The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking
Selected aspects of stimulation of scientific thinking. Meta-skills. Methods of critical and creative thinking. Analysis of the decision-making methods without use of numerical values of probability (exemplificative of the investment projects).
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Ñòóäåíòû, àñïèðàíòû, ìîëîäûå ó÷åíûå, èñïîëüçóþùèå áàçó çíàíèé â ñâîåé ó÷åáå è ðàáîòå, áóäóò âàì î÷åíü áëàãîäàðíû.
Principle of performance of action. Any system is intended for any well defined and concrete goal specific for it, and for this purpose it performs only specific (target-oriented) actions. Hence, the goal of a system is the aspiration to perform certain purposeful actions for the achievement of target-oriented (appropriate) result of action. The plane is designed for air transportation, but cannot float; for this purpose there is an amphibian aircraft. The result of aircraft performance is moving by air. This result of action is expectable and predictable. The constancy and predictability of functional performance is a distinctive feature of any systems - living, natural, social, financial, technical, etc. Consequently, in order to achieve the goal any object of our World should function, make any purposeful actions, operations (in this case the purposeful, deliberate inaction is in some sense an action, too). Action is manifestation of some energy, activity, as well as force itself, the functioning of something; condition, process arising in response to some influence, stimulant/irritant, impression (for example, reaction in psychology, chemical reactions, nuclear reactions). The object's action is followed by the result of action (not always expected, but always logical and conditioned). The purpose of any system is the aspiration to yield appropriate (targeted) result of action. At that, the given object is the donor of the result of action. The result of action of donor system can be directed towards any other system which in this case will be the recipient (target) for the result of action. In this case the result of action of the donor system becomes the external influence for the recipient system. Interaction between the systems is carried out only through the results of action. In that way the chain of actions is built as follows: ... > (external influence) > result of action (external influence) >... The system produces single result of action for single external influence. No object operates in itself. It cannot decide on its own “Here now I will start to operate” because it has no freedom of will and it cannot set the goal before itself and produce the result of action on its own. It can only react (act) in response to certain external influence. Any actions of any objects are always their reaction to something. Any influence causes response/reaction. Lack of influence causes no reaction. Reaction can sometimes be delayed, therefore it may seem causeless. But if one digs and delves, it is always possible to find the cause, i.e. external influence. Cognition of the world only falls to our lot through the reactions of its elements. Reaction (from Latin “re” - return and “actio” - action) is an action, condition, process arising in response to some influence, irritant/stimulant, impression (for example, reaction in psychology, chemical reactions, nuclear reactions). Consequently, the system's action in response to the external influence is the reaction of the system. When the system has worked (responded) and the required result of action has been received, it means that it has already achieved (“quenched”) the goal and after that it has no any more goal to aspire to. Reaction is always secondary and occurs only and only following the external influence exerted upon the element. Reaction can sometimes occur after a long time following the external influence if, for example, the given element has been specially “programmed” for the delay. But it will surely occur, provided that the force of the external influence exceeds the threshold of the element's sensitivity to the external influence and that the element is capable to respond to the given influence in general. If the element is able of reacting to pressure above 1 atmosphere it will necessarily react if the pressure is in excess of 1 atmosphere. If the pressure is less than 1 atmosphere it will not react to the lower pressure. If it is influenced by temperature, humidity or electric induction, it will also not react, howsoever we try to “persuade” it, as it is only capable to react to pressure higher than 1 atmosphere. In no pressure case (no pressure above 1 atmosphere), it will never react. Since the result of the system's performance appears only following some external influence, it is always secondary, because the external influence is primary. External influence is the cause and the result of action is a consequence (function). It is obvious that donor systems can produce one or several results of action, while the recipient systems may only react to one or several external influences. But donor elements can interact with the recipient systems only in case of qualitatively homogeneous actions. If the recipient systems can react only to pressure, then the systems able of interacting with them may be those which result of action is pressure, but not temperature, electric current or something else. Interaction between donor systems and recipient systems is only possible in case of qualitative uniformity (homoreactivity, the principle of homogeneous interactivity). We can listen to the performance of the musician on a stage first of all because we have ears. The earthworm is not able to understand our delight from the performance of the musician at least for the reason that it has no ears, it cannot perceive a sound and it has no idea about a sound even if (hypothetically) it could have an intelligence equal to ours. The result of action of the recipient element can be both homogeneous (homoreactive) and non-homogeneous, unequal in terms of quality of action (heteroreactive) of external influence in respect of it. For example, the element reacts to pressure, and its result of action can be either pressure or temperature, or frequency, or a stream/flow of something, or the number of inhabitants of the forest (apartment, city, country) etc. Hence, the reaction of an element to the external influence can be both homoreactive and heteroreactive. In the first case the elements are the action transmitters, in the second case they are converters of quality of action. If the result of the system's actions completely corresponds to the implementation of goal, it speaks of the sufficiency of this system (the given group of interacting elements) for the given purpose. If not, the given group of elements mismatches the given goal/purpose and/or is insufficient, or is not the proper system for the achievement of a degree of quality and quantity of the preset goal. Therefore, any existing object can be characterized by answering the basic question: “What can the given object do?” This question characterizes the concept of the “result of action of an object” which in turn consists of two subquestions: What action can be