The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking

Selected aspects of stimulation of scientific thinking. Meta-skills. Methods of critical and creative thinking. Analysis of the decision-making methods without use of numerical values of probability (exemplificative of the investment projects).

 Ðóáðèêà Ìåíåäæìåíò è òðóäîâûå îòíîøåíèÿ Âèä àòòåñòàöèîííàÿ ðàáîòà ßçûê àíãëèéñêèé Äàòà äîáàâëåíèÿ 15.10.2008 Ðàçìåð ôàéëà 196,7 K

Îòïðàâèòü ñâîþ õîðîøóþ ðàáîòó â áàçó çíàíèé ïðîñòî. Èñïîëüçóéòå ôîðìó, ðàñïîëîæåííóþ íèæå

Ñòóäåíòû, àñïèðàíòû, ìîëîäûå ó÷åíûå, èñïîëüçóþùèå áàçó çíàíèé â ñâîåé ó÷åáå è ðàáîòå, áóäóò âàì î÷åíü áëàãîäàðíû.

Dynamic processes. Dynamic process is the process of changing functional state/mode/condition of the system. The system is in dynamic process when the change in the number of its actuated SFU occurs. The number of continually actuated SFU would determine stationary state/mode/condition of the system. Hence, dynamic process is the process of the system's transition from one stationary level to another. If the speed of change in external influences exceeds the speed of fixing the preset result of action of the system, transition processes (multi-micro-cycles) occur during which variation of number of functioning SFU also takes place. Therefore, these transition processes are also dynamic. Consequently, there are two types of dynamic processes: when the system is shifting from one stationary condition (level) to another and when it is in transient multi-micro-cycle. The former is target-oriented, whereas the latter is caused by imperfection of systems and is parasitic, as its actions take away additional energy which was intended for target actions. When the system is in stationary condition some definite number of SFU (from zero to all) is actuated. The minimum step of change of level of functional condition is the value determined by the level of operation of one SFU (one quantum of action). Hence, basically transition from one level of functional condition to another is always discrete (quantized) rather than smooth, and this discrecity is determined by the SFU “caliber”. Then umber of stationary conditions is equal to the number of SFU of the system. Systems with considerable quantity of “small” SFU would pass through dynamic processes more smoothly and without strenuous jerks, than systems with small amount of “large” SFU. Hence, dynamic process is characterized by an amplitude of increment of the system's functions from minimum to maximum (the system's minimax; depends on its absolute number of SFU), discrecity or pace of increment of functions (depends on the “caliber” or quantum of individual SFU) and parameters of the function's cyclic recurrence (speed of increase of actions of system, the period of phases of a cycle, etc.). It can be targeted or parasitic. It should be noted that stationary condition is also a process, but it's the steady-state (stationary) process. In such cases the condition of systems does not vary from cycle to cycle. But during each cycle a number of various dynamic processes take place in the system as the system itself consists of subsystems, each of which in turn consists of cycles and processes. The steady-state process keeps system in one and the same functional condition and at one and the same stationary level. In accordance with the above definition, if a system does not change its functional condition, it is in stationary condition. Consequently, the steady-state process and stationary condition mean one the same thing, because irrespective of whether the systems are in stationary condition or in dynamic process, some kind of stationary or dynamic processes may take place in their subsystems. For example, even just a mere reception by the “Õ” receptor is a dynamic process. Hence, there are no absolutely inert (inactive) objects and any object of our World somewise operates in one way or another. It is assumed that the object may be completely “inactive” at zero degrees of Kelvin scale (absolute zero). Attempts to obtain absolutely inactive systems were undertaken by freezing of bodies up to percentage of Kelvin degrees. It's unlikely though, that any attempts to freeze a body to absolute zero would be a success, because the body would still move in space, cross some kind of magnetic, gravitational or electric fields and interact with them. For this reason at present it is probably impossible in principle to get absolutely inert and inactive body. The integral organism represents mosaic of systems which are either in different stationary conditions, or in dynamic processes. One could possibly make an objection that there are no systems in stationary condition in the organism at all, as far as some kind of dynamic processes continually occur in some of its systems. During systole the pressure in the aorta increases and during diastole it goes down, the heart functions continuously and blood continuously flows through the vessels, etc. That is all very true, but evaluation of the system's functions is not made based on its current condition, but the cycles of its activity. Since all processes in any systems are cyclic, including in the organism, the criterion of stationarity is the invariance of integral condition of the system from one cycle to another. Aorta reacts to external influence (stroke/systolic discharge of the left ventricle) in such a way that in process of increase of pressure its walls' tension increases, while it falls in process of pressure reduction. However, take, for example, the longer time period than the one of the cardiocycle, the integrated condition of the aorta would not vary from one cardiocycle to another and remain stationary.

