Security law enforcement and personal security staff in the development of independent Ukraine
Safety and attitudes toward law enforcement in persistence. Basic approaches to ensure the safety of law enforcement personnel in the development of independent Ukraine. Ways and methods of improvement of system of training of policemen in Ukraine.
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1. Safety and attitudes toward law enforcement in persistence
2. Basic approaches to ensure the safety of law enforcement personnel in the development of independent Ukraine
3. Legal protection of tax services
Lists of references
safety police enforcemen
At this stage of our country's security and law enforcement personal safety of employees is very important because Ukraine as an independent, sovereign state is making efforts to build a legal and democratic society, the creation of a market economy and accession to the European and world community. Transition in public life requires scientific justification strategies and tactics resolve internal and external problems, the creation of detailed economic, legal, social, ideological and moral basis and on that basis the active fighting crime because the state crime is most characteristic indicator of law enforcement in the state, security life and health, honor and dignity, rights and freedoms.
Significant increase in disasters, emergencies of natural origin, socio-political events (of events, group commit public disorder and riots), and military turmoil and terrorism in the world is the need to strengthen the anti-death, injury, occupational diseases in units law enforcement related to official duties, quantitative indicators are markedly increased. Given the above, special importance is the legal provision of professional training in modern Ukraine, in particular, to act in extreme conditions. In cases of sudden occurrence of psychological and physical dangers of the lack of knowledge in law enforcement becomes a non important tasks and, as a consequence - trauma, injury or even death.
Systematic approach to resolving the issue of improving the system of training of police officers in Ukraine provides a comprehensive study of all types of training at different stages and in different situations.
Organizational Principles activity primarily depend on regulations to be established procedures and rules of performance and providing intra-organizational activities. For target orientation, these regulations are divided into: orders, plans operational performance, regulations, orders, permits, regulations and so on. Important element plans operational performance, primarily concerned plans for training of law enforcement officials.
Authorities are working hard to create a favorable legal environment for employees involved in the execution of their duties in extreme conditions.
By the arrangements of police are, above all, measures to increase training at various stages, including initial training, retraining, training, training, coaching, research documents, experience, training personnel safe actions while on duty .
Therefore, to avoid injury, personal injury or death, law enforcement government should do everything for the people who protect the law are protected both physically and socially.
1. Safety and attitudes toward law enforcement in persistence
Based upon the fact that the causes of accidents while performing their professional duties employees are mostly hazardous and dangerous profession of employees, the entire set of possible measures to ensure their personal safety can be roughly divided into two groups: measures aimed to reduce hazardous conditions and measures aimed at reducing unsafe acts. According mechanism to prevent accidents is reduced in its general form to implement these two key areas. Let's examine them in more detail. But you should first make a few remarks on the concept of "personal security." Traditionally, it is identified with the term "physical safety of the individual." From the point of view of a narrow approach to this concept is not unobjectionable. However, in this case, more productive, from our point of view, is to use the concept of "personal security" in its broader sense, is the notion that, along with physical security includes a number of other components (such as organizational security, social security and others who are in close interdependence between them). Reduce or eliminate if possible dangerous conditions of professional staff provides analysis of the environment in which this activity occurs and the diagnosis of internal problems associated also with human resources.
Analysis of the external environment aimed at controlling external in relation to law enforcement factors to determine their capabilities and potential hazards. External environment is measured by three parameters: definitions and accounting changes that affect or may affect the activity of law enforcement bodies, their status in society, health workers, assessment of the factors that have significant opportunities to achieve the objectives of law enforcement agencies and the identification and thorough analysis of the factors which constitute a threat, a potential risk. These results make it possible to respond to these or other factors make the necessary adjustments in the organization of the organs, develop and implement measures to prevent danger, threat, ix reduce the impact and implications for the organization as a whole and for each employee. The problem of life safety of law enforcement officers is not only its employees but also their families. According to them, directly or indirectly distributed system and professional protection. In cases of emergency involving the loss of employees, their families become targets of this system.
Especially in time of decisive importance for the creation of an enabling environment professional police officers forming a high culture of the organization, its image (image). They provide a positive public attitudes toward law enforcement and their employees activities that they perform, form a reputation in the law enforcement community, facilitating the public to cooperate.
Some steps in this direction have already been made, but not enough about anything, including the results of population surveys regarding their attitudes toward the police, have been conducted in different regions of Ukraine, Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and specialist researchers at the University of Internal Affairs. Thus, only 10% of citizens of Ukraine, according to a study of the Public Relations Internal Affairs of Ukraine commended the work of law enforcement bodies as good, while 37% identified it is unsatisfactory and 39% satisfactory. Critically relate directly to citizens and law enforcement officers. Low ratings were such as workers as sensitivity, culture communication, professionalism, appearance, and some others.