done by given object? (the quality of result of action); How much of such action can be done by the given object? (the quantity of result of action). These two subquestions characterize the aspiration of a system to implement the goal. And the goal-setting may be characterized by answering another question: “What should the given object do?” which also consists of two subquestions: what action should the given object do? (the quality of the result of action); how much of such action should the given object do? (the quantity of the result of action). These last two subquestions are the ones that determine the goal as a task (the order/command, the instruction) for the given object or group of objects, and the system is being sought or built to achieve this goal. The closer the correspondence between what should and what can be done by the given object, the closer the given object is to the ideal system. The real result of action of the system should correspond to preset (expected) result. This correspondence is the basic characteristic of any system. Wide variety of systems may be built of a very limited number of elements. All the diverse material physical universe is built of various combinations of protons, electrons and neutrons and these combinations are the systems with specific goals/purposes. We do not know the taste of protons, neutrons and electrons, but we do know the taste of sugar which molecular atoms are composed of these elements. Same elements are the constructional material of both the human being and a stone. The result of the action of pendulum would be just swaying, but not secretion of hormones, transmission of impulse, etc. Hence, its goal/purpose and result of action is nothing more but only swaying at constant frequency. The symphonic orchestra can only play pieces of music, but not build, fight or merchandize, etc. Generator of random numbers should generate only random numbers. If all of a sudden it starts generate series of interdependent numbers, it will cease to be the generator of random numbers. Real and ideal systems differ from each other in that the former always have additional properties determined by the imperfection of real systems. Massive golden royal seal, for example, may be used to crack nuts just as well as by means of a hammer or a plain stone, but it is intended for other purpose. Therefore, as it has already been noted above, the concept of “system” is relative, but not absolute, depending on correspondence between what should and what can be done by the given object. If the object can implement the goal set before it, it is the system intended for the achievement of this goal. If it cannot do so, it is not the system for the given goal, but can be a system intended for other goals. It does not mater for the achievement of the goal what the system consists of, but what is important is what it can do. In any case the possibility to implement the goal determines the system. Therefore, the system is determined not by the structure of its elements, but by the extent of precision/accuracy of implementation of the expected result. What is important is the result of action, rather than the way it was achieved. Absolutely different elements may be used to build the systems for the solution of identical problems (goals). The sum of US$200 in the form of US$1 value coins each and the check for the same amount can perform the same action (may be used to make the same purchase), although they consist of different elements. In one case it is metal disks with the engraved signs, while in other case it is a piece of a paper with the text drawn on it. Hence, they are systems named “money” with identical purposes, provided that they may be used for purchase and sale without taking into account, for example, conveniences of carrying them over or a guarantee against theft. But the more conditions are stipulated, the less number of elements are suitable for the achievement of the goal. If we, for example, need large amount of money, say, US$1.000.000 in cash, and want it not to be bulky and the guarantee that it is not counterfeit we will only accept US$100 bank notes received only from bank. The more the goal is specified, the less is the choice of elements suitable for it. Thus, the system is determined by the correspondence of the goal set to the result of its action. The goal is both the task for an object (what it should make) and its aspiration or desire (what it aspires to). If the given group of elements can realize this goal, it is a system for the achievement of the goal set. If it cannot realize this goal, it is not the system intended for the achievement of the given goal, although it can be the system for the achievement of other goals. The system operates for the achievement of the goal. Actually, the system transforms through its actions the goal into the result of action, thus spending its energy. Look around and everything you'll see are someone's materialized goals and realized desires. On a large scale everything that populates our World is systems and just systems, and all of them are intended for a wide range of various purposes. But we do not always know the purposes of many of these systems and therefore not all objects are perceived by us as systems. Reactions of systems to similar external influences are always constant, because the goal is always determined and constant. Therefore, the result of action should always be determined, i.e. identical and constant (a principle of consistency of correspondence of the system's action result to the appropriate result), and for this purpose the system's actions should be the same (the principle of a constancy of correspondence of actual actions of the system to the due ones). If the result fails to be constant it cannot be appropriate and equal to the preset result (the principle of consistency/permanency of the result of action). The conservation law proceeds/results/ from the principle of consistency/permanency of action. Let us call the permanency of reaction “purposefulness”, as maintaining the similarity (permanency/consistency) of reaction is the goal of a system. Hence, the law of conservation is determined by the goal/purpose. The things conserved would be those only, which correspond to the achievement of the system's goal. This includes both actions per se and the sequence of actions and elements needed to perform these actions, and the energy spent for the performance of these actions, because the system would seek to maintain its movement towards the goal and this movement will be purposeful. Therefore, the purpose determines the conservation law and the law of cause-and-effect limitations (see below), rather than other way round. The conservation law is one of the organic, if not the most fundamental, laws of our universe. One of particular consequences of the conservation law is that the substance never emerges from nothing and does not transform into nothing (the law of conservation of matter). It always exists. It might have been non-existent before origination of the World, if there was origination of the World per se, and it might not be existent after its end, if it is to end, but in our World it does neither emerge, nor