - ful is met in many wrds (beautiful, hpeful, trustful, useful), but there are n new wrds with it. [12, p. 75]

1.3 Types f wrd-frmatin

Prductive ways (affixatin, cnversin, wrd-cmpunding, shrtening)

The available linguistic literature n the subject cites varius types and ways f frming wrds. Earlier bks, articles and mngraphs n wrd-frmatin and vcabulary grwth used t mentin mrphlgical, syntactic and lexical and semantic types f wrd-frmatin. At present the classificatins f the types f wrd-frmatin d nt, as a rule, include lexical and semantic wrd-building. f interest is the classificatin f wrd-frmatin means based n the number f mtivating bases which many schlars fllw. A distinctin is made between tw large classes f wrd-building means.

R.Z. Ginzburg refers t Class I ways f building wrds having ne mtivating base [1, p. 86]. Fr example, the nun catcher is cmpsed f the base catch - and the suffix - er, thrugh the cmbinatin f which it is mrphlgically and semantically mtivated.

Class II includes the ways f building wrds cntaining mre than ne mtivating base. They are all based n cmpunding (cuntry-club, dr-handle, bttle-pener, etc., all having tw bases thrugh which they are mtivated).

Mst linguists cnsider as prductive chief prcesses f English wrd-frmatin: wrd-derivatin (affixatin, cnversin, wrd-cmpunding (cmpsitin) and shrtening (abbreviatin, acrnymy, clipping).

There are sme nn-prductive (minr) ways f wrd-frmatin: back-frmatin, sund interchange, distinctive stress, sund imitatin, blending.

Ways f wrd-frmatin can be shwn at the scheme (see Appendix A, fig. 1).

Let's study the mst prductive ways f wrd-frmatin.

1. Affixatin. Wrds which cnsist f a rt and an affix (r several affixes) are called derived wrds r derivatives and are prduced by the prcess f wrd-building knwn as affixatin (r derivatin). [13, p. 83]

Derived wrds are extremely numerus in the English vcabulary.

The prcess f affixatin (prefixatin and suffixatin) cnsists in cining a new wrd by adding an affix (prefix r suffix) r several affixes t sme rt mrpheme. The rle f the affix in this prcedure is very imprtant and therefre it is necessary t cnsider certain facts abut the main types f affixes. Frm the etymlgical pint f view affixes are classified int the same tw large grups as wrds: native and brrwed, e.g. native suffixes are: - er, - ness, - ing, etc, brrwed suffixes are: - tin, - able, - us, etc.

Affixes can als be classified int prductive and nn-prductive types. By prductive affixes we mean the nes, which take part in deriving new wrds in this particular perid f language develpment. The best way t identify prductive affixes is t lk fr them amng nelgisms and s-called nnce-wrds, i. e. wrds cined and used nly fr this particular ccasin. The latter are usually frmed n the level f living speech and reflect the mst prductive and prgressive patterns in wrd-building. When a literary critic writes abut a certain bk that it is an unputdwnable thriller, we will seek in vain this strange and impressive adjective in dictinaries, fr it is a nnce-wrd cined n the current pattern f Mdern English and is evidence f the high prductivity f the adjective-frming brrwed suffix - able and the native prefix un - [14, p. 69]

In rder t study affixatin mre precisely, we shuld divide this way int prefixatin and suffixatin.

Prefixatin is the frmatin f wrds with the help f prefixes. The interpretatin f the terms prefix and prefixatin nw firmly rted in linguistic literature has undergne a certain evlutin. Fr instance, sme time ag there were linguists wh treated prefixalin as a part f wrd-cmpsitin (r cmpunding). The greater semantic independence f prefixes as cmpared with suffixes led the linguists t identify prefixes with the first cmpnent part f a cmpund wrd. [15, p. 94]

At present the majrity f schlars treat prefixatin as an integral part f wrd-derivatin regarding prefixes as derivatinal affixes which differ essentially bth frm rt-mrphemes and nn-derivatinal prepsitive mrphemes. pinin smetimes differs cncerning the interpretatin f the functinal status f certain individual grups f mrphemes which cmmnly ccur as first cmpnent parts f wrds. R Burchfield, fr instance, analyses wrds liket verd, t underestimate as cmpund verbs, the first cmpnents f which are lcative particles, nt prefixes. [16, c. 114] In a similar way he interprets wrds like incme, nlker, uthuse qualifying them as cmpunds with lcative particles as first elements.