One indicator of the authority of law enforcement in society and a prerequisite for their effective operation is the willingness of people to cooperate with them in case of need to come to the rescue. As a result of the above mentioned study, 22% of respondents pointed to the possibility of their participation in public health units on order, and the majority (almost 60%) believe that assist the police only have the power structure. The low activity of the population in this area is supported by the results of'' criminal situation and the relationship of the police and the public in Kharkiv ", conducted by the University of Internal Affairs in early 1997 p.: Only 5.5% of Kharkiv wish to participate in public order and 2.3% - ready to provide moral support to the police. These data indicate the need for more intensive and focused work on the introduction of measures aimed at forming favorable public opinion regarding law enforcement, enhance their prestige in society. It is very difficult and laborious affair concerning various aspects of law enforcement and where there may be little things. Certainly matter perfect training of law enforcement personnel, skillful performance of their professional duties related to law enforcement and the fight against crime. Together so important is the fact that man is a law enforcement officer whether he is attentive, patient, even-tempered, friendly, as he says, or he can ask and listen to people, which is its appearance, whether it is in external characteristics stereotype of a strong, credible, serious man who is able to help, protect others and themselves.
Extremely important is the question of the title of the organization. This is not a formal matter, because in the name of the organization in the most concise manner expressed its essence, that is the reason for which it was created and operates. Under the name of the organization has an impact on its external and internal perception, ie as perceived in society and as perceived by their employees. Attitude of workers to organize and significantly shape their attitude to themselves as members of this organization, as it directly affects the models' of their professional conduct. In recent years, the pages of the special literature repeatedly raised and discussed the question of renaming militia into police. We believe that this renaming makes sense. In this regard, consider a more detailed interpretation of the words "police" and "police". The term "police" is certainly of Greek origin and the initial mean state, city. In the Middle Ages, it latynizuvalosya in the word "polita", but the meaning remains the same. From the XIV century. word in the French inscription "police" begins symbolize order and good morals, which is protected by law. Around the second half HU1 century. its value begins to change and when the police began to understand only the activities in the field of public order, which shall state through coercion. At present foreign criminologists argue that the term "police" in its totality vykrystalizuvana theory and practice of "total peace, security and good order.
The term "police" (from lat. Militia - host) in the world is used to refer to voluntary armed forces. In our country the name entered circulation during the revolutionary events of 1917, in the search for alternatives to the royal police. At the inception of Soviet power was used to denote napivhromadskyh armed forces, which were created to protect the revolutionary order. Thus, the resolution of the Commissariat of Internal Affairs of October 28 (November 10) in 1917 provided for the creation of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies proletarian militia groups who usually relied upon armed Red Guards. Gradually changing views and to organize the militia, its mission in the community, but did not change the name. Historically certain contradiction between content and form. This contradiction is especially contrasted in terms of building a democratic society. It is clear that the change of names does not solve all problems at once, but it is an important step towards the development of law enforcement as a truly democratic institution designed primarily to protect the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, guaranteeing them safe living conditions. It should be added that in almost all countries of the world to refer to the protection of the public order, acting in a professional manner, using exactly the term "police". Under this name is international cooperation to combat crime, creates relevant international organizations, including professional associations police. Terminology compliance with global traditions facilitates integration into the international community, promotes greater mutual understanding, cooperation at various levels.
2. Basic approaches to ensure the safety of law enforcement personnel in the development of independent Ukraine
Specificity Enforcement necessitates paying constant attention, control and regulation of social-psychological climate in the law enforcement departments. There is a close relationship between the capacity of law enforcement agencies, the level of personal security personnel and as socio-psychological climate in each team. The misfortunes of the latter is directly reflected in the lowering of the first two. This dependence requires an effective system of social and psychological support staff. Note its special importance for executives. Statistical analysis by experts in the field of sociology and labor organization showed that during conflicts, situations of psychological stress likely making heads inefficient management decisions even on quite typical issue, increased by 40-60%. A successful social-psychological climate creates conditions for high moral and psychological stability collective law enforcement, which is regarded as the ability to withstand the impact of destructive factors extreme situations while maintaining their social functions. Given the characteristics of the environment functioning of law enforcement agencies, the plurality of destructive factors that affect them, extreme conditions, this area of ??management a priority.
The main objectives of social and psychological support law enforcement personnel:
* Ensure all categories of personnel most comfortable psychological environment for performing official duties.
