Problems in usage of tests in ELT
Testing as a form of control the level of students’ skills and abilities. The classification of tests in learning English. Problems in the control of education. The final results on the evaluation system of knowledge. The main stage of the lesson.
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Problems in usage of tests in ELT
1. Testing as a form of control in teaching English in secondary school
1.1 Testing as a form of control the level of students' skills and abilities
The process of learning a foreign language provides two essential components: the formation of a foreign language (communicative) competence and the level of its diagnosis of formation (control knowledge, skills and abilities of students). Formation of communicative competence is foreign language lessons throughout the learning process, while the control is carried out in a specially allotted time, therefore, it must be clearly organized so that in as short a time to assess the maximum number of students to meet standards of quality and objectivity of the results.
Traditional forms of control in the opinion of many researchers (L. Charles Alderson, Llyle F. Bachman, E.P. Petraschuk, V.A. Kokkota, etc.) do not satisfy all the requirements, because:
- Conduct an independent and control work requires a lot of time (half a lesson or a lesson);
- Chances of cheating by students;
- There is a strong emotional stress of student during the execution of tasks;
- It takes too much time to check the results.
The presence of these shortcomings encourages supervisors to seek new and alternative ways to control the learning process. The most promising area in this study is to test that offers compelling benefits in terms of reducing both emotional stress test, and the time to check the result. In addition, the test form of control makes it possible to systematize the knowledge of students, identify their potential and to determine the possible causes of difficulties and may be receiving increased interest students in the learning process.
The problem of test control in the teaching of foreign languages studied for a long time.
More attention is paid to the consideration of this issue in the work of foreign researchers (L. Charles Alderson, Llyle F. Bachman, Annie Brown, Paul Mc Cann, Caroline Clapham, Alan Davies, Cathie Elder, Michel Harris, Robert Lado, Tim Mc Namara, Dianne Wall and etc.
In the history of the study of testing is determined by two main periods: the pre-scientific (traditional) and scientific (modern) within the boundaries of each period are isolated approaches to testing. Thus, in the pre-scientific stage of development prevailed transferable approach (the essay-translation approach). Testing was seen as fulfillment of the translation, the tests consisted of the following tasks: to write an essay to translate the sentence or text to analyze linguistic phenomena. Therefore, focused on the control of formation of writing skills, it does not take into account other types of speech activities (listening, reading and speaking). Writing essays was seen as a test, although this type of work does not provide a range of tasks, and is a creative process, the product is not standardized, and the original and different for everyone who creates it.
In the 50's and 70's, new approaches to testing: structural, discrete, analytical, structural - psychometric. Structural, discrete and analytical approach involves the development of a test as a set of stimuli to which must meet the test. In numerous works of scientists developed extensive test battery, consisting of a hundred or more jobs (an example of this test can serve as TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language). Structural and psychometric test approach is claimed as a collection of small tasks aimed at testing the knowledge in one aspect of language (grammar, phonetics, vocabulary). Characteristic of the test of this approach was the lack of communication of linguistic phenomena with communicative context. Thus, the 50 - 70s have a history of testing the basic foundation of the test TOEFL, which is now widely used to determine the general level of English proficiency, but was not considered a foreign language as a means of communication, which triggered tests, divorced from the realities of life.
In the 70 -80 - years in the history of the test came communicative approach, which took a leading place. The purpose of testing was to test the knowledge of a foreign language as a medium of communication. This period marked the beginning of the development of the theory of communicative testing, which now has more improved. However, in the 70 - 80s, there were other approaches to drawing tests, such as integration, pragmatic, synthetic, composite, hybrid. These approaches have not gained popularity in teaching science, and none of them was basic. Since the 80's theory of communicative testing is actively developing and ceases dominant. It is characterized by a new reflection test control facilities, new approaches to the development of tests. Becoming one of the leading interactive approaches to testing. The core competence of this approaches - the idea of the relationship between the components of the process of foreign language communication in the real world, and while doing the test, as well as between the components of the test and the interaction between the components of the testing process. Hence, each test task must have some connection to the realities of life test and related to the particular stage of the testing process.