Stabilization systems and proportional systems. There exist a great number of types of various systems. But stabilization systems and proportional systems are of special importance for us. In respect of the first one the result of action always remains the same (stable), it does not depend on the force of external influence, but on the command. For example, ðÍ of blood should be always equal to 7.4, blood pressure to 120/80 mm Hg, etc., (homeostasis systems) regardless of external influences. In respect of the second one the result of action depends on the force of external influence under any specific law designated by the command and is proportional to it. For example, the more physical work we perform the more Î2 we should consume and excrete ÑÎ2. Stabilization system uses two receptors, “Õ” and “Y”. The “Õ” receptor is used to start up the system depending on the presence of external influence, while the “Y” receptor is used for the measurement of the result of action. The command (the task specifying the value of the result of action) is entered to the command entry point of the stabilization system's control block. Stabilization system should fulfill this task, i.e. support (stabilize) the result of action at the designated level irrespective of the force of external influence. Stability of the result of action is ensured by that the “database” of the control block contains the ratios/correlations of the number of active SFU and forces of external influence and is sustained according to the NF logic: if the result of action has increased, it is necessary to reduce it, and if it has decreased it's necessary to increase it. For this purpose the control block should contain DPC and NF. Hence, the elementary control block (DPC) is not suitable for stabilization systems. At least simple control block which contains NF as well is necessary. In stabilization system the result of action of the system up to vertical dotted straight line is stable (normal function, the curve goes horizontally). Beyond the dotted straight line the function goes down (increases), stabilization was disturbed (insufficiency of function). With proportional system, its function increases (goes down) until vertical dotted straight line proportionally to the external influence (normal function). Beyond the dotted straight line the function does not vary (it entered the saturation phase, transited to a plateau condition - insufficient function). The measuring element in stabilization system continually measures the result of action of the system and communicates it to the control block which compares it to the preset result. In case of discrepancy of the result of action with the task this block makes decision on those or other actions to be taken and forces the executive elements to operate so that this divergence has disappeared. External influence may vary within various ranges, but the result of action should remain stable and be equal to the preset result. The system spends its resources to do it. If the resources are exhausted, stabilization system ceases to stabilize the result of action and starting from this point the onset of its insufficiency occurs. One of stabilization examples is stellar rotation speed in vacuum. If the radius of the star reduces, its rotational speed will increase and centrifugal forces will amplify, thus scaling up its radius and slowing down its rotational speed. If the radius of the star scales up, the entire process will go in a reverse order. A figure skater regulates the speed of rotational pirouettes he/she performs on the skating-rink based on the same principle. Proportional system should also use both “Õ” and “Y” receptors. One of them measures the incoming influence, while another one measures the result of action of the system. The command (the task as to what the proportion between external influence and the result of action should be) is input to the entry point of the control block. It is for this reason that such systems are called proportional. External influence may change within the varying range. But the control block should adjust the performance of the executive elements so that the “prescribed” (preset by the directive) proportion between external influence and the result of action is maintained. Examples of proportional systems are, for example, amplifiers of electric signals, mechanical levers, sea currents (the more the water in the ocean is warmed up, the more intensive is the flow in the Gulf Stream), atmospheric phenomena, etc. So, the examples of stabilization and proportional systems are found in any medium, but not only in biological systems.