* Prevention or elimination of operational work (between employees and administration) and osobystistnyh (between employees within departments, heads of various departments, employees and managers of a unit) conflicts.
* Eliminate possible sources of stress at work and the prevention of its consequences.
The process of socio-psychological support personnel conditionally divided into two constituent elements: analysis of the psychological climate in the team and correction in the desired direction. Both are important for law enforcement. Assign the first element - evaluation of overall psychological climate in the team division or law enforcement agencies, as well as identifying factors that adversely affects it. According to the system of analysis should be considered as background information for the decision to stabilize the psychological climate (the correction) by eliminating or at least weakening of negative factors. Direct management of psychological climate in the bodies and heads of departments of internal exercise. Note that many of the phenomena observed in the collective leadership (the organization, content, identity manager, management style, etc.) in the greatest degree of impact on relationships and emotional well-being of people. Spearheading a particular unit, working with subordinates, supervisor acts not only as a performer particular social role, but also as a carrier of certain human traits, precepts, traditions, stereotypes that can not be displayed on the nature of the relationship that stored in the team.
Relationships "leader - subordinate" create so-called "vertical" component of social and psychological climate. Along with it is no less important and its "horizontal" component (Slave - Slave "), which is due to the peculiarities of the behavior of individual team members. Only when both components coincide, social and psychological climate be recognized as the best or safe.
During a survey of law enforcement officers who attend the University of Internal Affairs, they were asked to assess the welfare socio-psychological climate in the workplace where they work. The study less than half of employees (43.9%) assessed social and psychological climate in 'their units as safe. Most workers (56.0%) noted the presence of conflicts in their groups. Thus 46.3% of them characterized socio-psychological climate as the one where simmering conflicts, and 9.7% - noted the presence of 'groups developed their conflicts. Among the causes of conflict are identified: the presence of workers who, for various reasons deliberately provoke conflict or development (noted 36.5% of respondents), personal traits head (24.3%); neuminnya head extinguish the conflict at the stage of its inception (21 , 7%). That is 52.3% of the respondents indicated that conflicts in their groups associated with the head, either with his personal traits, or insufficient levels of culture, they lack the necessary skills. Complement this data answers the question: "How does management of your organization relates to interpersonal conflicts among employees?". Responses were as follows: User notices interpersonal conflict in organizations - 36.3%; leadership is also guilty of conflict - 24.8%; User shall take all possible measures in order to save and protect workers from the emergence and existence of conflict - 21 9%. The fact that managers tend to ignore or mute conflicts or incidents that could escalate into conflict lies the danger. This usually leads to a voltage between people and groups, and ultimately to an emotional explosion. Clearly, this is only one side of the manifestation of this problem. No less significant compared to the conflicts in the system "supervisor-subordinate" is, in terms of their damaging effects on individual employee and the organization in general, conflicts between team members. That is why these issues are actively discussed both domestic and foreign experts. Interesting in this respect is the study of German authors and L.Vaniorek A.Vaniorek devoted to the problem of "mobbinhu." Symbolic and their titles "Mobbinh: when work becomes hell" concept "mobbinh" define fairly well known phenomenon, which is the psychological pressure in the workplace. According to the statement of experts around 3 - 4% of all those employed on work experience mobbinhu at their jobs. Those who have experienced mob attacks bingo often suffer pains in the stomach, depression, cardiovascular violation sudennoyi activity and insomnia, and some people even thought there samohubstvo.Rezultaty about these and other studies again emphasize the importance and complexity of the problem human relationships. The main tool for forming and correction of social and psychological climate in the workplace law enforcement methods are managerial influence. In theory and practice of human resource management are conventionally differentiated into three groups:
a) methods of their own psychological issues (training and simulation games, psycho sessions, individual psychiatric diagnosis, targeted psychological support);
b) methods of organizational and administrative nature (additional training managers
c) methods of social and psychological problems (lectures, seminars, organization of joint rest, cultural events, etc.).
According to results of a survey of law enforcement officers who attend the University of Internal Affairs, in units where they are the most common methods of managing socio-psychological climate were conversations with subordinates and manager of cultural events. Only 14.6% of surveyed employees admitted using methods such as lectures and seminars on the causes of conflicts and their solutions; 7.3% - focused psychological assistance and training managers, 2.4% - training and business games. According to the responses, 24.3% of respondents noted that these issues are not addressed in their divisions. Poverty, uniformity of methods used to influence subordinates may or effect pryvykannya to them and therefore non-responsiveness to them in the future, or cause annoyance and perception, for example, each of the next meeting as another moralizing. These circumstances again draw attention to the need to strengthen the role of leaders in shaping and managing socio-psychological climate, mastering their methods of analysis, prevention and resolution of various conflicts that arise in subordinate groups, active involvement in this activity specialists departments to work Personnel in the face of staff social worker or psychologist.