There are abut 51 prefixes in the system f Mdern English wrd-frmatin.

Accrding t the available wrd-cunts f prefixal derivatives the greatest number are verbs-42.4%, adjectives cmprise 33,5% and nuns make up 22.4% [3, p. 96] E.g. prefixal verbs: t enrich, t c-exist, t disagree, t underg, etc.;

prefixal adjectives: anti-war, biannual, uneasy, super-human, etc.;

prefixal nuns: ex-champin, c-authr, disharmny, subcmmittee. [17, p. 101]

Prceeding frm the three types f mrphemes that the structural classificatin invlves tw types f.prefixes are t be distinguished:

1) thse nt crrelated with any independent wrd (either ntinal r functinal), e.g.un-, dis-, re-, pre-, pst-, etc.; and

2) thse crrelated with functinal wrds (prepsitin-like adverbs), e.g.ut-, ver-, up-, under-, etc.

Prefixes f the secnd type are qualified as semi-bund mrphemes, which implies that they ccur in speech in varius utterances bth as independent wrds and as derivatinal affixes, e.g. 'verne's head', 'verthe river' (cf. t verlap, t verpass); 't runut', t take smb ut (cf. t utgrw, t utline);'t lk up', 'hands up' (cf. upstairs, t upset);'under the same rf, 't g under' (cf. t underestimate, undercurrent), etc. [18, c. 94]

Prefixes may be classified n different principles. Diachrnically distinctin is made between prefixes f native and freign rigin. Synchrnically prefixes may be classified:

1) accrding t the class f wrds they preferably frm.

The majrity f prefixes (in their varius dentatinal meanings) tend t functin either in nminal parts f speech (41 patterns in adjectives, 42 in nuns) r in verbs (22 patterns);

2) as t the type f lexical-grammatical character f the base they are added t int: a) deverbal, e. g. rewrite, utstay, verd, etc.; b) denminal, e.g. unbuttn, detrain, ex-president, etc. and c) deadjectival, e.g.uneasy, biannual, etc. It is f interest t nte that the mst prductive prefixal pattern fr adjectives is the ne made up f the prefix un - and the base built either n adjectival stems r present and past participle, unknwn, unsmiling, unseen.

3) as t the generic, dentatinal meaning there are different grups that are distinguished in linguistic literature:

a) negative prefixes, such as: uni-, nn-, in-, dis;-, a-, e.g. ungrateful (cf. grateful), unemplyment (cf. emplyment), nn-plitician (cf. plitician), nn-scientific (cf. scientific), incrrect (cf. crrect), dislyal (cf. lyal), disadvantage (cf. advantage), amral (cf. mral), asymmetry (cf. symmetry), etc. [19, c. 117]

It may be mentined in passing that the prefix in - ccurs in different phnetic shapes depending n the initial sund f the base it is affixed t; in ther wrds, the prefixal mrpheme in questin has several allmrphs, namely il-, im-, ir-, in, e.g. illegal, imprbable, immaterial, irreligius, inactive, etc.;

b) reversative r privative prefixes, such as un-, de-, dis;-, e.g. untie (cf. tie), unleash (cf. leash), decentralize (cf. centralize), discnnect (cf. cnnect), etc.;

c) perirative prefixes, such as mis-, mal-, pseud-, e.g. miscalculate (cf. calculate), misinfrm (cf. infrm), maltreat (cf. treat), pseud-classicism (cf. classicism), pseud-scientific (cf. scientific), etc.;

d) prefixes f time and rder, such as fre-, pre-, pst-, ex-, e.g. fretell (cf. tell), freknwledge (cf. knwledge), pre-war (cf. war), pst-war (cf. war), pst-classical (cf. classical), ex-president (cf. president);

e) prefix f repetitin re-, e.g. rebuild (cf. build), re-write (cf. write), etc.;

f) lcative prefixes, such as super-, sub-, inter-, trans-, e.g. superstructure (cf. structure), subway (cf. way), inter-cntinental (cf. cntinental), trans-atlantic (cf. atlantic), etc. and sme ther grups. [20, c. 87]

6) prefixes may be als classified as t the degree f prductivity int highly-prductive, prductive and nn-prductive.