Active and passive systems. Passive systems are those which do not exspend energy for their actions. Active systems are those which do exspend energy for their actions. However, as it was repeatedly underlined, any action of any system requires expenditure of energy. Any action, even the most insignificant, is impossible without expenditure of energy, because, as it has already been mentioned, any action is always the interaction between systems or its elements. Any interaction represents communication between the systems or their elements which requires expenditure of energy for the creation thereof. Therefore any action requires energy consumption. Hence, all systems, including passive, consume energy. The difference between active and passive systems is only in the source of energy. How does the passive system operate then? If the system is in the state of equilibrium with the environment and no influence is exerted upon it the system should not perform any actions. Once it does not perform any actions, it does not consume energy. It is passive until the moment it starts to operate and only then it will start to consume energy. The balanced state of a pencil is stipulated by the balanced pushing (pressure) of springs onto a pencil. The springs are not simply incidental groups of elements (a set of atoms and molecules), but they are passive systems with NF loops and executive elements at molecular level (intermolecular forces in steel springs) which seek to balance forces of intermolecular connections/bonds which is manifested in the form of tension load of the springs. Since in case of the absence of external influence no actions are performed by the system, there is no energy consumption either, and the system passively waits for the onset of external influence. Both types of systems have one and the same goal: to keep a pencil in vertical position. In passive systems this function is carried out by springs (passive SFU, A and B) and air columns encapsulated/encased in rubber cans (passive SFU, D). The SFU store (use) energy during external influence (pushing a pencil with a finger squeezes the springs). In active system (C) the same function is achieved for at the expense of airflows which always collapse. These airflows create motor fans (active SFU) which spend energy earlier reserved, for example, in accumulators. Once these airflows are encapsulated/encased in rubber cylinders they will not collapse any more and will exist irrespective of fans, while carrying out the same function. But now it represents a passive system (D). Now external influence occurs and the pencil has diverged aside. The springs would immediately seek to return a pencil to the former position, i.e. the system starts to operate. Where does it take energy for the actions from? This energy was brought by the external influence in the form of kinetic energy of pushing by a finger which has compressed (stretched) the springs and they have reserved this energy in the form of potential energy of compression (stretching). As soon as external influence (pushing by a finger) has ceased, potential energy of the compressed springs turns to kinetic energy of straightening thereof and it returns a pencil back in the vertical balanced position. External influence enhances internal energy of the system which is used for the performance of the system. The influence causes surplus of internal energy of the system which results in the reciprocal action of the system. In the absence of influence no surplus of the system's internal energy is available which results in the absence of action. External influence brings in the energy in the system which is used to produce reaction to this influence. Functions of springs may be performed by airflows created by fans located on a pencil. In order to “build” airflows surplus of energy of the “fans - pencil” system is used which is also brought in from the outside, but stored for use at the right time (for example, gasoline in the tank or electricity in accumulator). Such system would be active because it will use its internal energy, rather than that of external influence. The difference between airflows and springs consists in that the airflows consist of incidental groups of molecules of air (not systems) moving in one direction. Amongst these elements there are executive elements (SFU, air molecules), but there is no control block which could construct a springs-type system out of them, i.e. provide the existence of airflows as stable, separate and independent bodies (systems). These airflows are continually created by fan propellers and as they have no control block of their own they always collapse by themselves. Suppose that we construct some kind of a system which will ensure prevention of the airflows from collapse, let's say, encase them in rubber cylinders, they then may exist independently of fans. But in this case the system of stabilization of the pencil's vertical position will shift from the active category to the passive. Hence, both active and passive systems consume energy. However, the passive ones consume the external energy brought in by external influence, while the active ones would use their own internal energy. One may argue that internal energy, say, of myocyte is still the external energy brought in to a cell from the outside, e.g. in the form of glucose. It is true, and moreover, any object contains internal energy which at some stage was external. And we probably may even know the source of this energy, which is the energy of the Big Bang. Some kind of energy was spent once and somewhere for the creation of an atom, and this energy may be extracted therefrom somehow or other. Such brought-in internal energy is present in any object of our World and it is impossible to find any other object in it which would contain exclusively its own internal energy which was not brought in by anything or ever from the outside. Energy exchange occurs every time the systems interact. But passive systems do not spend their internal energy in the process of their performance because they “are not able” of doing it, they only use the energy of the external influence, whereas active systems can spend their internal energy. The passive system is the thorax which performs passive exhalation and many other systems of living organism.