The system of measures aimed at minimizing occupational hazards while performing law enforcement officials their duties, occupies an important place as analysis and regulation of the working conditions of law enforcement officers. In their general working conditions are characterized by a system of factors that determine human performance, costs and results of labor. The main features, which systematize these factors is their content and impact on the employees. On the basis of "content" distinguish the following factors:
* physiological (exercise, neuro-psychological stress, monotony of work, mode of work and recreation, etc.);
* hygiene (air temperature, noise, lighting, the organization of the workplace and t etc.).
* socio-psychological (form relationships in the team, the degree of wealth socio-psychological climate, etc.);
* aesthetic (for example, using a certain color when you make room and so on.).
The degree of cumulative impact on workers, ie, depending on the severity of labor distinguished 6 groups of conditions: comfortable, those that meet the regulatory conditions; unfavorable, harmful, extreme and unacceptable. Thus, only 17.0% of respondents law enforcement officials indicated that they were satisfied with working conditions, the majority of workers (82.9%) - are not satisfied with the working conditions are not satisfied or completely. Assessing working conditions, on the basis of severity of labor, only 4.8% of respondents identified them as comfortable, 29.2% - those that meet the regulatory requirements of labor. 48.7% of workers described them as bad and 14.6% - as harmful. There is a direct relationship between working conditions and work ability of workers and therefore the results of their work. The efficiency is considered as an indicator of the potential for employees to perform their work at a given level of performance over time. Therefore, the more intense, serious, in terms of the total impact on the human body are the working conditions, the more exposed to changes in operating performance: reduced productivity, appear professional errors occurring phenomena such as fatigue and perevtomlenist. Ostanyai particularly dangerous in terms of the likelihood of accidents. Studies show that fatigue phenomena differently manifested in these or other working hours. If a person works in the morning, then more intense fatigue phenomenon observed in the fourth and fifth hours of labor, and in the evening on the night shift already from the beginning there is such a high point of fatigue. In the next hour, he reduced mid change occurs again, and then, after a relative decrease again increased in recent hours. For safety monitoring frequency of these oscillations is very important, because with time intervals climax fatigue occurs most accidents. After completion of the restoration of physiological and psychological resources of the body. In the case of incomplete recovery period kept residual fatigue, which can accumulate lead to chronic fatigue. In a state of chronic fatigue reduced mental capacity: hard to concentrate sometimes comes forgetfulness, slowness, inadequate thinking. All this increases the risk of accidents.
To prevent the phenomena of fatigue and fatigue while performing professional duties has an appropriate organization of the workplace. The term "workplace enforcement worker" understand the area of ??employment, which is equipped with the necessary organizational and technical facilities, communications equipment, and other special accessories for the performance of their duties. Adjustment of all these issues is possible only by collaboration of leaders and departments of HR, design and implement them in the practice of law enforcement guidelines on professional employees subject of several factors that contribute to these or other conditions' of their work.
But it is important to create favorable conditions not only for work but also for the rest of law enforcement officers, their physical and mental development. Necessary to ensure their food, life, health prevention. In practice, in Ukraine this problem is solved by the construction of sports and recreation facilities, medical dispensaries, centers for social rehabilitation, psychological relaxation rooms, cafes, etc. As mentioned above, one of the main causes of accidents among law enforcement officers in the performance of their professional duties is a dangerous acts workers. Therefore, another approach to the safety of law enforcement personnel, along with the reduction of hazardous conditions and their impact is seen reducing unsafe acts. There are several ways to implement this approach. This primarily concerns the proper professional selection and placement. Professional selection enables a person to enter the organization, "weed out" those people who are on the set of different indicators will be unable to fulfill certain responsibilities. Predict human behavior on a particular workplace is through the analysis of its various characteristics (physical and mental abilities, personal qualities, ability to make decisions, prior experience, education, etc.) using the set of methods (interviews, tests, analysis of autobiographies, analysis and recommendations etc..). It is critical at this stage is to use a professiogram those specialties that form the core of law enforcement.
The next way - is reducing unsafe acts through the formation of a leadership sense of responsibility. Most experts dealing with security issues have come to believe that a sense of responsibility regarding security must begin with senior management. Without a full sense of responsibility among managers at all levels attempt to reduce dangerous actions will meet workers without much enthusiasm. Practically, this sense of responsibility occurs when management personally involved in the actions of security: these issues are discussed regularly at staff meeting and at meetings taken into account when planning activities, training programs security activities included in the training and retraining of workers, etc.
