The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking

Selected aspects of stimulation of scientific thinking. Meta-skills. Methods of critical and creative thinking. Analysis of the decision-making methods without use of numerical values of probability (exemplificative of the investment projects).

15.10.2008
196,7 K

. ,

, , , , .

Quantity of the result of action. To achieve the preset goal the designation of the quality of the result of action only is not sufficient. The goal sets not only what action the object should deliver (quality of the result of action), but also how much of this action the given object should deliver (quantity of the result of action). And the system should seek to perform exactly as much of specific action as it is necessary, neither more nor less than that. The quality of action is determined by SFU type. The quantity is determined by the quantity of SFU. There are three quantitative characteristics of the result of action: maximum, minimum and optimum quantity of action. In the real world gradation of the results of action is required from the real systems. Therefore, the system performance should deliver neither maximum nor minimum, but optimum result. Optimum means performance based on the principle it is necessary and sufficient. It is necessary that the result of action should be such-and-such, but not another in terms of quality and adequate in terms of quantity, neither more nor less. Hence, the SFU cannot be the full-fledged systems. The systems are needed in which controllable/adjustable grading of the result of action would be possible. For example, it is required that the pressure of 100 mm Hg is maintained in the tissue capillaries. This phrase encompasses presetting of everything what is included in the concept necessary and sufficient at once. It is necessary... pressure, and it is enough... 10 mm Hg. It is possible to collate the SFU providing pressure, but not of 10 mm Hg, but, for instance, 100 mm Hg. It is too much. It is probably possible to collate the SFU which can provide pressure of 10 mm Hg and at the moment it might be sufficient. But if the situation has suddenly changed and the requirement is now 100 mm Hg rather than 10 mm Hg, what should be done then? Should one run about and search for SFU which may provide the 100 mm Hg? And what if it's impossible to make such system which would be able to provide any pressure in a range, for example, from 0 to 100 mm Hg, depending on a situation? In order to provide the quantity of the result of action which is necessary at the moment, the grading of the results of action of systems is required. It could have been achieved by building the systems from a set of homotypic SFU of a type of composite SFU flow diagram. It has what is needed for the graduation of the result of action as it contains numerous SFU. If it could be possible to do it so that it enables actuating from one to all of SFU, depending on the need, the result of action would have as much gradation as many SFU is present in the system. The higher the required degree of accuracy, the more of minor gradations of the result of action should be available. Therefore, instead of one SFU with its extremely large scale result of action it is necessary to use such amount of SFU with minor result of action which sum is equal to the required maximum, while the accuracy of implementation of the goal is equal to the result of action of one SFU. However, composite SFU has no possibility to control the result of action as it has no the unit able of doing it. To deliver the result of action precisely equal to the preset one, it (the result of action) needs to be continually measured and measuring data compared with the task (with command, with database). The database is a list of those due values of result of action which the system should deliver depending on the magnitude of external influence and algorithm of the control block operation. The goal of the system is that each value of the measured external influence should be corresponded by strictly determined value of the result of action (due value). To this effect it is necessary to see (to measure) the result of action of the system to compare it to the appropriate/due result. And for this purpose the control block should have a Y receptor which can measure the result of action and there should be a communication/transmission link (reciprocal paths) through which the information from a Y receptor would pass to the analyzer-informant, where the result of this measurement should be compared with what should be/occur (with database). The control block of the system should compare external influence with the due value, whereas the due value should be compared with own result of action to see its conformity or discrepancy with the due value. Composite SFU still can compare external influence with eigen result of action, because it has DPC, whereas it can not any longer compare due value with the result of eigen action just because it does not have anything able of doing it (there are no appropriate elements).