Suffixatin is the frmatin f wrds with the help f suffixes, which usually mdify the lexical meaning f the base and transfer wrds t a different part f speech. There are suffixes hwever, which d nt shift wrds frm ne part f speech int anther; a suffix f this kind usually transfers a wrd int a different semantic grup, e.g. a cncrete nun becmes an abstract ne, as is the case withchild-childhd, friend-friendship, etc.

Chains f suffixes ccurring in derived wrds having tw and mre suffixal mrphemes are smetimes referred t in lexicgraphy as cmpund suffixes:

- ably = - able + - ly (e.g. prfitably, unreasnably);

- ical-ly = - ic + - al + - ly (e.g. musically, critically);

- atin = - ate - i - in (e.g. fascinatin, islatin) and sme thers. [21, p. 68]

f interest is als the grup-suffix - manship cnsisting f the suffixes - man and - ship. It dentes a superir quality, ability f ding smething t perfectin, e.g. authrmanship, qutemanship, lipmanship, etc, (cf. statesmanship, r chairmanship built by adding the suffix - ship t the cmpund base statesman - and chairman - respectively).

It als seems apprpriate t make several remarks abut the mrphlgical changes that smetimes accmpany the prcess f cmbining derivatinal mrphemes with bases. Althugh this prblem has been s far insufficiently investigated, sme bservatins have been made and sme data cllected. Fr instance, the nun-frming suffix - ess fr names f female beings brings abut a certain change in the phnetic shape f the crrelative male nun prvided the latter ends in - er, - r, e.g. actress (cf. actr), sculptress (cf. sculptr), tigress (cf. tiger), etc. It may be easily bserved that in such cases the sund [a] is cntracted in the feminine nuns.

There are different classificatins f suffixes in linguistic literature, as suffixes may be divided int several grups accrding t different principles:

1) The first principle f classificatin is the part f speech frmed with thew help f the suffix. Within the scpe f the part-f-speech classificatin f suffixes naturally fall int several grups, such as:

a) nun-suffixes, i.e. thse frming r ccurring in nuns, e.g. - er, - dm, - ness, - atin, etc. (teacher, Lndner, freedm, brightness, justificatin, etc.);

b) adjective-suffixes, i.e. thse frming r ccurring in adjectives, e.g. - able, - less, - ful, - ic, - us, etc. (agreeable, careless, dubtful, petic, curageus, etc.);

c) verb-suffixes, i.e. thse frming r ccurring in verbs, e.g. - en, - fy, - ize (darken, satisfy, harmnize, etc.);

d) adverb-suffixes, i.e. thse frming r ccurring in adverbs, e.g.-ly, - ward (quickly, eastward, etc.). [22, p. 121]

2) Suffixes may als be classified int varius grups accrding t the lexic-grammatical character f the base the affix is usually added t. Prceeding frm this principle ne may divide suffixes int:

a) deverbal suffixes (thse added t the verbal base), e.g. - er, - ing, - ment, - able, etc. (speaker, reading, agreement, suitable, etc.);

b) denminals uffixes (thse added t the nun base), e.g. - less, - ish, - ful, - ist, - sme, etc. (handless, childish, muthful, vilinist, trublesme, etc.);

c) de-adjectival suffixes (thse affixed t the adjective base), e.g. - en, - ly, - ish, - ness, etc. (blacken, slwly, reddish, brightness, etc.) [23, c. 89]

3) A classificatin f suffixes may als be based n the criterin f sense expressed by a set f suffixes. Prceeding frm this principle suffixes are classified int varius grups within the bunds f a certain part f speech. Fr instance, nun-suffixes fall int thse denting:

a) the agent f an actin, e.g. - er, - ant (baker, dancer, defendant, etc.);

b) appurtenance, e.g. - an, - ian, - ese, etc. (Arabian, Elizabethan, Russian, etc.)

c) cllectivity, e.g. - age, - dm, - ery (-ry), etc. (freightage, fficialdm, peasantry, etc.);

d) diminutiveness, e.g. - ie, - let, - ling, etc. (birdie, girlie, cludlet, squireling, wlfling, etc.) [24, p. 69]

5) Suffixes are als classified as t the degree f their prductivity. They can be called dead and living nes. Dead affixes are described as thse which are n lnger felt in Mdern English as cmpnent parts f wrds; they have s fused with the base f the wrd as t lse their independence cmpletely. It is nly by special etymlgical analysis that they may be singled ut, e.g. - d indead, seed, - le, - l, - el inbundle, sail, hvel; - ck inhillck; - lck inwedlck; - t inflight, gift, height. It is quite clear that dead suffixes are irrelevant t present-day English wrd-frmatin, they belng in its diachrnic study.