The central concept of testing as a form of control is a test. Currently, the test in a foreign pedagogy called any form of formal assessment in any area of language, which is carried out under conditions allowing the estimation of personal achievements in any given area. Russian scientist V.A. Kokkota gives a more specific definition of a test as prepared in accordance with the specific requirements of a complex task, which was pre - tested to determine its quality indicators and provides a revealing he tested the extent of their language (linguistic) competence . S. Ermolenko narrows this concept to a short test which covers a specific section of the course material and requires the characterization of linguistic phenomena. Closely related to this view M.V. Lyahovitsky that test defines «standardized control task, carried out on an equal footing for all students to achieve the quantitative indicators on the state of the educational process or learning activities in exactly fixed point in time» . S.I. Voskerchyan test calls short, is technically a reasonable trial in equal conditions for all subjects and having the form of such a task whose solution is to quantify and is an indicator of the degree of development to date of known function in a given subject. G.V. Barabanova defines the test as a set of questions and tasks imposed test to determine the level of formation of language skills and speech abilities . Thus, the essence of the test is the Methodists in the broadest sense of any form of assessment, and in bringing it to just short assignments or tests. Characteristics of the test as a set jobs of V.A. Kokkota and G.V. Baranov, in our opinion, more accurately interprets the character and nature of the test, as well as its purpose and characteristics of the organization, so it may be more appropriate for use in school practice.
1.2 The classification of tests in learning English
With the development and popularization of testing as a form of control investigated the possibility of different types of tests. With the existing diversity of tests there is a need to systematize them, that is, the creation of classification tests, which allows one of the criteria to select the test type that best suits your purpose and conditions of the test.
Basic approaches to classification tests were considered in such Western scholars as L. Charles Alderson, Llyle F. Bachman, Annie Brown, Paul McCann, Caroline Clapham, Alan Davies, Cathie Elder, Michel Harris, Robert Lado, Tim McNamara, Dianne Wall, etc.The most clear-cut, but not complete, classification tests gives T. McNamara , which highlights two principles according to which shares all tests:
1) By the method of implementation;
2) Focus on.
According to the first principle tests are divided into:
1) Paper-and pencil tests, which reveal knowledge of specific areas of language (grammar, vocabulary, etc.);
2) Perform tests, based on the communication process.
According to the second principle tests are divided into:
1) Achievement tests, aimed at determining the student's progress at the end of a certain stage of study (semester, academic year, tutorial, etc.);
2) Proficiency tests, revealing the potential of the test;
3) Progress tests, which help determine the degree of ownership of the material studied;
4) Placement tests, which aim to assess the level of language proficiency test for the distribution of their learning groups (classes) or exclusion of them, so the basis of the test is studied earlier material;
5) Diagnostic tests, which are designed to identify areas in which the student is having difficulty (common areas in a speech activities or private (for example, in the grammar).
According to the Michael Harris, there are summative tests, which are conducted at the end of the course and designed to test the implementation of educational goals. Consequently, the total tests correlate with tests of educational achievements and serve the same purpose, which is indicated by the researcher.
American Methodists Dzh.O. Orlean G.A. Siti offer classification tests, which differs from the traditional:
1) Multiple-choice tests with a single correct answer to sample;
2) Multiple-choice tests with several possible correct answers;
3) Test consisting of questions having two replies, one of which is correct, and a second incorrect;
4) Tests for the completion status of one or more sentences in which certain words are missing;
5) Tests on the formation of relationships;
6) Tests with short answers;
7) Tests for reclassification;
8) Tests for error correction;
9) Tests on the map (historical, geographical).
According to the most Russian researchers, such as V.S. Avanesov, I.A. Danilov, I.U. Koyda, I.I. Tihonov, etc. there are two main types of tests:
1) Open tests that are written so that they had formulated only correct answer in the form of words, phrases, numbers, symbols, graphics, etc.
2) Closed (selective or alternative) which contain:
a) Tasks with conflicting answers assess the correctness of this judgment (yes-no, true - false, etc.);
b) Tasks requiring the selection of the appropriate response (underline);
c) Tasks compiled by type of pair of response;
d) Specify multiple choice answers consisting of statement or question and several answers, of which only one is correct, and the rest inaccurate, incomplete or incorrect.