disappear. A matter is substance and energy. The substance (deriving from the /Rus/ word “thing”, “object” ) may exist in various combinations of its forms (liquid, solid, gaseous and other, as well as various bodies), including the living forms. But matter is always some kind of objects, from elementary particles to galaxies, including living objects.Substance consists of elements. Some forms of substances may turn into others (chemical, nuclear and other structural transformations) at the expense of regrouping of elements by change of ties between them. Physical form of the conservation law is represented by Einstein's formula. A substance may turn into energy and other way round. Energy (from Greek “energeia” - action, activity) is the general quantitative measure of movement and interaction of all kinds of matter. Energy in nature does not arise from anything and does not disappear; it only can change its one form into another. The concept of energy brings all natural phenomena together. Interaction between the systems or between the elements of systems is in effect the link between them. From the standpoint of system, energy is the measure (quantity) of interaction between the elements of the system or between the systems which needs to be accomplished for the establishment of link between them. For example, one watt may be material measure of energy. Measures of energy in other systems, such as social, biological, mental and other, are not yet developed. Any objects represent the systems, therefore interactions between them are interactions between the systems. But systems are formed at the expense of interaction between their elements and formations of inter-element relations between them. In the process of interaction between the systems intersystem relations are established. Any action, including interaction, needs energy. Therefore, when establishing relations/links/ the energy is being “input”. Consequently, as interaction between the elements of the system or different systems is the relation/link between them, the latter is the energy-related concept. In other words, when creating a system from elements and its restructuring from simple into complex, the energy is spent for the establishment of new relations /links /connections between the elements. When the system is destructed the links between the elements collapse and energy is released. Systems are conserved at the expense of energy of relations/links between its elements. It is the internal energy of a system. When these relations/links are destructed the energy is released, but the system itself as an object disappears. Consequently, the internal energy of a system is the energy of relations/link between the elements of the system. In endothermic reactions the energy used for the establishment of connections/links/relations comes to the system from the outside. In exothermic reactions internal energy of the system is released at the expense of rupture of these connections between its internal own elements which already existed prior to the moment when reaction occurred. But when the connection is already formed, by virtue of conservation law its energy is not changed any more, if no influence is exerted upon the system. For example, in establishing of connections/links between the two nuclei of deuterium (2D2) the nucleus 1Íå4 is formed and the energy is released (for the purpose of simplicity details are omitted, for example, reaction proton-proton). And the 1Íå4 nucleus mass becomes slightly less than the sum of masses of two deuterium nuclei by the value multiple of the energy released, in accordance with the physical expression of the conservation law. Thus, in process of merge of deuterium nuclei part of their intra-nuclear bonds collapses and it is for this reason that the merge of these nuclei becomes possible. The energy of connection between the elements of deuterium nuclei is much stronger than that of the bond between the two deuterium nuclei. Therefore, when part of connections between elements of deuterium nuclei is destructed the energy is released, part of it being used for thermonuclear synthesis, i.e. the establishment of connection/bond between the two deuterium nuclei (extra-nuclear connection/bond in respect to deuterium nuclei), while other part is released outside helium nucleus. But our World is tamped not only with matter. Other objects, including social, spiritual, cultural, biological, medical and others, are real as well. Their reality is manifested in that they can actively influence both each other and other kinds of matter (through the performance of other systems and human beings). And they also exist and perform not chaotically, but are subjected to specific, though strict laws of existence. The law of conservation applies to them as well, because they possess their own kinds of “energy” and they did not come into being in a day, but may only turn one into another. Any system can be described in terms of qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Unlike material objects, the behavior of other objects can be described nowadays only qualitatively, as they for the present the have no their own “thermodynamics”, for example, “psychodynamics”. We do not know, for example, what quantity of “Watt” of spiritual energy needs to be applied to solve difficult psychological problem, but we know that spiritual energy is needed for such a solution. Nevertheless, these objects are the full-value systems as well, and they are structured based on the same principles as other material systems. As systems are the groups of elements, and changes of forms of substances represent the change of connections/bonds between the elements of substance, then changes of forms of substances represent the changes of forms of systems. Hence, the form is determined by the specificity of connections/bonds/ties between the elements of systems. “Nothing in this world lasts for ever”, the world is continually changing, whereby one kind of forms of matter turn into other, but it is only forms that vary, while matter is indestructible and always conserved. At the same time, alteration of forms is also subjected to the law of conservation and it is this law that determines the way in which one kind of forms should replace other forms of matter. Forms only alter on account of change of connections/ties between the elements of systems. As far as each connection between the system elements has energetic equivalent, any system contains internal energy which is the sum of energies of connections/bonds between all elements. The “form: (Latin, philos.) is a totality of relations determining the object. The form is contraposed to matter, the content of an object. According to Aristotle, the form is the actuating force that forms the objects and exists beyond the latter. According to Kant, form is everything brought in by the subject of cognition to the content of the cognizable matter - space, time and substance of the form of cognitive ability; all categories of thinking: quantity, quality, relation, substance, place, time, etc., are forms, the product of ability of abstraction, formation of general concepts of our intellect. However, these are not quite correct definitions. The