The future tense

Expressions of future tense. The absolute and relative value of the future tense. Expressing future in time clause or value. Adverb replacement in the future perfect tense. Forming the future perfect continuous with "Will". Future perfect continuous.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид контрольная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 16.12.2011
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Introduction

In this assignment I tried best to emphasize deeply on future tense. Usually it is thought to be the simplest and easiest of all tenses in English by maximum number of people specially students in Non-English countries. But, a lot of us do not know the complexity of the Future Tense. The fact is that this might be as complex as other tenses, i.e The present and The future tenses. We often do not feel the complexity of this tense while using, and even the listener, sometimes the native speaker of English language would not be able to find out the errors, or may be he or she would be able to find out the errors but would rather neglect or would not have time to discuss because these mistakes at the first place are too small to be picked out for discussion. But here I will try my best to express thoroughly the usage of all Future tenses and the usage of shall and Will.

1. Expressions of future tense

The main concept of the future tense however remains more complicated than it is itself. It varies from time and situations. A native speaker may use typical expressions about what he or she is going to do in future but it does not carries the typical meanings but sometimes more complicated intention and it also varies from speaker's conviction. This happens because of two main reasons when we do not understand the native speaker:

The absolute value of the future tense

The relative value of the future tense

The first thing we should keep in mind is that around 99% non English speaking people (here I mean to say only some of us do know) use the absolute value of the future tense. Absolute value of the future tense means a traditional way in which we have learned and read about future tense in schools and colleges. So there are some typical standards which we know and use them traditionally when we speak in English.

Secondly comes the relative value of the future tense. This is more complex part which is defined in my this assignment thoroughly. There are a lot of chances that complexity may vary from situation to situation and sometimes even from person to person.

Thus, a given language may exhibit more than one strategy for expressing futurity. In addition, the verb forms used for the future tense can also be used to express other types of meaning. For example, «will», in English, may express direct volition as well as mark the future form of a verb. The auxiliary werden «become» is used for both the future tense and the passive voice in German.

2. The Future Tense

1. What is a tense?

What is a Tense? [The word tense comes from Latin tempus, time.] We have three kinds of time,

· Present

· Past

· Future

What ever we say and whenever we say, it is related to a particular time. It can not happen that you say a sentence and it is not related to any tense. So tenses are very important in any language. Here you must note that every language does not have grammar, but still they are spoken. But a lot of languages are those which do have grammar and rules and regulations. Tenses does not mean to learn only structures and then you are on your way to using them. But here we shall only emphasize on the Future Tenses.

2. The future tense «Going to»

Most commonly used future sentences in our daily life are made up of «Going To» although we just don't feel that we are using future tense, because we want to or intend to express things in Present Tense but «Going to» slightly refers to Future Tense.

The future tenses are itself very simple tenses of their kind. But still we cannot say while working in depth with future tenses specially when using future tenses in the past. There is no one 'future tense' in English. There are 4 future forms. The one which is used most often in spoken English is 'going to', not 'will'.

We use 'going to' when we want to talk about a plan for the future: for example,

I'm going to see him later today.

They're going to launch it next month.

We're going to have lunch first.

But please Notice that this plan does not have to be for the near future.

When I retire I'm going to go back to Barbados to live.

In ten years time, I'm going to be boss of my own successful company.

We use 'going to' when we want to make a prediction based on evidence we can see now.

Look out! That cup is going to fall off.

Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain soon.

Here, a very interesting question arises in our minds that «can we replace 'going to go' by 'going'»? The answer is «Yes», we can.

I'm going out later.

She's going to the exhibition tomorrow.

But please note that:

«I'm going to Germany.» isn't really the future tense. (This is just Present Indefinite.)

If you want to say it in a future form you will have to say:

I'm going to go to Germany.

But sometimes:

We say something is going to happen when it has already been planned.

For example:

Question: Where are you going on holiday this year?

Answer: We're going to Spain.

We also use it to show something has already been decided.

For example:

We're going to buy a new car next year.

We also use going to when we can see something is about to happen.

3. What does actually Shall or Will means?

Mostly people who live in non-english speaking countries do not really know or do not make an appropriate usage of will or shall.

1. (auxiliary verb.) will

am (is, are, etc.) about or going to:

I will be there tomorrow. She will see you at dinner.

2. will

am (is, are, etc.) disposed or willing to:

People will do right.

3. will

am (is, are, etc.) expected or required to:

You will report to the principal at once.

4. will

may be expected or supposed to:

You will not have forgotten him.

5. will

am (is, are, etc.) determined or sure to (used emphatically):

People will talk.

6. will

am (is, are, etc.) accustomed to, or do usually or often:

She would write for hours at a time.