A complete classification of tests, based on the features of teaching a foreign language in high school, offers A.P. Petraschuk :
1) Of the phase: in class, at the end of threads at the end of a quarter (semester, academic year), at the end stage of education in secondary school;
2) By type of test control: current, topical, and a landmark final;
3) According to the degree of formality: informal testing with low status and results of the official test results with high status;
4) On the degree of standardization: standardized, locally standardized and standardized;
5) On the degree of communicative orientation: discrete, integrative and communicative;
6) In the form of: written, oral and computerized;
7) By the method of: collective and individual;
8) By methods: testing the sample to give answers, semi productive responses, productive responses;
9) By means of: testing using:
a) Means for individual use (with the test book, answer sheet);
b) Means for testing procedures on the part of the administrator (guidance to conduct testing);
c) Funds to support the activities of the examiner according to the method of evaluation results (answer key criterion rating scale).
Under each of these tests was isolated test formats that determine the following characteristics of the test length of the test, the number and type of partitions controlled skills, test items, tasks, and their number, expected test responses.
Western technique usually uses the following types:
1) Multiple choice;
2) An alternative choice (True / False; Yes / No);
4) Information transfer;
5) Ordering tasks;
9) C - test;
10) Short answers.
As a result of methodical analysis of the literature to systematize the theoretical material we have compiled a table [Appendix 1] that summarizes information about the main test formats.
This table provides a brief review of existing test formats and helps to select the type of test that best meets the requirements of the organizer of the test control.
Thus, if there are many classifications of tests in school practice is advisable to use the general principle of separation tests on subjective and objective, and the test format is selected in accordance with the individual age - students, subject to the control, the conditions of testing, pre - analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the selected test format. Using the proposed table allows you to quickly and methodically justified pick the most appropriate test format.
1.3 Preparation and use of tests in learning English
Testing is one of the most promising forms of control and is becoming more widely used in school practice. The innovative nature of the test is the cause of the problems associated with the introduction of testing in school practice. One of the most urgent problems of testing in educational institutions is the lack of the necessary test materials related to the lack of teaching materials, allowing the use of ready-made tests to monitor the level of knowledge and skills of students. In this regard, the teacher is usually self - test tasks, which often do not meet the requirements for the test.
According to A.P. Petraschuk , there are two phase of the test:
1) Designing (formulation purposes, the definition of types of test items; planning performance assessment, the definition of available resources);
2) Preparation of the matrix:
a) Preparation of the test structure (the number of parts, the number of test items in each part, the complexity of the test tasks, the sequence of their placement, etc.);
b) Definition of the specifications of the test tasks (target job, the distribution of time to perform tasks, instructions to the parts of the test and test tasks, the test method for evaluation of responses);
3) Preparation of a preliminary version of the test (test tasks specific filling material);
4) The test of typical test.
When preparing the test, according A.P. Petraschuk , need to consider:
a) Test Specifications (goals, types of tests, the test structure, the force test, test quality assessment plan);
b) Specifications individual test tasks (feed material, the expected response, instructions, allocation of time to perform tasks, the object definition and the method of evaluation of test responses)
There are 5 stages of test development: material definition, timing to the test, analysis of test items.
The main criterion for the preparation of the test is their correct development.
The tests should have an appropriate value, which is revealed in the analysis and evaluation of the test. In methodical science, there are several ways to determine the quality of the test.
According to L.F. Bechman and A.S. Palmer, qualitative characteristics of the test are reliability, validity, authenticity, interactivity, usability and impact strength.
V.A. Kokkota identifies five indicators of test quality - validity, reliability, ability to differentiate, practicality and economy. 
A.P. Petraschuk qualitative characteristics of test calls authenticity, interactivity, construct validity, reliability, complexity, impact strength and practicality of results .
Thus, all researchers identify reliability, validity and practicality as the main criteria for the quality test.
In methodical science there are several definitions of the term «reliability».
1. Reliability of the test is determined by the stability of its function as a measurement tool, a reliable test gives approximately the same results with repeated use.
2. Stability of any form of control, which means, that under the same conditions and with the same activity of the test result will be the same test.
3. Function points one complex stability tests or test items and other.
4. The actual level of correspondence between the results of a single test or between the results of different tests.
Thus, the reliability of the test can be described as its stability during the test results under the same conditions in the presence of the same test items.
Accurate, clear and understandable definitions of validity of the test are not observed in the works of researchers.