Simple control block (negative feedback - NF). In order for the control block of the system to see (to feel and measure) the result of action of the system, it should have a corresponding Y receptor at the outlet/exit point/ of system and the communication link between it and a Y receptor (reciprocal path). The logic of operation of such control consists in that if the scale of the result of action is lager than that of the preset result it is necessary to reduce it, having activated smaller number of SFU, and if it is small-scale it is necessary to increase it by actuating larger number of SFU. For this reason such link is called negative. And as the information moves back from the outlet of system towards its beginning, it is called feedback/back action. As a result the negative feedback (NF) occurs. A Y receptor and reciprocate path comprise NF and together with the analyzer-informant and efferent cannels (stimulator) form a NF loop. Depending on the need and based on the NF information the control block would engage or disengage the functions of controllable SFU as necessary. The difference of this system from the composite SFU lies only in the presence of a Y receptor which measures the result of action and reciprocal paths through which the information is transferred from this receptor to the analyzer. The number of active SFU is determined by NF. The NF is realized by means of NF loop which includes the Y receptor, reciprocal path, through which information from Y receptor is transferred to the analyzer-informant, analyzer proper and efferent channels through which the control block decisions are transferred to the effectors (controllable SFU). Thus, the system, unlike SFU, contains both DPC and NF. Direct positive (controllable) communication activates the system, while negative feedback determines the number of activated SFU. For example, if larger number of alveolar capillaries in lungs will be opened compared to the number of the alveoli with appropriate gas composition, arterialization of venous blood will be incomplete, and there will be a need to close a part of alveolar capillaries which wash by bloodstream the alveoli with gas composition not suitable for gas exchange. If the number of such opened capillaries will be smaller, overloading of pulmonary blood circulation would occur and the pressure in pulmonary artery will increase and there will be a need to open part of alveolar capillaries. In any case the informant of pulmonary blood circulation would snap into action and the control block would decide what part of capillaries needs to be opened or closed. Hence, the diffusion part of vascular channel of pulmonary bloodstream is the system containing simple control block. The goal of the system is that the result of action of Y should be equal to the command M (Y=M). Actions of system aimed at the achievement of goal are implemented by executive elements. Control block would watch the accuracy of implementation of actions. The control block containing DPC and NF loop is simple. The algorithm of simple control blocks operation is not complex. The NF loop would trace continually the result of performance of executive elements (SFU). If the result of action turns out to be of a larger scale than the preset result, it needs to be reduced, and if the result is of a smaller scale than the preset one it needs to be increased. Control parameters (the database) are set through the command; for example, what should be the correlation between external influence and the result of action, or what level of the result of action will need to be retained, etc. At that, the maximum accuracy would be the result of action of one SFU (quantum of action). Systems with NF, as well as composite SFU, also contain two types of objects: executive elements (SFU) (effectors which carry out specific actions for the achievement of the preset overall goal of the system) and the control block (DPC and NF loop). But besides the Ք informant, control block of the system also contains the Y informant (NF). Therefore, it has information both on the external influence and the result of action. Some complexification of the control block brings about a very essential result. The reason for such a complexification is the need to achieve optimally accurate implementation of the goal of the system. The NF ensures the possibility of regulation of quantity of the result of action, i.e. the system with NF may perform any required action in an optimal way, from minimum to maximum, accurate to one quantum of action. Generally speaking, any real system at that has the third type of objects: service elements, i.e. substructure elements without which executive elements cannot operate. For example, the aircraft has wings to fly, but it also has wheels to take off and land. The haemoglobin molecule contains haem which contains 4 SFU (ligands) and globin, the protein which does not participate directly in transportation of oxygen but without which haem cannot work. We have slightly touched upon the issue of existence of the third type of objects (service elements) for one purpose only to know that they are always present in any system, but we will not go into detail of their function. We will only note that they represent the same ordinary systems aimed at serving other systems. Systems with NF can solve most of the tasks in a far better manner than simple or composite SFU. The presence of NF almost does not complexicate the system. We have seen that even simple SFU is a very complex formation including a set of components. Composite SFU is as many times more complex compared to simple SFU as is the number almost equal to that of simple SFU. The system with NF is only supplemented by one receptor and the communication link between receptor and analyzer (reciprocal path). But the effect of such change in the structure of control block is very large-scale and only depends on the algorithm of the control block operation. Any SFU (simple and composite) can implement only minimum or maximum action. Systems with NF can surely deliver the optimal result of action, from minimum to maximum; they are accurate and stable. Their accuracy depends only on the value of quantum of action of separate SFU and the NF profundity/intensity/ (see below). Stability is stipulated by that the system always sees the result of action and can compare it with the appropriate/due one and correct it if divergence occurs. In real systems the causes for the divergence are always present, since they exist in the real world where there always exists perturbation action/disturbing influences. Hence, one can see that it is NF that turns SFU into real systems. How does the control block manage the system? What parameters are characteristic of it? Any control block is characterized by three DPC parameters and the same number of NF loop parameters. For DPC it is a minimal level of controllable input stimulus (threshold of sensitivity); maximal level of controllable input stimulus (range of input stimulus sensitivity); time of engagement of control (decision-making time). For NF loop it is minimal level of controllable result of action (threshold of sensitivity of NF loop - NF profundity/intensity); maximal level of controllable result of action (range of sensitivity of the result of action); time of engagement of control (decision-making time). Minimal level of controllable input signal for DPC is the sensitivity threshold of signal of the Ք receptor wherefrom the analyzer-informant recognizes that the external influence has already begun. For example, if 2 has reached 60 mm Hg the sphincter should be opened (1 SFU is actuated), if the 2 value is smaller, then it is closed. Any values of 2 smaller than 60 mm Hg would not lead to the opening of sphincter, because these are sub-threshold values. Consequently, 60 mm Hg is the operational threshold of sphincter. Maximum level of controllable entrance signal (range) for DPC is the level of signal about external influence at which all SFU are actuated. The system cannot react to the further increase in the input signal by the extension of its function, as it does not have any more of SFU reserves. For example, if 2 has reached 100 mm Hg all sphincters should be opened (all SFU are activated). Any values of 2 larger than 100 mm Hg will not lead to the opening of additional sphincters, because all of them are already opened, i.e. the values of 60-100 mm Hg are the range of activation of the system of sphincters. Time of DPC activation is a time interval between the onset of external influence and the beginning of the system's operation. The system would never respond immediately after the onset of external influence. Receptors need to feel a signal, the analyzer-informant needs to make the decision, the effectors transfer the guiding impact to the command entry points of the executive elements - all this takes time. The minimal level of the controllable exit signal for NF is a threshold of sensitivity of a signal of the Y receptor, wherefrom the analyzer-informant recognizes whether there is a discrepancy between the result of action of the system and its due value. The discrepancy should be equal to or more than the quantum of action of single SFU. For example, if one sphincter is to be opened and the bloodstream should be minimal (one quantum of action), whereas two sphincters are actually opened and the bloodstream is twice as intensive (two quanta of action), the Y receptor should feel an extra quantum. If it is able of doing so, its sensitivity is equal to one quantum. Sensitivity is defined by the NF profundity/intensity. The NF profundity/intensity is a number of quanta of action of the single SFU system which sum is identified as the discrepancy between the actual and appropriate/proper action. The NF profundity/intensity is preset by the command. The highest possible NF profundity/intensity is the sensitivity of discrepancy in one quantum of action of single SFU. The less the NF profundity/intensity, the less is sensitivity, the more it is rough. In other words, the