Living affixes may be easily singled ut frm a wrd, e.g. the nun-frming suffixes-ness, - dm, - hd, - age, - ance, asin darkness, freedm, childhd, marriage, assistance, etc. r the adjective-frming suffixes - en, - us, - ive, - ful, - yas inwden, pisnus, active, hpeful, stny, etc.

The treatment f certain affixes as nn-prductive naturally als depends n the cncept f prductivity. The current definitin f nn-prductive derivatinal affixes as thse which cannt be used in Mdern English fr the cining f new wrds is rather vague and may be interpreted in different ways. Fllwing the definitin the term nn-prductive refers nly t the affixes unlikely t be used fr the frmatin f new wrds, e.g.-us, - th, fre - and sme thers (cf. famus, depth, t fresee).

If ne accepts the ther cncept f prductivity mentined abve, then nn-prductive affixes must be defined as thse that cannt be used fr the frmatin f ccasinal wrds and, cnsequently, such affixes as - dm, - ship, - ful, - en, - ify, - ate and many thers are t be regarded as nn-prductive.

The degree f prductivity f a suffix r, t be mre exact, f a derivatinal affix in general may be established n a statistical basis as the rati f the number f newly-frmed wrds with the given suffix t the number f wrds with the same suffix already perating in the language.

A derivatinal affix may becme prductive in just ne meaning because that meaning is specially needed by the cmmunity at a particular phase in its histry. This may be well illustrated by the prefixed in the sense f 'und what has been dne, reverse an actin r prcess', e.g., deacidify (paint spray), decasualize (dck labur), decentralize (gvernment r management), deratin (eggs and butter), de-reserve (medical students), desegregate (clured children), and s n.

Furthermre, there are cases when a derivatinal affix being nnprductive in the nn-specialized sectin f the vcabulary is used t cin scientific r technical terms. This is the case, fr instance, with the suffix - ance which has been used t frm sme terms in Electrical Engineering, e.g. capacitance, impedance, reactance. The same is true f the suffix - ity which has been used t frm terms in physics and chemistry such as alkalinity, luminsity, emissivity and sme thers.

2. Cnversin cnsists in making a new wrd frm sme existing wrd by changing the categry f a part f speech; the mrphemic shape f the riginal wrd remains unchanged, e.g. wrk - t wrk, paper - t paper [25, c. 87]. Smetimes it is called zer-derivatin.

A wrd f ne lexical categry (part f speech) is cnverted t a wrd f anther lexical categry; fr example, the nun green in glf (referring t a putting-green) is derived ultimately frm the adjective green. Cnversins frm adjectives t nuns and vice versa are bth very cmmn and unntable in English; much mre remarked upn is verbing, the creatin f a verb by cnverting a nun r ther wrd (e.g., the adjective clean becmes the verb t clean).

The new wrd acquires a meaning, which differs frm that f the riginal ne thugh it can be easily assciated with it. The cnverted wrd acquires als a new paradigm and a new syntactic functin (r functins), which are peculiar t its new categry as a part f speech, e.g. garden - t garden.

Cnversin is smetimes referred t as an affixless way f wrd-building r even affixless derivatin. Saying that, hwever, is saying very little because there are ther types f wrd-building in which new wrds are als frmed withut affixes (mst cmpunds, cntracted wrds, sund-imitatin wrds, etc.).

The term cnversin, which sme linguists find inadequate, refers t the numerus cases f phnetic identity f wrd-frms, primarily the s-called initial frms, f tw wrds belnging t different parts f speech. This may be illustrated by the fllwing cases: wrk-t wrk; lve-t lve; paper-t paper; brief-t brief, etc. As a rule we deal with simple wrds, althugh there are a few exceptins, e.g. wireless-t wireless.

As a type f wrd-frmatin, cnversin exists in many languages.