form cannot be contraposed to matter because it is inseparably linked with the latter, it is the form of matter itself. The form cannot be a force either, although it probably pertains to energy because it is determined by energy-bearing connections within the system. According to Kant, form is a purely subjective concept, as it only correlates with intellectual systems and their cognitive abilities. Why, do not the forms exist without knowing them? Any system has one or other shape/look of form. And the system's form is determined by type and nature of connections/relations/bonds between the system elements. Therefore, the form is a kind of connections between the system elements. Since the systems may interact, new connections/bonds between them are thus established and new forms of systems emerge. In other words, in process of interaction between the systems new systems emerge as new forms. The energy is always expended in the course of interaction between the systems. Logic form of the conservation law is the law of cause-and-effect limitations because it is corresponded by a logical connective “if....., then….” Possible choice of external influences (causes) to which the system should react is limited by the first part of this connective “if...”, whereas the actions of systems (consequences) are limited by the second part “then...”. It is for this reason that the law is called the law of cause-and-effect limitations. This law reads “Any consequence has its cause /every why has a wherefore/”. Nothing appears without the reason/cause and nothing disappears for no special reason/cause. There are no consequences without the reason/cause, there is no reaction without the influence. It is unambiguousness and certainty of reaction of systems to the external influence that lays the cornerstone of determinism in nature. Every specific cause is followed by specific consequence. The system should always react only to certain external influences and always react only in a certain way. Chemoreceptor intended for Î2 would always react only to Î2, but not to Na +, Ca ++ or glucose. At that, it will give out certain potential of action, rather than a portion of hormone, mechanical contraction or something else. Any system differs in specificity of the external influence and specificity of the reaction. The certainty of external influences and the reactions to them imposes limitations on the types of the latter. Therefore, the need in the following arises from the law of cause-and-effect limitations: execution of any specific (certain) action to achieve specific (certain) purpose; existence of any specific (certain) system (subsystem) for the implementation of such action, as no action occurs by itself; sequences of actions: the system would always start to perform and produce the result of action only after external influence is exerted on it because it does not have free will for making decision on the implementation of the action. Hence, the result of the system performance can always appear only after certain actions are done by the system. These actions can only be done following the external influence. External influence is primary and the result of action is secondary. Of all possible actions those will be implemented only which are caused by external influence and limited (stipulated) by the possibilities of the responding system. If, following the former external influence, the goal is already achieved and there is no new external influence after delivery of the result of action, the system should be in a state of absolute rest and not operate, because it is only the goal that makes the system operate, and this goal is already achieved. No purpose - no actions. If new external influence arises a new goal appears as well, and then the system will start again to operate and new result of action will be produced.
Major characteristics of systems. To carry out purposeful actions the system should have appropriate elements. It is a consequence of the laws of conservation and cause-and-effect limitations since nothing occurs by itself. Therefore, any systems are multi-component objects and their structure is not casual. The structure of systems in many respects determines their possibilities to perform certain actions. For example, the system made of bricks can be a house, but cannot be a computer. But it is not the structure only that determines the possibilities of systems. Strictly determined specific interaction between them determined by their mutual relation is required. Two hands can make what is impossible to make by one hand or “solitary” hands, if one can put it in that way. The hand of a monkey has same five fingers as a hand of a human being does. But the hand of a human being coupled with its intellect has transformed the world on the Earth. Two essential signs thereby determine the quality and quantity of results of action of any systems - the structure of elements and their relations. Any object has only two basic characteristics: what and how much work/many things/ it can do. New quality can only be present in the group of elements interacting in a specific defined mode/manner. “Defined” means target-oriented. “Interacting in a defined mode/manner” means having definite goal, being constructed and operating in a definite mode/manner for the achievement of the given goal. Defined mode/manner cannot be found/inherent in separate given elements and randomly interacting elements. As a result of certain interaction of elements part of their properties would be neutralized and other part used for the achievement of the goal. Transformation of one set of forms of a matter into others occurs for the account of neutralization of some properties of these forms of a matter. And neutralization occurs for the account of change of some connections/bonds between the elements of an object, as these connections/bonds determine the form of an object. For this reason we say “would be neutralized” rather than “destroyed”, because nothing in this world does disappear and appear (the conservation law). The whole world consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, but we see various objects which differ in color, consistence, taste, form, molecular and atomic composition, etc. It means that in the course of specific interaction of protons, neutrons and electrons certain inter-elementary connections are established. At that, some of their properties would be neutralized, while others conserved or even amplified in such a manner that the whole of diversity of our world stems from it. The goal of any system is the fulfillment of the preset (defined) condition, achievement of the preset result of action (goal/objective). If the preset result of action came out incidentally, then the next moment it might not be achieved and the designated/preset result would disappear. But if for some reason there is a need in the result of action being always exactly identical to this one and not to any other (goal-setting), it is necessary that the group of interacting elements retain this new result of action. To this end the given group of elements should continually seek to retain the designated/preset condition (implementation of goal/objective).