less the NF profundity/intensity, the larger value of the discrepancy between the result of action and the proper result is interpreted as discrepancy. For example, even two (three, ten, etc.) quanta of action of two (three, ten, etc.) SFU is interpreted as discrepancy. Minimal NF profundity/intensity is its absence. In this case any discrepancy of the result of action with the proper one is not interpreted by the control block as discrepancy. The result of action would be maximal and the system with simple control block with zero NF profundity/intensity would turn into composite SFU with DPC (with simplest/elementary control block). For example, the system of the Big Circle of Blood circulation for microcirculation in fabric capillaries should hold average pressure of 100 mm Hg accurate to 1 mm Hg. At the same time, average arterial pressure can fluctuate from 80 to 200 mm Hg. The value 100 mm Hg determines the level of controllable result of action. The value from 80 to 200 mm Hg is the range of controllable external (entry) influence. The value of 1 mm Hg is determined by NF profundity/intensity. Smaller NF profundity/intensity would control the parameter with smaller degree of accuracy, for example, to within 10 mm Hg (more roughly) or 50 mm Hg (even more roughly), while the higher NF profundity/intensity would do it with higher degree of accuracy, for example to within 0.1 mm Hg (finer). Maximal NF sensitivity is limited to the value of quantum of action of SFU which are part of the system, and the NF profundity/intensity. But in any case, if discrepancy between the level of the controllable and preset parameters occurs to the extent higher than the value of the preset accuracy, the NF loop should feel this divergence and force executive elements to perform so that to eliminate the discrepancy of the goal and the result of action. Maximal level of controllable outlet/exit signal (range) for NF is the level of signal about the result of action of the system at which all SFU are actuated. The system cannot react to the further increase in entry signal by increase in its function any more, because it has no more of SFU reserves. The time of actuating of NF control is the time interval between the onset of discrepancy of signal about the result of action with the preset result and the beginning of the system's operation. All these parameters can be built in DPC and NF loops or set primordially (the command is entered at their birth and they do not further vary any more), or can be entered through the command later, and these parameters can be changed by means of input of a new command from the outside. For this purpose there should be a channel of input of the command. Simple control block in itself cannot change any of these parameters. Absolutely all systems have control block, but it cannot be always found explicitly. In the aircraft or a spaceship this block is presented by the on-board computer, a box with electronics. In human beings and animals such block is the brain, or at least nervous system. But where is the control block located in a plant or bacterium? Where is the control block located in atom or molecule, or, for example, the control block in a nail? The easier the system, the more difficult it is for us to single out forms of control block habitual for us. However, it is present in any systems. Executive elements are responsible for the quality of result of action, while the control block - for its quantity. The control block can be, for example, intra- or internuclear and intermolecular connections/bonds. For example, in atom the SFU functions are performed by electrons, protons and neutrons, and those of control block by intra-nuclear forces or, in other words, interactions. The intra-atomic command, for example, is the condition that there can be no more than 2 electrons at the first electronic level, 8 electrons at the second level, etc., (periodic law determined by Pauli principle), this level being rigidly designated by quantum numbers. If the electron has somewise received additional energy and has risen above its level it cannot retain it for a long time and will go back, thereby releasing surplus of energy in the form of a photon. At that, not just any energy can lift the electron onto the other level, but only and only specific one (the corresponding quantum of energy). It also rises not just onto any level, but only onto the strictly preset one. If the energy of the external influence is less than the corresponding quantum, the electron level stabilization system would keep it in a former orbit (in a former condition) until the energy of external influence exceeded the corresponding level. If the energy of external influence is being continually accrued in a ramp-up mode, the electron would rise from one level to other not in a linear mode but by leaps (which are strictly defined by quantum laws) into higher orbits as soon as the energy of influence exceeds certain threshold levels. The number of levels of an electron's orbit in atom is probably very large and equal to the number of spectral lines of corresponding atom, but each level is strictly fixed and determined by quantum laws. Hence, some kind of mechanism (system of stabilization of quantum levels) strictly watches the performance of these laws, and this mechanism should have its own SFU and control blocks. The number of levels of the electron's orbit is possibly determined by the number of intranuclear SFU (protons and neutrons or other elementary particles), which result of action is the positioning of electron in an electronic orbit. For example, in a nail system the command would be its form and geometrical values. This command is entered into the control block one-time at the moment of nail manufacture when its values (at the moment of its birth) are measured and is not entered later any more. But when the command is already entered the system should execute this command, i.e. in this case the nail should keep its form and values even if it is being hammered. In any control block type the command should be entered into at some point of time in one way or another. We cannot make just a nail in general, but only the one with concrete form and preset values. Therefore, at the moment of its manufacture (i.e. one-time) we give it the task to be of such-and-such form and values. The command can vary if there is a channel of input of the command. For example, when turning on the air conditioner we can give it a task to hold air temperature at 20 and thereafter change the command for 25. The nail does not have a channel of input of the order, while the air conditioner does. Consequently, the system with simple control block is the object which can react to certain external influence, and the result of its action is graduated and stable. The number of gradation is determined by the number SFU in the system and the accuracy is determined by quantum of action (the size, result) of single SFU and NF profundity/intensity. The result of action is accurate because the control block supervises it by means of NF. Type of control is based on mismatch/error plus error-rate control/. Control would only start after the occurrence of external influence or delivery of the result of action. Stability of the result of action is determined by NF profundity/intensity. System reaction is conditioned by type and number of its SFU. Simple control block has three channels of control: one external (command) and two internal (DPC and NF). It reacts to external influence through DPC (the Ք informant) and to its own result of action of the system (the Y informant) through NF, whereas it controls executive elements of the system through efferent channels. Analogues of systems with simple control block are all objects of inanimate/inorganic world: gas clouds, crystals, various solid bodies, planets, planetary and stellar systems, etc. Biological analogues of systems with simple control block are protophytes and metaphytes, bacteria and all vegetative/autonomic systems of an organism, including, for example, external gas exchange system, blood circulation system, external gaseous metabolism system, digestion or immune systems. Even single-celled animal organisms of amoebas and infusorian type, inferior animal classes (jellyfish etc.) are the systems with complex control blocks/units (see below). All vegetative and many motor reflexes of higher animals which actuate at all levels starting from intramural nerve ganglia through hypothalamus are structured as simple control blocks. If they are affected by guiding influence of cerebral cortex, higher type (complex) reflexes come into service (see below). Analogues of the Ք informant receptors are all sensitive receptors (haemo-, baro-, thermo- and other receptors located in various bodies, except visual, acoustical and olfactory receptors which are part of the C informant, see below). Analogues of the Y informant receptors are all proprio-sensitive receptors which can also be haemo-, baro-, thermo- and other receptors located in different organs. Analogues of the control block stimulators are all motor and effector nerves stimulating cross-striped, unstriated muscular systems and secretory cells, as well as hormones, prostaglandins and other metabolites having any effect on the functions of any systems of organism. Analogues of the analyzer-informant in the mineral and vegetative media are only connections/bonds between the elements of a type of direct connection of X and Y informants with effectors (axon reflexes). In vegetative systems of animals connections are also of a type of direct connection of X and Y informants with effectors (humoral and metabolic regulation), as well as axon reflex (controls only nervules without involvement of nerve cell itself) and unconditioned reflexes (at the level of intra-organ intramural and other neuronic formations right up to hypothalamus). Thus, using DPC and NF and regulating the performance of its SFU the system produces the results of action qualitatively and quantitatively meeting the preset goal.