The main reasn fr the widespread develpment f cnversin in present-day English is n dubt the absence f mrphlgical elements serving as classifying signals, r, in ther wrds, f frmal signs marking the part f speech t which the wrd belngs.

Types f cnversin. Amng the main types f cnversin are: 1) verbalizatin (the frmatin f verbs), e.g. t ape (frm ape n.); 2) substantivatin (the frmatin f nuns), e.g. a private (frm private adj.); 3) adjectivatin (the frmatin f adjectives), e.g. dwn (adj) (frm dwn adv.); 4) adverbalizatin (the frmatin f adverbs), e.g. hme (adv.) (frm hme n.) [26, p. 65].

The tw categries f parts f speech especially affected by cnversin are nuns and verbs.

Verbalizatinis the creatin f a verb frm a nun, adjective r ther wrd. In mdern linguistics it is als called verbificatin, r verbing,

Examples f verbificatin in the English language number in the thusands, including sme f the mst cmmn wrds, such as mail and e-mail, strike, talk, salt, pepper, switch, bed, sleep, ship, train, stp, drink, cup, lure, mutter, dress, dizzy, divrce, fl, merge, and many mre, t be fund n virtually every page in the dictinary.

Prper nuns can als be verbed in the English language. Ggle is the name f a ppular internet search engine. T ggle smething nw means t lk it up n the Internet, as in He didn't knw the answer, s he ggled it.

Verbs cnverted frm nuns are called denminal verbs. If the nun refers t sme bject f reality (animate r inanimate) the cnverted verb may dente:

1) actin characteristic f the bject: ape n. >ape v. imitate in a flish way;

2) instrumental use f the bject: whip n. >whip v. strike with a whip;

3) acquisitin r additin f the bject: fish n. >fish v. 'catch r try t catch fish';

4) deprivatin f the bject: dust n. >dust v. remve dust frm smth.;

5) lcatin: pcket n. >pcket v. put int ne's pcket. [27, c. 65]

Verbs with adjective stems, such as blind, calm, clean, empty, idle, lame, lse, tidy, ttal shw fairly regular semantic relatinships with the crrespnding adjectives. Like verbs with adjective stems that had been frmerly suffixed and lst their endings (e. g. t thin<E thynnian) they dente change f state. If they are used intransitively, they mean 't becme blind, calm, clean, empty, etc.', their frmula as transitive verbs is: 't make blind, calm, clean, etc.'.

Substantivatin. Nuns cnverted frm verbs are called deverbal substantives. Ifthe verb refers t an actin, the cnverted nun may dente:

1) instance f the actin: jump v. >jump n. sudden spring frm the grund;

2) agent f the actin: help v. >help n. a persn wh helps;

3) place f the actin: drive v. >drive n. a path r rad alng which ne drives;

4) result f the actin: peel v. >peel n. the uter skin f fruit r ptates taken ff;

5) bject f the actin: let v. >let n. a prperty available fr rent.

In case f plysemantic wrds ne and the same member f a cnversin pair may belng t several grups. Fr example, the deverbal substantive slide is referred t the grup denting place f the actin (pint 3) in the meaning a stretch f smth ice r hard snw n which peple slide and t the grup agent f the actin (pint 2) when this nun means a sliding machine part.

Deverbal nuns frmed by cnversin fllw the regular semantic crrelatins bserved in nuns frmed with verbal stems by means f derivatin. They fall, amng thers, under the categries f prcess, result, place r agent.

Nuns may be frmed by cnversin frm any ther part f speech as well, fr instance frm adverbs:.; the bunding vitality which had carried her thrugh what had been a life f quite sharp ups and dwns. [28, p. 95]

Nuns can be frmed frm adjectives, in this case they are called substantivized adjectives, i.e. thse that in the curse f time have been cnverted t nuns and therefre have acquired the ability t name substances r bjects: The bride was dressed in white. Yu mix blue and yellw t make green.

3. Shrtening. During the prcess f cmmunicatin wrds and wrd-grups can be shrtened. Shrtening includes extra-linguistic and linguistic types. Extra-linguistic types are abbreviatins, acrnyms, initials, blends which are frmed because the temp f life is increasing and it becmes necessary t give mre and mre infrmatin in the shrtest pssible time.


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