Simple systemic functional unit (SFU). The system may consist of any quantity of functional elements/executive component, provided that each of the latter can participate (contribute to) the achievement of the goal/objective and the quantity of such components is sufficient enough for realization of this goal. The minimal system is such group of “k” elements which, in case of removal of at least one of the elements from its structure, loses the quality inherent in this group of elements, but not present in any of the given “k” elements. Such group of elements is a simple systemic functional unit (simple, not composite SFU), the minimal elementary system having some property (ability to make action) which is not present in any of its separate elements. Any SFU reacts to external influence under the “all-or-none” law. This law is resulting from the definition of simple SFU (removal of any of its elements would terminate its function as a system) and discrecity of its structure. Any of its elements may either be or not be a part of simple SFU. And since simple SFU by definition consists of finite and minimal set of function elements and all of them should be within the SFU structure and be functional (operational), termination of functioning of any of these elements would terminate the function of the entire SFU as a system. Regardless of the force of external influence, but given the condition of its being in excess of a certain threshold, the result of its performance will be maximal, ( “all”). If there is no external influence, the SFU would nowise prove out (would not react, “none”). Simple SFU, despite its name, may be arbitrary complex - from elementary minimal SFU to maximal complex ones. The molecule of any substance consists of several atoms. Removal of any atom transforms this molecule from one substance into another. And even each atom represents a very complex constitution. Removal of any of its elements transforms it into an ion, other atom or other isotope. A soldier is a simple SFU of the system called “the army”. A soldier is a human being's body plus full soldier's outfit. The body of a human being is an extremely complex object, but removal of any of its parts would render the soldier invalid. At that, the soldier's outfit/equipment is multi-component as well. But the equipment cannot shoot without man and the man cannot shoot without the equipment. They can only carry out together the functions inherent in SFU named “soldier”. Despite the internal complexity which may be however big, simple SFU is a separate element which looks as a whole unit with certain single property (quality) to fulfill one certain action elementary in relation to the entire system, i.e. to grasp a ball, molecule, push a portion of blood, produce force/load of 0.03 grams, provide living conditions for the animal (for example, one specific unit of forest area) or to an individual (apartment), fire a shot, etc. Any SFU, once it is divided into parts, ceases to be an SFU for the designated goal. It is due to interaction of the parts only that the group of elements can show its worth as SFU. When something breaks a good owner would always think at first where in his household the fragments may be applied and only thereafter he would throw them out, because one broken thing (one SFU) can be transformed into another, more simple one (another SFU). Haemoglobin is an element of blood circulation system and serves for capturing and subsequent return of oxygen. Hence, haemoglobin molecules are the SFU of erythrocytes. Ligands of haemoglobin molecules are the SFU of haemoglobin, as each of them can serve a trap for oxygen molecules. However, further division of ligand brings to a stop the function of retention of oxygen molecules, etc. The SFU analogues in an inorganic nature/abiocoen are, for example, all material particles possessing ability to lose their properties when dividing - elementary particles (?), atoms, molecules, etc. Viruses may probably be the systemic functional units of heredity (FUH). Thus, it is likely that at first polymeric molecules of DNA type came into being in the claypan strata or even in the interplanetary dust or on comets, based on a type of auto-catalytic Butler's reaction, i.e. synthesis of various sugars including ribose from formaldehyde in the presence of Ca and Mg ions, ribose being a basis for the creation of RNA and DNA, and thereafter cellular structures emerged. These examples of various concrete SFU show that SFU is not something indivisible, since each of them is multicomponent and therefore can be divided into parts. Only intra-atomic elementary particles may pretend to be true SFU that are the basis of the whole of matter of our entire world as it is still impossible to split them into parts. It is for this reason that they are called elementary. It may well be that they are of a very complex structure, too, but formed not from the elements of physical nature, but of some different matter, and are the result of action of performance of systems of non-physical nature, or rather not of the forms of the World of ours. It is indicative of the existence of binate virtual particles, for example, positron and electron, emerging ostensibly from emptiness, vacuum and disappearing thereto after all. We cannot cut paper with scissors made of the same paper material. It's unlikely that we can “cut” elementary particles with the “scissors” made of the same matter either.