Principle of independence of the result of action. As it was already repeatedly underlined, the purpose/goal of any system is to get the appropriate/due (target-oriented) result of action arising from the performance of the system. Actually external influence, having entered the system, would be transformed to the result of action of the system. That is why systems are actually the converters of external influence into the result of action and of the cause into effect. External influence is in turn the result of action of other system which interacted with the former. Consequently, the result of action, once it has left one system and entered into another, would now exist independently of the system which produced it. For example, a civil engineering firm had a goal to build a house from certain quantity of building material (external influence). After a number of actions of this firm the house was built (the result of action). The firm could further proceed to the construction of other house, or cease to exist or change the line of business from construction to sewing shop. But the constructed house will already exist independently of the firm which constructed it. The purpose of the automobile engine (the car subsystem) is burning certain quantity of fuel (external influence for the engine) to receive certain quantity of mechanical energy (the result of action of the engine). The purpose of a running gear (other subsystem of the car) is transformation of mechanical energy of the engine (external influence for running gear) into certain number of revolutions of wheels (result of action of running gear). The purpose of wheels is transformation of certain number of revolutions (external influence for wheels) into the kilometers of travel (result of action of wheels). All in all, the result of action of the car will be kilometers of travel which will already exist independently of the car which has driven them through. Photon released from atom which can infinitely roam the space of the Universe throughout many billions years will be the result of action of the exited electron. Result of a slap of an oar by water is the depression/hollow on the water surface which could have also remained there forever if it were not for the fluidity of water and the influence on it of thousand other external influences. However, after thousand influences it will not any more remain in the form of depression/hollow, but in the form of other long chain of results of actions of other systems because nothing disappears in this world, but transforms into other forms. Conservation law is inviolable.