Another way in this direction associated with the use of visual propaganda (eg posters on various aspects of security and so on.). They are quite widely used in the practice of security management personnel of law enforcement agencies. On the one hand, of course the posters focuses on nodal aspects of a problem of personal security staff and provided quality 'ix design, taking into account patterns of visual aids, thoughtful mechanism uses continuous updating content etc. they can become effective means reducing unsafe acts of personnel (according to one of the studies' ix usage increases safe behavior staff of more than 20%). On the other hand, in case of violation of the above and other conditions, visual means have antyreklamy effect: causing irritation, and at best - they just do not notice. Clearly, visual propaganda is not possible to replace a comprehensive security program. It should be used in a pile with other drugs reduce hazardous conditions and actions and considered as part of the overall program.
The most effective ways of reducing unsafe acts considered training. Based on the fact that learning to some extent, can replace the experience, the education security can also reduce accidents. Such training is especially helpful for new employees, who must instruct relatively safe actions and procedures, to warn of potential hazards and develop howled their propensity to security. However misguided view is that, unfortunately, is embodied in practice that training security is important only at the beginning of their professional activity. But it does not. This process should be consistent, systematic and implemented during the period of employment of the employee.
The main purpose of training security - is to accustom workers to the norms and rules of safe behavior while performing their professional duties, excavation and securing the necessary knowledge and skills. When one or the other safe action becomes a habit to operate safely and acquires the properties of automatic execution, we can assume that the learning achieved a certain result. The more friendly actions can be done automatically, the more time employees is to assess the situation, making the right decisions, which in turn can save his health or even life.
The main components of the training of law enforcement action is safe, professional, moral, psychological and pedagogical training of personnel. Each of these components together with a common goal has objectives and content. The main objectives of the training is to provide knowledge and implementation of existing regulations governing the activities of law enforcement personnel, methods and means of performing professional tasks, skills, possession of firearms, the use of special tools, appropriate physical training workers to build them the ability to transfer large exercise etc. . Tasks and determine the activity in this area, which includes legal, fire, physical and medical training.
Moral training is carried out with the aim of forming police ethics and professional commitment to implement them, a sense of professional obligation, responsibility and discipline, initiative, and other qualities.
The purpose of psycho-pedagogical training is to form the police professionally significant qualities necessary to ensure personal safety and their learning strategies, tactics and technology activities in this direction.
Ukraine has already gained some experience in training law enforcement officers to act in critical situations, personal safety, but the facts of damage, injuries and deaths that occur among personnel in modern conditions indicate deficiencies in the activity, its imperfections. This draws attention to the decision of the Board and Ministry of Ukraine of 29 February 1996 "On the status of work to ensure the personal safety of law enforcement officers in the performance of official duties and measures to strengthen it." In particular, it was considered insufficient work services and departments Internal Affairs of Ukraine with the organization and implementation of measures to create appropriate conditions for the safe performance of duty and prevent the death and injury of personnel, and in some areas these activities generally recognized nezadovilnoyu.U this regard, especially significant problem arises improve training of law enforcement strategies, tactics and techniques to ensure personal safety. In the literature to describe this trend increasingly used the term "security management" by analogy with international experience, where the concept has wide appeal, including in the area of police training. Importantly, the training of law enforcement safe actions should occur within the general ix training, but at the same time as a separate, independent direction. Rozpochynayuchys in the walls of educational institutions (for example, it could be a special training course "Management of personal security"), it then goes on units and law enforcement agencies, konkretyzuyuchys on individual programs purely practical orientation. The basic principles of the "organization of this activity should be consistency, specificity, flexibility, mobility and practical orientation.
Useful in this case could be the experience of foreign kra'in where learning "safety management" has become a mandatory part of training "police management". We refer to the experience of sat where developed and implemented a significant number of programs and guidelines designed to ensure the personal safety of the police: "Survival police when leaving the scene," "Survival of the police during a raid on drug seizures," "Survival of the police during arrest "" Surviving on the Street "and so on. There are also special and programs aimed at teaching certain categories of workers including 'ix specificity (eg personal safety of employees of traffic police), there is a special training for women - police. Track program is examining the tactics and methods to ensure personal safety. All of these programs are a regular component of training, retraining and advanced training of law enforcement officials.