Elementary block of management (direct positive connection/bond, DPC). In order for any SFU to be able to perform it should contain certain elements for implementation of its actions according to the laws of conservation and cause-and-effect limitations. To implement target-oriented actions the system should contain performance /“executive”/ elements and in order to render the executive element's interaction target-oriented, the system should contain the elements (block) of management/control. Executive elements (effectors) carry out certain (target-oriented) action of a system to ensure the achievement of the preset result of action. The result of action would not come out by itself. In order to achieve it performance of certain objects is required. On the example of plain with a feeler /trial balloon/ such elements are plains themselves. But it (the executive element) exists on itself and produces its own results of action in response to certain influences external with respect to it. It will react if something influences upon it and will not react in the absence of any influence. Interaction with its other elements would pertain to it so far as the results of action of other elements are the external influence in respect of it per se and may invoke its reaction in response to these influences. This reaction will already be shown in the form of its own result of action which would also be the external influence in respect to other elements of the system, and no more than that. Not a single action of any element of the system can be the result of action of the system itself by definition. It does not matter for any separate executive element whether or not the preset condition (the goal of the system) was fulfilled haphazardly, whether or not the given group of elements produced a qualitatively new preset result of action or something prevented it from happening. It in no way affects the way the executive elements “feel”, i.e. their own functions, and none of their inherent property would force them to “watch” the fulfillment of the general goal of the system. They are simply “not able” of doing so. The elements of management (the control block) are needed for the achievement of the particular preset result, rather than of any other result of action. Since the goal is the reaction in response to specific external influence, at first there is a need to “feel” it, to segregate it from the multitude of other nonspecific external influences, “make decision” on any specific actions and begin to perform. If, for example, the SFU reacts to pressure it should be able to “feel” just pressure (reception), rather than temperature or something else. For this purpose it should have a special “organ” (receptor) which is able of doing so. In order to react only to specific external influence which may pertain to the fulfillment of the goal, the SFU should not only have reception, but also single it out from all other external influences affecting it (selection). For this purpose it should have a special organ (selector or analyzer) which is able to segregate the right signal from a multitude of others. Thereafter, having “felt” and segregated the external influence, it should “make decision” that there is a need to act (decision-making). For this purpose it should have a special or decision-making organ able of making decisions. Then it should realize this decision, i.e. force the executive elements to act (implementation of decision). For this purpose it should have elements (stimulators) with the help of which it would be possible to communicate decision to the executive elements. Therefore, in order to react to certain external influence and to achieve the required result of action it is necessary to accomplish the following chain of guiding actions: reception > selection > decision-making > implementation of decisions (stimulation). What elements should carry out this chain of guiding actions? The executive elements (for example, plains) cannot do it, because they perform the action per se, for example, the capturing action, but not guiding actions. For this reason they are also called executive elements. All guiding actions should be accomplished by guiding elements (the control block) and these should be a part of SFU. The control block consists of: “X” receptor (segregates specific signal and detects the presence of external influence); afferent channels (transfer of information from the receptor to analyzer); the analyzer-informant (on the basis of the information from the “Õ” receptor makes decisions on the activation of executive elements); efferent cannels (of a stimulator) (implementation of decision, channeling of the guiding actions to the effectors).
The “Õ” receptor, afferent channels, analyzer-informant (activator of action) and efferent channels (stimulator) comprise the control block. The receptor and afferent channels represent direct positive communication (DPC). It is direct because inside SFU the guiding signal (information on the presence of external influence) goes in the same direction as the external influence itself. It is positive because if there is a signal there is a reaction, if there is no signal, there is no reaction. Thus, the SFU control block reacts to the external influence. It can feel and detect/segregate specific signal of external influence from the multitude of other external influences and depending on the presence or absence of specific signal it may decide whether or not it should undertake its own action. Its own action is the inducement (stimulation) of the executive elements to operate. There exist uncontrollable and controllable SFU. The control block of uncontrollable SFU decides whether or not it should act, and it would make such decision only depending on the presence of the external influence. The control block of controllable SFU would also decide whether or not it should act depending on the presence of the external signal and in the presence of additional condition as well, i.e. the permission to perform this action which is communicated to its command entry point. The uncontrollable SFU has one entry point for the external influence and one outlet /exit point/ for the result of action. The logic of work of such SFU is extremely simple: it would act if there is certain external influence (result of action), and no result of action is produced in the absence of external influence. For uncontrollable SFU the action regulator is the external influence itself. It has its own management which function is performed by the internal control block. But external management with such SFU is impossible. It would “decide” on its own whether or not it should act. That is why it is called uncontrollable. This decision would only depend on the presence of external influence. In the presence of external influence