System cycles and transition processes. Systems just like SFU have cycles of their activity as well. Different systems can have different cycles of activity and they depend on the complexity and algorithm of the control block. The simplest cycle of work is characteristic of a system with simple control block. It is formed of the following micro cycles: perception, selection and measurement of external influence by the X receptor; selection from database of due value of the result of action; transition process (NF multi-micro-cycle);

a) perception and measurement of the result of action by the Y receptor - b) comparison of this result with the due value - c) development of the decision and corresponding influence on SFU for the purpose of correction of the result of action - d) influence on SFU, if the result of action is not equal to the appropriate/due one, or transition to the 1st micro cycle if it is equal to the proper one - e) actuation of SFU - f) return to a).

After the onset of external influence the X receptor would snap into action (1st micro cycle). Thereafter the value of the result of action which has to correspond to the given external influence (2nd micro cycle) is selected from the database. It is then followed by transition process (transition period, 3rd multi-micro-cycle, NF cycle): actuation of the Y receptor, comparison of the result of action with the due value selected from the database, corrective influence on SFU (the number of actuated SFU mill be the one determined by control block in the micro cycle c) and again return to the actuation of the Y receptor. It would last in that way until the result of action is equal to the preset one. From this point the purpose/goal is reached and after that the control block comes back to the 1st micro cycle, to the reception of external influence. System performance for the achievement of the result of action would not stop until there new external influence emerges. The aforementioned should be supplemented by a very essential addition. It has already been mentioned when we were examining the SFU performance cycles that after any SFU is actuated it completely spends all its stored energy intended for the performance of action. Therefore, after completion of action SFU is unable of performing any new action until it restores its power capacity, and it takes additional time which can substantially increase the duration of the transition period. That is why a speed of movement (e.g., running) of a sportsman's body whose system of oxygen delivery to the tissues is large (high speed of energy delivery) would be fast as well. And the speed of movement of a cardiac patient's body would be slow because the speed of energy delivery is reduced due to the affection of blood circulation system which is a part of the body's system of power supply. Sick persons spent a long time to restore energy potential of muscular cells because of the delayed ATP production that requires a lot of oxygen. Micro cycles from 1st to 2nd constitute the starting period of control block performance. In case of short-term external influence control block would determine it during the start cycle and pass to the transition period during which it would seek to achieve the actual result of action equal to the proper one. If external influence appears again during the transition period the control block will not react to it because during this moment it would not measure Ք (refractory phase). Upon termination of the transition period the control block would go back/resort/ to the starting stage, but while it does so (resorts), the achieved due value of the result of action would remain invariable (the steady-state period). If external influence would be long enough and not vary so that after the first achievement of the goal the control block has time to resort to reception X again, the steady value of the result of action would be retained as long as the external influence continues. At that, the transition cycle will not start, because the steady-state value of the result of action is equal to the proper/due one. If long external influence continues and changes its amplitude, the onset of new transition cycle may occur. At that, the more the change in the amplitude of external influence, the larger would be the amplitude of oscillation of functions. Therefore, sharp differences of amplitude of external influence are inadmissible, since they cause diverse undesirable effects associated with transition period.