and the analyzer-classifier which has the “knowledge base” and the “decision base”. Not any living cell has analyzer - classifier. Animate/organic/ nature is classified under two major groups: flora and fauna. Plants, as well as many other living forms of animate nature, such as corals and bacteria, do not possess remote sensors, although in some cases it may seem that plants, nevertheless, do have such sensors. For example, sunflowers turn their heads towards the sun as if phototaxis is inherent in them. But they actually turn their heads not towards the light, but towards the side wherefrom their bodies get more heated, and heat comes from the side wherefrom the light comes. Heat is felt locally by a sunflower's body. It does not have special infra-red sensors. Photosynthesis process is not a process of phototaxis. Hence, plants are systems with simple control block. In spite of the fact that there are plants with a very complex structure that are even capable to feed on subjects of fauna, their control block is still simple and reacts only to direct contact. For example, a sundew feeds on insects; it can entice them, paste them to its external stomach and even contract its valves. It's a predator and in this sense it is akin to a wolf, a shark or a jellyfish. It can do variety of actions like an animal, but it can only do it after the insect alights on it. A sundew cannot chase its victims because it does not see them (remote sensors are not available). Whatever alights on it, even a small stone, it will do all necessary actions and try to digest it because it does not have analyzer-classifier. This is why a sundew is a plant, but not an animal. Animate cells, including unicellular forms, even such as amoeba or infusoria types, are systems with complex control blocks since they possess at least one of spatial analyzers - chemotaxis. It is the presence of remote sensors that differs a cell of an animal from any objects of flora, in which such sensors controls are not present. Therefore the control block is a determinant of what kind of nature the given living object belongs to. The jellyfish is not an alga, but an animal because it has chemotaxis. Remote analyzer gives an idea about the space in which it has to move. That is why plants stay put, while animals move in space. Simple control block including only the analyzer-informant is a determinant of the world of minerals and plants. We will see below where the difference between the mineral and vegetative worlds/natures lies. Complex control block including the analyzer-classifier is a fauna determinant anyway. An amoeba is the same kind of hunter as a wolf, a shark or a man. It feeds on infusorians. To catch an infusorian it should know where the latter is and should be able to move. It cannot see the victim at a distance, but it can feel it by its chemical sense organs and seek to catch it as it has chemotaxis, possibly the first of the remote sensor mechanisms. But in addition to chemotaxis the amoeba should also have a notion (even primitive) of space in which it exists and in which it should move in a coordinated and task-oriented manner to catch an infusorian. In addition, it should be able to single out an infusorian from other objects which it can encounter on its way. Its analyzer-classifier is much simpler than, for example, that of a wolf or a shark because it does not have organs of sight and hearing and neural structures at all, but it can classify external situation. It has complex control block comprising the “C” informant, and that is why an amoeba is not a plant, but an animal. Since control blocks may be of any degree of complexity, reflexes may be of any degree of complexity, too, from elementary axon reflexes to the reflexes including the cerebral cortex performance (instincts and conditioned reflexes). The number of reflexes of living organism is enormous and there exist specific reflexes for each system of the organism. Moreover, the organism is not only a complex system in itself, but due to its complexity it has a possibility to build additional, temporary/transient/ systems necessary at the given point of time for some specific concrete occasion. For example, lamentation system is a temporary system which the organism builds for a short time interval. The lamentation system's control block is the example of complex control block. The purpose of lamentation is to show one's suffering and be pitied. This system includes, in the capacity of composite executive elements, other systems (subsystems) that are located sufficiently far from each other both in space and in terms of functions (lacrimal glands, respiratory muscles, alveoli and pulmonary bronchial tubes, vocal chords, mimic muscles, etc.). At first the external situation is identified and in case of need lamentation reflex (complex reflex, an instinct) is actuated under the certain