it would function and no external decision (not the influence) can change the internal decision of this SFU. The uncontrollable SFU is independent of external decisions. It will perform the action once it “made a decision”. The example of uncontrollable SFU is, for instance, the nitroglycerine molecule (SFU for micro-explosion). If it is shaken (external influence is shaking) it will start to disintegrate, thereby releasing energy, and during this process nothing would stop its disintegration. The analogues of uncontrollable SFU in a living organism are sarcomeres, ligands of haemoglobin, etc. Once sarcomere starts to reduce, it would not stop until the reduction is finished. Once the ligand of haemoglobin starts capturing oxygen, it would not stop until the capturing process is finished. Unlike uncontrollable SFU, the controllable SFU have two entry points (one for the entry of external influence and another one for the entry of the command to the analyzer) and one outlet/exit point/ for the result of action. The logic of work of controllable SFU is slightly different from that of the uncontrollable SFU. Such SFU will produce the result of action not only depending on the presence of the external influence, but the presence of permission at the command entry point. Implementation of action will start in the presence of certain external influence and permission at the command entry point. The action would not be performed in the presence of the external influence and the absence of permission at the command entry point. For the controllable SFU the action regulator is the permission at the command entry point. That is why such SFU are called controllable. The analogues of controllable SFU in a living organism are, for example, pulmonary functional ventilation units (FVU) or functional perfusion units (FPU), histic functional perfusion units (FPU), secretion functional units (cells of various secretion glands, SFU), kidney nephrons, liver acinuses, etc. The control block's elements are built of (assembled from) other ordinary elements suitable in terms of their characteristics. It can be built both of executive elements combined in a certain manner and simultaneously performing the function of both execution and management, and from other executive elements not belonging to the given group and segregated in a separate chain of management. In the latter case they may be precisely the same as executive elements, but may be made of other elements as well. For example, muscular contraction functional units consist of muscular cells, but are managed by nervous centers consisting of nerve cells. At the same time, all kinds of cells, both nerve and muscular, are built of almost identical building materials - proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals. The difference between the controllable and uncontrollable FSU is only in the availability of command entry point. It is it that determines the change of the algorithm of its work. Performance of the controllable SFU depends not only on the external influence, but on the M disabling at the command entry point. The control block is very simple, if it contains only DPC (the “Õ” receptor and afferent channels), the analyzer-informant and a stimulator. SFU are primary cells, executive elements of any systems. As we can see, despite their elementary character, they represent a fairly complex and multi-component object. Each of them contains not less than two types of elements (management/control and executive) and each type includes more and more, but these elements are mandatory attributes of any SFU. The SFU complexity is the complexity of hierarchy of their elements. There is no any special difference between the executive elements and the elements of management/control. Ultimately all in this world consists of electrons, protons and neutrons. The difference between them lies only in their position in the hierarchy of systems, i.e. in their positional relationship. The composite SFU contains 4 simple SFU. In the absence of the external influence all simple SFU are inactive and no result of action is produced. In the presence of the external influence of “Õ”, if the command says “no” (disabling of /ban on action), all SFU would be inactive and no result of action produced. In the presence of external influence and if the command says “yes” (permission for action), all SFU would be active and the result of action produced. The “capacity” of the composite SFU is 4 times higher than the “capacity” of simple SFU. SFU is activated through the inputs of command of their control blocks. Every simple SFU has its own DPC and DPC common for all of them. Uncontrollable and controllable SFU may be used to build other (composite) SFU, more powerful than single SFU. In the real world there are few simple SFU which bring about minimal indivisible result of action. There are a lot more of composite SFU. For instance, the cartridge filled with grains of gunpowder is a constituent part of SFU (SFU for a shot), but its explosion energy is much higher that that of single grain of gunpowder. The composite SFU flow diagram is very similar to that of simple SFU. It is only quantity variance that stipulates the difference between the composite and simple SFU. Simple SFU contains only one SFU, just SFU itself, whereas the composite SFU contains several SFU, so there is a possibility of strengthening of the result of action. Thus, simple and composite SFU contain two types of elements: executive elements (effectors performing specific actions for the achievement of the system's preset ovearll goal) and the elements of management (block) (DPC, the analyzer-informant and the stimulator activating SFU). Composite SFU has the same control block as the separate SFU, i.e. the elementary one with direct positive (guiding) connection (DPC). Composite SFU perform based on the “all-or-none” principle, too, i.e. they either produce maximal result of action in response to external influence or wait for this external influence and do not perform any actions. Composite SFU only differ from simple SFU in the force or amplitude of reaction which is proportional to the number of simple SFU. If the domino dices are placed in a sequential row the result of their action would be the lasting sound of the falling dices which duration would be equal to the sum of series of drops of every dice (extension of duration of the result of action). If the domino dices are placed in a parallel row the result of their action would be the short, but loud sound equal to the total sound volume resulting from the drop of each separate dice (capacity extension). The performance cycle of an ideal simple and composite SFU is formed by micro cycles: perception and selection of external influence by the “X” receptor and decision-making; influence on the