If external influence is equal to zero, all SFU are deactivated, as zero external influence is corresponded by zero activation of SFU. If, after a short while there would be new external influence, the system would repeat all in a former order. Duration of the system performance cycle is also seriously affected by processes of restoration of energy potential of the actuated SFU. Every SFU, when being actuated, would spend definite (quantized) amount of energy, which is either brought in by external influence per se or is being accumulated by some subsystems of power supply of the given system. In any case, energy potential restoration also needs time, but we do not consider these processes as they associated only with the executive elements (SFU), while we only examine the processes occurring in the control blocks of the systems. Thus, the system continually performs in cycles, while accomplishing its micro cycles. In the absence of external influence or if it does not vary, the system would remain at one of its stationary levels and in the same functional condition with the same number of functioning SFU, from zero to all. In such a mode it would not have transition multi-micro-cycle (long-time repeat of the 3rd micro cycle). Every change of level of external influence causes transition processes. Transition of function to a new level would only become possible when the system is ready to do it. Such micro cycles in various systems may differ in details, but all systems without exception have the NF multi-micro-cycle. With all its advantages the NF has a very essential fault, i.e. the presence of transition processes. The intensity of transition process depends on a variety of factors. It can range from minimal to maximal, but transition processes are always present in all systems in a varying degree of intensity. They are unavoidable in essence, since NF actuates as soon as the result of action of the system is produced. It would take some time until affectors of the system feel a mismatch, until the control block makes corresponding decision, until effectors execute this decision, until the NF measures the result of action and corrects the decision and the process is repeated several times until necessary correlation ... external influence > result of action... is achieved. Therefore, at this time there can be any unexpected nonlinear transition processes breaking normal operating mode of the system. For this reason at the time of the first actuation of the system or in case of sharp loading variations it needs quite a long period of setting/adjustment. And even in the steady-state mode due to various casual fluctuations in the environment there can be a minor failure in the NF operation and minor transition processes (noise of the result of action of real system). The presence of transition processes imposes certain restrictions on the performance and scope of use of systems. Slow inertial systems are not suitable for fast external influences as the speed of systems' operation is primarily determined by the speed of NF loop operation. Indeed, the speed of executive element's operation is the basis of the speed of system operation on the whole, but NF multi-micro-cycle contributes considerably to the extension of the system's operation cycle. Therefore, when choosing the load on the living organism it is necessary to take into consideration the speed of system operation and to select speed of loading so as to ensure the least intensity of transition processes. The slower the variation of external influence, the shorter is the transition process. Transition period becomes practically unapparent when the variation of external influence is sufficiently slow. Consequently, if external influence varies, the duration of transition period may vary from zero to maximum depending on the speed of such variation and the speed of operation of the system's elements. Transition period is the process of transition from one level of functional state to another. The smaller the steps of transition from one level on another, the less is the amplitude of transition processes. In case of smooth change of loading no transition processes take place. The intensity of transition processes depends on the SFU caliber, force of external influence, duration of SFU charging, sensitivity of receptors, the time of their operation, the NF intensity/profundity and algorithm of the control block operation. But these cycles of systems' performance and transition processes are present both in atoms and electronic circuitry, planetary systems and all other systems of our World, including human body.

If systems did not have transition processes, transition process period would have been always equal to zero and the systems would have been completely inertia-free. But such systems are non-existent and inertness is inherent in a varying degree in any system. For example, in electronics the presence of transition processes generates additional harmonics of electric current fluctuations in various amplifiers or current generators. Sophisticated circuit solutions are applied to suppress thereof, but they are present in any electronic devices, considerably suppressed though. Time constant of systems with simple control blocks includes time constants of every SFU plus changeable durations of NF transition periods. Therefore, constant of time of such systems is not quite constant since duration of NF transition periods can vary depending on the force of external impact. Transition processes in systems with simple control blocks increase the inertness of such systems. Inertness of systems leads to various phase disturbances of synchronization and balance of interaction between systems. There are numerous ways to deal with transition processes. External impacts may be filtered in such a way that to prevent from sharp shock impacts (filtration, a principle of graduality of loading). Knowing the character of external impacts/influences in advance and foreseeing thereof which requires seeing them first (and it can only be done, at the minimum, by complex control blocks) would enable designing of such an appropriate algorithm of control block operation which would ensure finding correct decision by the 3rd micro cycle (prediction based control/management). However, it is only feasible for intellectual control blocks. Apparently it's impossible for us to completely get rid of the systems' inertness so far. Therefore, if the external impact/influence does not vary and the transition processes are practically equal to zero the system would operate cyclically and accurately on one of its stationary levels, or smoothly shift from one stationary level to another if external influence varies, but does it quite slowly. If transition processes become notable, the system operation cycles become unequal due to the emergence of transition multi-micro-cycles, i.e. period of transition processes. At that, nonlinear effects reduce the system's overall performance. In our everyday life we often face transition processes when, being absolutely unprepared, we leave a warm room and get into the cold air outside and catch cold. In the warm room all systems of our organism were in a certain balance of interactions and everything was all right. But here we got into the cold air outside and all systems should immediately re-arrange on a new balance. If they have no time to do it and highly intensive transition processes emerge that cause unexpected fluctuations of results of actions of body systems, imbalance of interactions of systems occurs which is called cold (we hereby do not specify the particulars associated with the change of condition of the immune system). After a while the imbalance would disappear and the cold would be over as well. If we make ourselves fit, we can train our control blocks to foresee sharp strikes of external impacts to reduce transition processes; we then will be able even to bathe in an ice hole. Transition processes of special importance for us are those arising from sharp change of situation around us. Stress-syndrome is directly associated with this phenomenon. The sharper the change of the situation around us, the more it gets threatening (external influence is stronger), the sharper transition processes are, right up to paradoxical reactions of a type of stupor. At that, the imbalance of performance of various sites of nervous system (control blocks) arises, which leads to imbalance of various systems of organism and the onset of various pathological reactions and processes of a type of vegetative neurosis and depressions, ischaemia up to infarction and ulcers, starting from mouth cavity (aphtae) to large intestine ulcers (ulcerative colitis, gastric and duodenum ulcers, etc.), arterial hypertension, etc.