program, which includes control of lifting up one's voice up to a certain timbre (control over the respiratory muscles and vocal chords), sobbing (a series of intermittent sighs), lacrimation /excretion of tears/, specific facial expression, etc. All these remote elements are consolidated by the complex control block in a uniform system, i.e. lamentation system, with very concrete and specific purpose to show one's sufferings to the other system. The lamentation reflex can be realized at all levels of nervous system, starting from the higher central cerebral structures, including vegetative neural system, subcortex and up to cerebral cortex. But we are examining only child's weeping which is realized in neural structures not higher than subcortex level (instinctive crying). After the purpose has been achieved (sufferings have been explicitly demonstrated, and whether or not the child was pitied will be found out later) the reflex is brought to a stop, this complex control block disappears and the system disintegrates into the components which now continue functioning as part of other systems of organism. Lamentation system disappears (it is scattered). Whence the control block (at subcortex level) knows that it is necessary to cry now, but it is not necessary to cry at any other moment? For this purpose it identifies a situation (singles it out and classifies). The analyzer-classifier is engaged in it. Its “knowledge base” is laid down in subcortex from birth (the instincts). Simple control block cannot perform such actions. All actions of the systems controlled by elementary and simple control blocks would be automatic. Biological analogues of elementary control block are the axon reflexes working under the “all-or-none” law; those of simple control blocks are unconditional (innate, instinctive) reflexes when certain automatic, but graduated reaction occurs in response to certain external influence. Simple control block would be adapting the system's actions better than the elementary one because it takes account of not only external influence, but the result of action of the system which has occurred in response to this external influence as well. But it cannot identify a situation. Complex control block can perform such actions. It reacts not to external influence, but to certain external situation which can exert certain external influence. Biological analogues of complex control block are complex reflexes or instincts. During pre-natal development the “knowledge” of possible situations “is laid down” into the brain of a fetus (the “knowledge base”). The volume of this knowledge is immense. A chicken can run immediately after it hardly hatches from egg. A crocodile, a shark or a snake become predators right after birth, i.e. they know and are able of doing everything that is required for this purpose. It speaks of the fact that they have sufficient inborn “knowledge base” and “base of decisions” for this purpose. In such cases we say that animal has instincts. Thus, the system with complex control block is the object which can react to certain external situation in which this influence may be exerted. But it can react only to fixed (finite) number of external situations which description is contained in its “knowledge base” and it has a finite number of decisions on these situations which description is contained in its “base of decisions”. In order to identify external situation it has the “C” informant and the analyzer-classifier. In other respects it is similar to the system with simple control block. It can also react to certain external influence and its reaction is stipulated by type and number of its SFU. The result of action of the system is also graduated. The number of gradations is defined by the number of executive SFU in the system. It also has the analyzer-informant with the “database”, DPC (the “X” informant) and NF (the “Y” informant), which control the system through the stimulator (efferent paths). There are no analogues with complex control block in inorganic /abiocoen, inanimate/ nature. Biological analogues of systems with complex control block are all animals, from separate cells to animals with highly developed nervous system including cerebrum and remote sense organs, such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, but in which it is impossible to develop reflexes to new situations, for example, in insects. The analogues of the “C” informant are all “remote” receptors: eyesight (or its photosensitive analogues in inferior animals), hearing and sense of smell. The analogues of analyzer-classifier are, for example, visual, acoustical, gustatory and olfactory analyzers located in the subcortex. Visual, acoustical, gustatory and olfactory analyzers located in the cerebral cortex are anyway referred to analyzers-correlators.

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