The concept of "survival" is not accidentally used in the names of training programs for police officers (not only the above, but in many others). This is a reflection of educational traditions of this country, based on the ideas of pragmatism and neopra-hmatyzmu whereby the content of education must meet the needs of man and still be practical. This thesis is fully implemented in many training programs developed under the concept of "learning for the sake of survival," which received wide distribution in the U.S. in the second half of the XX century. Representatives of this concept based on the fact that people are facing many dangers and so the main goal of training is to help people survive in the face of growing conflicts and collisions, to form they need for this knowledge, skills and navychky.Pid the development and implementation of "curriculum survival cops' main focus is on the formation of police knowledge and skills of individual professional conduct aimed at ensuring personal safety in combination with the ability to "team player" (ie, to ensure the safety of colleagues) and the skills to manage, providing maximum security subordinates. The main objectives of these programs in their most general form is the formation of the police professional psychological precepts to ensure personal safety and that of colleagues; mastery of relevant knowledge, practical training tactics and techniques of professional security training combination of tactics and techniques to ensure the security of the tactics and techniques of decision professional tasks and so on. Clearly, these tasks are specified in each vypadku.Napryklad, job training program "Survival in street confrontation" - to strengthen the security police and his self-confidence, while increasing the safety of others and of the detainee. The authors of the program, developing its content, proceeded from the fact that the risk of injury and liability is minimized if the offender is arrested and the incident is exhausted in a few minutes. During the assimilation program students learn to use the techniques of psychological and physical controls, which do not contradict the basic guidelines for the use of force, but at the same time allow a wider choice, do not require particularly. Curriculum and Recommendations "Survival police during a raid on drug seizures," aimed at the assimilation of police involved in the removal surgeries drug of measures to ensure personal safety. Program content is 6 sections: 1 - Planning raid 2 - selection and training equipment, 3 - and zhid approach to building, 4-interaction with colleagues, 5 - safety during the search, 6-security at detention. In summary form recommendations to ensure the personal safety of police officers during such raids are presented in the memo to police vyzhyvannyu.60 Assembled together, these recommendations have the effect formulas survival, resulting from the use of which is the health and lives of workers politsiyi.Prykladom program universal, is calculated for different categories of officers, may be the program "Path to Survival". This program is designed for 40 hours of study and includes consideration of the following issues: analysis of causes of death or injury to employees; generalized socio-demographic and psychological "portrait" employee - the victim, the conditions and factors that contribute to personal safety; psychological "portrait" of an employee who able to provide the optimal level of security of personal actions and tactics of "the team" to ensure security complex specific knowledge that characterize the human condition in situations of danger;-specific recommendations on how to act within the law to ensure personal safety and some others. Compulsory element of the program is the practical working out tactics and techniques of personal safety in solving professional problems. During the program emphasizes the decisive role in ensuring personal safety should not outfitting, and its employees, its conscious and competent action. Extremely interesting and useful direction this program is to teach correct understanding of what is happening to the employee in a situation of danger. In particular, special attention is paid to the fear that in a situation of danger often becomes destabilizing. Functionally fear is an emotion that occurs in situations of social or biological threat to the existence of the individual is the subject of the prevention of danger, allows you to focus and source leads to the search for her podolannya.V depending on the nature of the threat and intensity of specific emotions of fear varies a reasonably wide range of shades (fear, fright, horror, etc.). When fear reaches a strength of passion (panic, horror), it can impose on a person unproductive patterns of behavior - an escape, numbness, defensive aggression. This has generated fear response is relatively stable and can persist even if their understanding of meaninglessness. Therefore, resistance to fear education must be focused not on the liberation of man from him, and the formation of skills mastery in his presence. It is this aspect of the focus in the "path to survival." The general idea of ??teaching is simple: "Everything that happens to your body in danger situation is unusual and perhaps unpleasant. Yet this is normal and will eventually work on your survival." In developing and implementing programs to ensure personal safety ("survival" police) much attention is paid to the formation of separate police and skills of survival. One of these skills is the ability to communicate. In terms of U.S. experts, the ability to communicate, conduct surveys, manage communication in certain circumstances - a mandatory skill policeman, the quality of which depends on the formation of his personal security. Therefore, these issues must include in training programs aimed at ensuring the safety of police in different situations. Not just American experts on personal safety emphasize the significance of this ability for the police. A similar situation exists in other countries. Thus, according to British experts, security police depends on a number of skills and abilities. But primarily it concerns communication skills in conflict or in stressful situations or when confrontation. Learning these skills will allow police to avoid the use of excessive force and thus reduce injuries. Mandatory element of any program on communication tactics are learning the language of body movements and reactions in response to stress conditions, enabling police to better understand and predict enemy actions, and correct vidreahuva-you to them, selecting the appropriate method. Skills practiced communicate simultaneously with physical skills in an environment close to the real ones. The main objective here is to ensure that police personal safety. In Germany, for training of district staff services, bringing the necessary adjustments in their activities annually organizes workshops (average length - 4 days). During the seminars priority issues include training elements of communication and conflict resolution strategies. The participants working in workgroups where developing solutions to conflicts in certain situations, discuss the specific behavior of different categories of people find opportunities to improve their operations. Similar examples exist in many practical training and retraining of police officers from other countries.