According to A.P. Petraschuk  constructive validity of the test shows the extent to which foreign-language speech behavior exhibited by the test conditions in the test may determine the level of foreign language communicative competence, on which the test is able to communicate in real life.
The definition given by V.A. Kokkota reveals validity as a characteristic test, which shows that it is a test and measure how effectively it is measured, and it is suitable for determining the level of mastery of certain non-native language skills and abilities .
Means should be considered a valid test that effectively measures precisely those skills and teaching the test, which is the purpose of the control of the originator of the test, and with the help of which we can determine the level of development of skills tested.
Practicality in the methodology of teaching foreign languages:
1. Characteristics of the test, which determines:
a) Availability and stronger test instructions and content of tests for an understanding of the test;
b) Ease of organizations testing in different conditions;
c) Easy to check answers and determine the results and evaluation.
2. All aspects relating to the tests which will affect the time and resources.
3. Property of dough that is effective in its use in the practice of teaching in the secondary school, accounted for three types of resources: human, material, time.
Therefore, the test is practical if it is easy to understand the tasks and content, organization and verification of results.
We believe that we have to consider the authenticity test, which was indicated L.F. Bechmanom and A.P. Petraschuk  as one of the qualitative characteristics of the test, the test is supposed to match the parameters of a speech situation of real communication in the target language.
Thus, the development of the test carried out in stages: phase of the tests, analysis and evaluation of the test in accordance with the requirements of the quality, the final version of the test. At the stage of testing tasks is determined by the amount of material for testing, the most suitable form of the test, the duration of the test, validation of language and logic statements included in the test and the location of questions in order of increasing complexity. During test analysis concludes this test according to qualitative characteristics: reliability, validity, practicality, authenticity. The analysis and evaluation of the test is the final version.
1.4 Problems in the testing control
An integral part of the process of foreign language teaching in schools is to control the level of ownership by non-native students' skills. Proper organization of control depends on the quality of learning. F.M Rabinovich said that there are the important rules for testing:
1. Monitoring should be regular.
2. Monitoring should include the maximum number of students.
3. The volume of test material should not be large, but sufficiently representative to power on its assimilation (undigested), ownership (lack of fluency) them students it was possible to understand whether they have acquired the necessary skills.
4. The control should be based on the specific objectives of the lesson.
Questions to improve control in teaching foreign languages ??became the subject of protection of many Methodists. Yet problems verification and accounting knowledge, skills, methods of their organization and conduct have not lost their relevance.
The appearance of the project temporary state educational standards in a foreign language, developed under the leadership of I.L Bim and A.A Mirolyubova, solves a number of problems associated with the implementation of control. This is primarily the allocation of control objects and selection of the most reliable and effective forms of its realization.
M.E Breygina gives the definition of control and makes it stand out features: diagnostic, management, correction, evaluation, stimulating, motivating and planned learning. In the control function is implemented and ensures interaction between teacher and students in the pedagogical process.
However, overreliance on testing without proper critical understanding of different aspects of it can lead to insufficient objective evaluation of its educational value and thereby harm instead of good business practice of foreign language teaching.
It should be noted that, despite the extensive literature on these types of tests, their wide approbation in practice and numerous experimental studies, a number of fundamental questions remain, according to the testers themselves, not fully understood. In particular, the question is subject to implementation in these tests, one of the most basic requirements - requirements of their adequacy (validity).
Even the adequacy of «language» test (lexical, grammatical and phonetic), the development of which was started much earlier, «speech» (checking or that skill) is not unconditional. The fact is that in all the objective tests, the subject is given all the linguistic material, including one that is the right answer and that the subject must learn only (see or hear). In other words, based on the implementation of the test task is recognition and conclusive data defining the conditions under which recognition indicates that the subject is able to reproduce the same unit yourself unavailable. Moreover, there is no solid evidence that the recognition of the linguistic unit objectively or subjectively similar to it is an indication that the subject will be able to find it in the natural flow of sounding speech or reading. After placing controlled units of similar units unwittingly makes her the subject to focus on their differential tests that is for him a kind of clue. Therefore, in the whole series of experiments was obtained as a low correlation between not test and test tasks, and between «language» and «speech» tests.
Thus, the successful implementation of the language test is not unique, an indicator of the student's ability to operate the relevant material in speech activity, productive or even receptive. The only thing we can say with certainty is that the negative result of the test indicates the non-possession of a suitable material.