executive elements (SFU); response/operation of executive elements (SFU); function termination. The “X” receptor starts to operate following the onset of external influence (the 1st micro cycle). Subsequently some time would be spent for the decision-making, since this decision itself is the result of action of certain SFU comprising the control block (the 2nd micro cycle). Thereafter all SFU would be activated (joined in) (the 3rd micro cycle). The operating time of the SFU response/operation depends on the speed of utilization of energy spent for the SFU performance, for example, the speed of reduction of sarcomere in a muscular cell which is determined by speed of biochemical reactions in the muscular cell. After that all SFU terminate their function (the 4th micro cycle). At that, the SFU spends its entire energy it had and could use to perform this action. As far as the sequence of actions and result of action would always be the same, the measure of energy would always be the same as well (energy quantum). In order for the SFU to be able to perform a new action it needs to be “recharged”. It may also take some time (the time of charging). The way it happens is discussed in the section devoted to passive and active systems (see below). Any SFU's performance cycle consists of these micro cycles. Therefore, its operating cycle time would always be the same and equal to the sum of these micro cycles. Once SFU started its actions, it would not stop until it has accomplished its full cycle. This is the reason of uncontrollability of any SFU in the course of their performance (absolute adiaphoria), whereby the external influence may quickly finish and resume, but it would not stop and react to the new external influence until the SFU has finished its performance. In real composite SFU these micro cycles may be supplemented by micro cycles caused by imperfection of real objects, for example, non-synchronism of the executive elements' operation due to their dissimilarity. Hence, it follows that even the elementary systems represented by SFU do not react/operate immediately and they need some time to produce the result of action. It is this fact that explains the inertness/lag effect/ of systems which can be measured by using the time constant parameter. But generally speaking it is not inertness/lag effect/, but rater a transitory (intermittent) inertness of an object (adiaphoria), its inability to respond to the external influence at certain phases of its performance. True inertness is explained by independence of the result of action of the system which produced this result (see below). Time constant is the time between the onset of external influence and readiness for a new external influence after the achievement of the result of action. The analogues of composite SFU are all objects which operate similarly to avalanche. The “domino principle” works in such cases. One impact brings about the downfall of the whole. However, the number of downfalls would be equal to the number of SFU. Pushing one domino dice will cause its drop resulting just in one click. Pushing a row of domino dices will result in as many clicks as is the number of dices in the row. Biological analogues of composite SFU are, for example, functional ventilation units (FVU), each of which consisting of large group (several hundred) of alveoli which are simultaneously joining in process of ventilation or escape from it. Liver acynuses, vascular segments of mesentery, pulmonary vascular functional units, etc., are the analogues of composite SFU. Thus, simple SFU is the object which can react to certain external influence, while the result of its performance would always be maximal because the control block would not control it, i.e. it works under the “all-or-none” law. The type of its reaction is caused by the type of SFU. There are two kinds of simple SFU: uncontrollable and controllable. Both react to the specific external influence. But additional external permission signal at the command entry point is required for the operation of controllable SFU, whereas the uncontrollable SFU have no command entry point. Therefore, the uncontrollable SFU does not depend on any external guiding signals. The control block of controllable and uncontrollable SFU consists of the analyzer-informant and has only DPC (the “Õ” informant and afferent channels). The composite Systemic Functional Unit is a kind of an object similar to simple SFU, but the result of its action is stronger. It works under the “all-or-none” law, too, and its reaction is stipulated by type and number of its SFU. It can really be that the constituent parts of composite SFU may be controllable and uncontrollable, and the difference between them may only be stipulated by the presence of command entry point in the general control block through which the permission for the performance of action is communicated. The control block of a system is elementary, too, and has only DPC and analyzer-informant. Hence, any SFU function under the “all-or-none” law. SFU is arranged in such a way that it either does nothing, or gives out a maximal result of action. Its elementary result of action is either delivered or not delivered. There might be SFU which delivers the result of action, for example, twice as large as the result of action of another SFU. But it will always be twice as large. Each result of action of a simple SFU is quantum of action (indivisible portion), at that being maximal for the given SFU. It is indivisible because SFU cannot deliver part (for instance, half) of the result of action. And as far as it is “the indivisible portion” there can not be a gradation. For instance, SFU may be opened or closed, generate or not generate electric current, secrete or not secrete something, etc. But it cannot regulate the quantity of the result of action as its result always is either not delivered or is maximal. Such operating mode is very rough, inaccurate and unfavorable both for the SFU per se and its goal/objective. Let's imagine that instead of a steering wheel in our car there will be a device which will right away maximally swerve to the right when we turn a steering wheel to the right or will maximally swerve to the left if we turn it to the left. Instead of smooth and accurate trimming to follow the designate course of movement the car will be harshly rushing about from right to left and other way round. The goal will not be achieved and the car will be destroyed. Basically the composite Systemic Functional Unit could have delivered graded result of action since it has several SFU which it could actuate in a variable sequence. But such system cannot do so because it “does not see” the result of action and cannot compare it with what should be done/what it should be.
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