Of course, skills and communication skills in different situations profession is not the only important components to protect the personal safety of police officers. This is just an example of what goes into this process purely professional and social aspects. Social and skills are considered not as something inferior training of the police, and as an important element of professionalism, which depends largely on their professional tasks and save with their own lives and the lives of others. Performance of this approach is undeniable.
Study materials covering the experience of policing foreign countries to protect the personal safety of employees, analysis of relevant training programs and guidelines can help you decide if this improvement activities of law enforcement agencies in Ukraine. They are:
* overcoming formal attitude, especially by heads of departments and internal affairs, the organization of training of staff to ensure personal safety, the formation of in law enforcement policy of safe operations;
* active involvement in this activity departments of Human Resources;
* continuity of the learning process safety management;
* spread it to all categories of law enforcement, the development and implementation of educational programs that are aimed at the formation of law enforcement knowledge and skills required to provide personal security, professionally-relevant skills and training 'their strategies, tactics and techniques action in this direction;
* wide range and varying forms of training. Activities to ensure the health and safety of law enforcement officers should, therefore, complex and multi-faceted character. General thrust of this activity and its importance to each individual employee and law enforcement in general, cause its special place in the overall system of law enforcement personnel. In the current environment where dangerous conditions have intensified activities of law enforcement agencies (social, economic, criminogenic, psychological, etc.). Exceptional importance of this complex organization, with regard to all factors that affect the security personnel. Management structure thus must take organizational, coordination and catalytic function. An important prerequisite for the effectiveness of this activity is to provide an appropriate level of scientific, educational and practical support.
3. Legal protection of tax services
Rights security personnel developed quite extensively and can provide reliable legal protection of life, health, property and interests of the employee tax servi ¬ to his family and if these rules governed by legal law competently and proficiently.
Legal protection of tax services is impossible without the legal framework, regulations implementing orga ¬ nizatsiyno-prevention measures and facilities, programs, plans, orders and other administrative decisions.
Measures to ensure legal protection of tax service are based on the Constitution of Ukraine and laws of UK ¬ sion, particularly such as the Law "On the State Tax Service", "On Police", "On Operational Activities", "On state ¬ wide the protection of workers court and law enforcement "," The safety of persons involved in criminal judicial chynstvi "," On pensions troops Chairman-¬ tion of and other ranks of the Interior, "" On the Internal Troops, "" state of emergency " , "The organizational and legal framework to combat organized crime," "On der ¬ State Service" and a number of other regulations.
According to Art. 4 Constitution of Ukraine, the State, through appropriate op ¬ Ghana provides law enforcement, public interests, rights and freedoms, including, of course, and the tax service as they are the carriers of all the rights and freedoms of the citizens of Ukraine.
Law of Ukraine "On Operational Activities" (Part Of Article 12) provides that when there is information about a threat to life, health or property of the employee and his close relatives in connection with zdiys ¬ tion it operational activities in the interest of security of Ukraine or disclosure felony or exposing organized crime groups operating unit must take spe-cial measures to ensure their safety, which is a change of personal data, change of residence, work, study and other data in the order determined Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
Special measures to remedy the conditions and procedure for applying the relevant officials of the Law of Ukraine "On State Protection of court staff and law enforcement agencies ¬ them" from 23 December 1993 This law applies to all law enforcement agencies, ie those who carry out operational investigations, those who conduct criminal investigations, carry out proceedings on administrative ¬ tive offenses, public order and safety hromads ¬ koyi involved in execution, as well as near to them ¬ cal relatives.
Dg. 5 said Law provides for the following types of special measures to ensure safety:
a) personal protection, public housing and property;
b) the issuance of weapons, personal protection and notification of danger;
c) establishing phone home;
d) use of technical means of verification and monitoring of telephone and other conversations, visual observation;
d) temporary accommodation in places that guarantee safety;
g) transfer to another job, referral to training, replacement documents, the change appearance, relocating residence.