Cyclic recurrence is a property of systems not of a living organism only. Any system operates in cycles. If external influence is retained at a stable level, the system would operate based on this minimal steady-state cycle. But external influence may change cyclically as well, for example, from a sleep to sleep, from dinner to dinner, etc. These are in fact secondary, tertiary, etc., cycles. Provided constructing the graphs of functions of a system, we get wavy curves characterizing recurrence. Examples include pneumotachogram, electrocardiogram curves, curves of variability of gastric juice acidity, sphygmogram curves, curves of electric activity of neurons, periodicity of the EEG alpha rhythm, etc. Sea waves, changes of seasons, movements of planets, movements of trains, etc., - these are all the examples of cyclic recurrence of various systems. The forms of cyclic recurrence curves may be of all sorts. The electrocardiogram curve differs from the arterial pressure curve, and the arterial pressure curve differs from the pressure curve in the aortic ventricle. Variety of cyclic recurrence curves is infinite. Two key parameters characterize recurrence: the period (or its reciprocal variable - frequency) and nonuniformity of the period, which concept includes the notion of frequency harmonics. Nonuniformity of the cycle period should not be resident in SFU (the elementary system) as its performance cycles are always identical. However, the systems have transition periods which may have various cycle periods. Besides, various systems have their own cyclic periods and in process of interaction of systems interference (overlap) of periods may occur. Therefore, additional shifting of own systems' periods takes place and harmonics of cycles emerge. The number of such wave overlaps can be arbitrary large. That is why in reality we observe a very wide variety of curves: regular sinusoids, irregular curves, etc. However, any curves can be disintegrated into constituent waves thereof, i.e. disintegration of interference into its components using special analytical methods, e.g. Fourier transformations. Resulting may be a spectrum of simpler waves of a sinusoid type. The more detailed (and more labour-consuming, though) the analysis, the nearer is the form of each component to a sinusoid and the larger is the number of sinusoidal waves with different periods.

The period of system cycle is a very important parameter for understanding the processes occurring in any system, including in living organisms. Its duration depends on time constant of the system's reaction to external impact/influence. Once the system starts recurrent performance cycle, it would not stop until it has not finished it. One may try to affect the system when it has not yet finished the cycle of actions, but the system's reaction to such interference would be inadequate. The speed of the system's functions progression depends completely on the duration of the system performance cycle. The longer the cycle period, the slower the system would transit from one level to another. The concepts of absolute and relative adiaphoria are directly associated with the concept of period and phase of system cycle. If, for example, the myocardium has not finished its systole-diastole cycle, extraordinary (pre-term) impulse of rhythm pacemaker or extrasystolic impulse cannot force the ventricle to produce adequate stroke release/discharge. The value of stroke discharge may vary from zero to maximum possible, depending on at which phase of adiphoria period extrasystolic impulse occurs. If the actuating pulse falls on the 2nd and 3rd micro cycles, the myocardium would not react to them at all (absolute adiphoria), since information from the X receptor is not measured at the right time. Myocardium, following the contraction, would need, as any other cell would do following its excitation, some time to restore its energy potential (ATP accumulation) and ensure setting of all SFU in startup condition. If extraordinary impulse emerges at this time, the system's response might be dependent on the amount of ATP already accumulated or the degree in which actomyosin fibers of myocardium sarcomeres diverged/separated in order to join in the function again (relative adiphoria). Excitability of an unexcited cell is the highest. At the moment of its excitation excitability sharply falls to zero (all SFU in operation, 2nd micro cycle) - absolute adiphoria. Thereafter, if there is no subsequent excitation, the system would gradually restore its excitability, while passing through the phases of relative adiphoria up to initial or even higher level (super-excitability, which is not examined in this work) and then again to initial level. Therefore, pulse irregularity may be observed in patients with impaired cardial function, when sphygmic beats are force-wise uneven. Extreme manifestation of such irregularity is the so-called Jackson's symptom /pulse deficiency/, i.e. cardiac electric activity is shown on the electrocardiogram, but there is no its mechanical (haemodynamic) analogue on the sphygmogram and sphygmic beats are not felt when palpating the pulse. The main conclusions from all the above are as follows: any systems operate in cycles passing through micro cycles; any system goes through transition process; cycle period may differ in various systems depending on time constant of the system's reaction to the external impact/influence (in living systems - on the speed of biochemical reactions and the speed of command/actuating signals); irregularity of the system's cycle period depends on the presence of transition processes, consequently, to a certain degree on the force of external exposure/influence; irregularity of the system cycle period depends on overlapping of cycle periods of interacting systems; upon termination of cycle of actions after single influence the system reverts to the original state, in which it was prior to the beginning of external influence (one single result of action with one single external influence). The latter does not apply to the so-called generating systems. It is associated with the fact that after the result of action has been achieved by the system, it becomes independent of the system which produced it and may become external influence in respect to it. If it is conducted to the external influence entry point of the same system, the latter would again get excited and again produce new result of action (positive feedback, PF). This is how all generators work. Thus, if the first external influence affects the system or external influence is ever changing, the number of functioning SFU systems varies. If no external influence is exerted on the system or is being exerted but is invariable, the number of functioning system SFU would not vary. Based on the above we can draw the definitions of stationary conditions and dynamism of process.