7. will

am (is, are, etc.) habitually disposed or inclined to:

Tyrants will be tyrants.

8. will

am (is, are, etc.) capable of; can:

This tree will live without water for three months.

9. (v.i.) will

to wish; desire; like:

Take what you will. Ask, if you will, who the owner is.

10. (n.) will

the faculty of conscious and particularly of deliberate action:

the freedom of the will.

3.2 Definition of 'Shall'

1. shall

plan to or intend to:

I shall go later.

2. shall

will have to or is determined to:

You shall do it. He shall do it.

3. shall

(in laws, directives, etc.) must; is or are obliged to:

Council meetings shall be public.

4. shall

(used interrogatively):

Shall we go?

5. shall

used to offer, suggest, or ask politely

Shall I make some drinks?

6. shall

used with «I» and «we» to talk about the future

We shall be away that week.

7. shall

used to give legal instructions

The defendant shall not be required to pay any damages.

8. shall

to owe; to be under obligation for

9. shall

to be obliged; must

4. The future tense «Shall or Will» Or Future Indefinite Tense

Expressing Future in Time Clause or value:

Observe the following example;

Aslam will come soon. When Aslam comes, we will talk to him.

«When Aslam comes» is a time clause.

When + Subject + 1st form of a verb = a time clause.

Note: Will or be going to is not used in a time clause. The meaning of the clause is furute, but the Simple Present is used.

A time clause begins with such words as when, before, after, as soon as, until and includes a subject and a verb. The time clause can some either at the beginning of a sentence or in the second part of a sentence:

When he comes, we'll see him.

OR:

We'll see him when he comes

To express a Prediction:

Use either WILL or GOING TO;

(a) According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.

(b) According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow.

In both of the sentences the speaker is making a prediction (a statement about something which he or she thinks will be true in the future). So, there is no difference between the both.

To express a PRIOR PLAN:

Use only GOING TO;

A: Why did you buy this watch?

B: I am going to gift it to my friend. Here you can observe that (B) bought a watch and his plan is to gift that watch in the future. In other words, the desicion or plan of gifting the watch was already taken.

To express decisions taken at the time of speaking:

Use only WILL;

A: What are you doing now a days?

B: I'm learning English.

A: Really! Is the institute good and inexpensive?

B: Yes, it is.

A: I will also take admission in that institute.

To express Willingness:

Use only Will;

Willingness means that you are ready to volunteer for something.

A: The phone's ringing. B: I'll get it.

In the above example, B: is saying that he is willing and happy to answer the phone. He is not predicting. He has made no prior plan to answer the phone. He is, instead, volunteering to answer the phone and uses WILL to show his willingness.

Completed Action Before Something in the Future

The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.

Examples:

· By next November, I will have received my promotion.

· By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.

· I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.

· Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?

· Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.

· By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.

Examples:

· I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.

· By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words «live,» «work,» «teach,» and «study» are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.

Examples:

· I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct

· I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct

Adverb replacement in the Future Perfect Tense

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You will only have learned a few words.

· Will you only have learned a few words?

· You are only going to have learned a few words.

Active voice and Passive voice in the Future Perfect Tense

The main formulae extracting Active voice from Passive Voice or vice versa remains the same almostly like before. Here are some examples:

· They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active

· The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive

· They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active

· The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive

5. The future tense «Shall or Will have been» (The Future Perfect Continuous)

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: «will have been doing» and «be going to have been doing.» Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

Forming the Future Perfect Continuous with «Will»

[will have been + present participle]

Examples:

· You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

· Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?

· You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

Forming the Future Perfect Continuous with «Be Going To»

[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

Examples:

· You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

· Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?

· You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

Please note that: It is possible to use either «will» or «be going to» to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

Duration Before Something in the Future

We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. «For five minutes,» «for two weeks,» and «since Friday» are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.

Examples:

· They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.

· She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.

· James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.

· How long will you have been studying when you graduate?

· We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.

Dialouge Examples:

Person A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?

Person B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

Please Notice that in the above examples the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

Cause of Something in the Future

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous

If you do not include a duration such as «for five minutes,» «for two weeks» or «since Friday,» many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:

· He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.

· This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.

· He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.

· This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.

Remember that there is No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc.

Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used. See the examples below.

Examples:

· You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct

· You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

Do not forget Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs as wel

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect.

Adverb replacements

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

· Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

· You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

· Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

Extracting Active and Passive voice

The same method of extracting active and passive voice we use here with no additional changes but keeping in mind the tense itself.

Examples:

· The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active

· The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

· The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active

· The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

Remember that: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.

future adverb perfect tense

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