Persons who make decisions about the use of special moves per ¬ safety on state tax authorities and their close ro ¬ dychiv heads are the police (Section 14 of the Act). The exercise ¬ tion security measures relies on special forces in the structure of op ¬ haniv Interior (p. 15).
Mentioned Law establishes liability for failure to take security measures (Article 21), as well as the disclosure of security measures (Article 22). Dg. 21 provides that rejection decisions unnatural ¬ time not taking or making enough sound decisions, failure to take appropriate security measures, court staff and law enforcement ¬ enforcement officers and their close relatives the relevant officials of the bodies referred to in Articles 14, 15 of this Law shall entail disciplinary or criminal liability in accordance with his rank ¬ legislation.
Dg. 22 provides for liability for disclosure of information on safety measures, namely:
1) the disclosure of information about the security measures people who have decided to use appropriate security measures, either directly carried out by entail disciplinary action, and in cases where disclosure of such information leading to serious consequences - criminal vidyovidachnist accordance with applicable law;
2) disclosure of such information a person taken under protection entails administrative liability in cases where disclosure of information on safety measures caused grave consequences - criminal liability provided for by current legislation ¬.
But in the Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offences (CAO) or the Criminal Code (CC) Ukraine No articles envisaging responsibility for such actions.
There are two ways to eliminate this gap. Firstly, reve ¬ tion CAO, CK special rules on liability for devel ¬ disclosure of information on safety measures and secondly, referring ve ¬ domostey security measures to state secrets (Article 6 Zakoihu Ukraine "On State Secrets") for to liability for disclosure of advancing for centuries. 67 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.
A special form of protection of the tax police, which is within the tax service is, as a last resort, its right to use firearms to repel armed ¬ pad on the employee himself or his family members or other assaults ¬ do if their life or health danger (st.151 Law of Ukraine "On Police", it applies to employees in ¬ additionally service).
Legal protection of tax militia provided as art. 21 of the Law of Ukraine "On the Police". According to this norm ¬ we tax police under the protection of the law.
Law guaranteed the protection of life, health, honor, dignity, bear ¬ on tax militiamen and their families from criminal attacks and other illegal activities.
Insulting the tax police, resistance, threats, violence, and other actions that prevent fulfillment of workers ¬ ka tax police task entails legisla ¬ nom responsibility. Legal protection under Art. 21 of the Law "On Police" applies to the tax police retirees, their families, if the offense is committed in connection with the prev ¬ guidance to break their activities.
Dg. 185 of the Administrative Code of Ukraine provides for liability for willful disobedience to lawful order or requirement of the employee to additionally ¬ police in the performance of his official duties or his image.
Dg. 185 of the Administrative Code of Ukraine stipulates vidpovidayinist by public calls to non-compliance with the tax police in connection with the performance of his official duties or dissemination of false information in order to provoke disobedience to lawful demand from the tax police.
A number of articles of the Criminal Code of Ukraine stipulates responsibility for anti ¬ statute for employees of the state tax service in the following cases:
- By capturing a law enforcement officer as zaruch ¬ nick;
- The organization and actively participate in group activities that violate public order or relating to clear unbroken ¬ tion legitimate demands of the authorities (in accordance with Art. 20 of the Law "On Police" Worker Tax represents der ¬ tiveness of executive authority );
- The resistance of the employees of the State Tax Service employees as ¬ ductor law enforcement officer in the performance of his official duties of ¬ matings for the protection of public order;
- The threat of murder, violence or destruction of property in relation to an employee of the state tax service as a law enforcement officer ¬ enforcement agencies, as well as his close relatives in connection with you ¬ fulfillment of his official
- The intervention activities of the State Tax Service as a law enforcement officer;
- For bodily injury to an employee of the state ¬ additionally service as a law enforcement officer or his close relatives in connection with the performance of his duties;
- The intentional destruction of or damage to property belonging to an employee of the state tax service as a law enforcement officer ¬ enforcement agencies, as well as his close relatives in connection with the use ¬ ment of his official duties;
- By threat or violence against an official (including Der ¬ State Tax Service) to end service activities ¬ hospitality or changes its nature in the interests of the person threatened.
Protection of life, health, honor and dignity of the worker's state tax service provided by other provisions of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Hook, for example, the responsibility for organizing mass without orders, accompanied by resistance to authorities (Employee Tax) with weapons or other items that were used as weapons (p. 294).
The practice of the articles of the Criminal Code indicates weakened ¬ nally criminal-law protection of law enforcement officers. As the practice concerning police, only 33% sentence ¬ Groom for bodily injury victims deprived of their liberty, and 17% of cases the fact of injuries caused by employees ¬ nicks in 2000, was discontinued.
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