Functional condition of system. Functional condition of the system is defined by the number of active SFU. If all SFU function simultaneously, it shows high functional condition which arises in case of maximum external influence. If none SFU is active it shows minimum functional condition. It may occur in the absence of external influence. External environment always exerts some kind of influence on some systems, including the systems of organism. Even in quiescent state the Earth gravitational force makes part of our muscles work and consequently absolute rest is non-existent. So, when we are kind of in quiescent state we actually are in one of the low level states of physical activity with the corresponding certain low level of functional state of the organism. Any external influence requiring additional vigorous activity would transfer to a new level of a functional condition unless the SFU reserve is exhausted. When new influence is set at a new invariable (stationary) level, functional condition of a system is set on a new invariable (stationary) functional level.

Stationary states/modes. Stationary state is such a mode of systems when one and the same number of SFU function and no change occurs in their functional state. For example, in quiescence state all systems of organism do not change their functional mode as far as about the same number of SFU is operational. A female runner who runs a long distance for quite a long time without changing the speed is also in a stationary state/mode. Her load does not vary and consequently the number of working (functioning) SFU does not change either, i.e. the functional state of her organism does not change. Her organism has already got used to this unchangeable loading and as there is no increase of load there is no increase in the number of working SFU, too. The number of working SFU remains constant and therefore the functional state/mode of the organism does not change. What may change in this female runner's body is, e.g. the status of tissue energy generation system and the status of tissue energy consumption system, which is in fact the process of exhaustion of organism. However, if the female runner has duly planned her run tactics so that not to find herself in condition of anaerobic metabolism, the condition of external gas metabolism and blood circulation systems would not change. So, regardless of whether or not physical activity is present, but if it does not vary (stationary physical loadings /steady state/, provided it is adequate to the possibilities of the organism), the organism of the subject would be in a stationary state/mode. But if the female runner runs in conditions of anaerobic metabolism the vicious circle will be activated and functional condition of her organism will start change steadily to the worse. (The vicious circle is the system's reaction to its own result of action. Its basis is hyper reaction of system to routine influence, since the force of routine external influence is supplemented by the eigen result of action of the system which is independent of the latter and presents external influence in respect to it. Thus, routine external influence plus the influence of the system's own result of action all in all brings about hyper influence resulting in hyper reaction of the system (system overload). The outcome of this reaction is the destruction own SFU coupled with accumulation of defects and progressing decline in the quality of life. At the initial stages while functional reserves are still large, the vicious circle becomes activated under the influence of quite a strong external action (heavy load condition). But in process of SFU destruction and accumulation of defects the overload of adjacent systems and their destruction would accrue (the domino principle), whereas the level of load tolerance would recede and with the lapse of time even weak external influences will cause vicious circle actuation and may prove to be excessive. Eventually even the quiescent state will be the excessive loading for an organism with destroyed SFU which condition is incompatible with life. Usually termination of loading would discontinue this vicious circle.


  • Value and probability weighting function. Tournament games as special settings for a competition between individuals. Model: competitive environment, application of prospect theory. Experiment: design, conducting. Analysis of experiment results.

    [1,9 M], 20.03.2016

  • Critical literature review. Apparel industry overview: Porters Five Forces framework, PESTLE, competitors analysis, key success factors of the industry. Bershkas business model. Integration-responsiveness framework. Critical evaluation of chosen issue.

    [29,1 K], 04.10.2014

  • The main reasons for the use of virtual teams. Software development. Areas that are critical to the success of software projects, when they are designed with the use of virtual teams. A relatively small group of people with complementary skills.

    [16,4 K], 05.12.2012

  • Theoretical basis recruitment and selection methods: internal or external recruitment, job resume, job interview. Recruitment process design and development. Evaluation of methods of recruitment and selection on example of "Procter and Gamble".

    [73,2 K], 03.05.2012

  • The concept and features of bankruptcy. Methods prevent bankruptcy of Russian small businesses. General characteristics of crisis management. Calculating the probability of bankruptcy discriminant function in the example of "Kirov Plant "Mayak".

    [74,5 K], 18.05.2015

  • Leadership and historical approach. Effect, which leader makes on group. Developing leadership skills. Exercise control as function of the leader is significant difference between managers and leaders. Common points of work of leader and manager.

    [37,7 K], 13.02.2012

  • Relevance of electronic document flow implementation. Description of selected companies. Pattern of ownership. Sectorial branch. Company size. Resources used. Current document flow. Major advantage of the information system implementation in the work.

    [128,1 K], 14.02.2016

  • The essence, structure, bjectives and functions of business plan. The processs essence of the banks business plan realization. Sequential decision and early implementation stages of projects. Widely spread mistakes and ways for their improvement.

    [67,0 K], 18.12.2011

  • Analysis of the peculiarities of the mobile applications market. The specifics of the process of mobile application development. Systematization of the main project management methodologies. Decision of the problems of use of the classical methodologies.

    [1,4 M], 14.02.2016

  • Major factors of success of managers. Effective achievement of the organizational purposes. Use of "emotional investigation". Providing support to employees. That is appeal charisma. Positive morale and recognition. Feedback of the head with workers.

    [1,8 M], 15.07.2012

, , ..
PPT, PPTX PDF- .
.