Even more complicated with the «speech» tests, the development of which has only just begun. Complexity of the issue is compounded by the fact that still remains basically unclear how using the test to check the ownership of one or another kind of speech activity. Here you can find two approaches, according to which the possession of one or another kind of speech activity set a) directly, by assessing the verbal behavior, during the execution of the test itself speech activity, and b) indirectly, through ownership verification students specific language material (which used «language» tests) and any other related or other speech activity. An example of the second approach can serve as a test developed by the Institute of English at the Michigan University (USA), which are modeled on tests in many countries. Thus, to assess the ability to speak English (foreign) language proposed test suite, the components of which have been developed by R. Lado in the 50s, the set includes three «language» test (checking listening linguistic units of a different order, and lexical grammar tests) and one «speech» (essay). Vulnerable in tests assessing to control indirectly, is the lack of evidence of correlation between the controlled entity and the entities proposed in the tests. In this regard, the first approach is more reliable as. It should be noted that his supporters do not constitute a single camp. Some testers offer to put the test in real conditions of speech activity in which he hears or reads the specific texts, written or sounded. However, this procedure makes the test very cumbersome (e. g to check listening comprehension invited to listen to texts 10-12), which deprives the test form control its advantages compared with other not test. In addition, it is extremely difficult, almost impossible becomes almost equal difficulty selection texts for several versions of the same test. Trying to compensate for these and other drawbacks, some researchers suggest this approach to judge of formation of a particular type of speech activity on the basis of a) the results of the success of the activity itself and b) test whether the subjects of individual skills necessary for the implementation of speech activity (for this purpose for each of its kind - while primarily for listening and reading - compiled a list of skills, the presence of which is considered necessary for its implementation). When carrying out this kind of test the number of questions in each text included such that it is checked understanding type: Main idea is that the text that: a)… b)… c)… d)… (in paragraphs a, b, c, d are offered various statements that relate to the text, but, except for one of them, are not a reflection of his main thoughts), and such, the answer to which makes it possible to judge whether the test subject specific skills - for example, to determine whether the student is able to relate the word to the context (this skill is important for receptive speech activities), may be offered a question like the word»…» as used herein means: a)… b)… c)… d)….
Specified kind of test, along with «pure language» test is currently the most popular. This form of controlling the test, of course, much easier to implement in practice than, obviously, due to its prevalence. However, its value, even only for receptive speech activities, cannot be proven that they recognize themselves and his supporters. First, expressed doubts about the reliability of the results of the degree of understanding of the text, or possession by some skill: it is not clear, for example, when there is understanding of the text - in the process of hearing /reading, or at the time when the student works with the test questions and compares the proposed it solve the problem, selects one of the ready-made solutions. Secondly, as yet there is no exhaustive list of skills necessary to perform a particular type of speech activity. Thirdly, the question remains unresolved whether to test all skills (at least of the number of installed) or can be limited to a few, but if we can restrict multiple skills, then what. The latter problem is closely connected with the question of the possibility of compensation one other skill, which is also not yet have answers. Finally, the question itself is also sending - judge of formation of a particular type of speech activity on the basis of individual skills. These doubts expressed N. Brooks and other researchers in the 60s.
2. Problematic moments of testing English as a form of control
In order to control the level of formation of skills and abilities of students in secondary school is commonly used testing. Middle school teacher cannot always find in a methodical literature complexes tests on a particular topic, so sometimes he is developing test items on the textbook material and to meet the requirements of the program. In this case, the teacher should reasonably choose a certain kind of test to detect the level of formation of knowledge and skills of students in one of the activities (speaking, listening, reading and writing).
As is well known, the principle of selection of material for the study of secondary school theme that involves the study of English by topic. Case study of language includes the implementation boundary control at the end of the study of a specific theme, besides during lessons regularly carried out in-line control, therefore, learning activities students in the learning process is evaluated frequently. Handout gradually complicated, the amount of information compared to that previously proposed increases.
Performance of different types of tests in a specific sequence is not only a form of control, but also enhances students' interest in learning.
Based on the theory, we conducted a study to identify problematic moments of testing (by finding the advantages and disadvantages) to learn English in secondary school.
The basis of our study based on the following objectives:
1. Determine the preference of students testing as a form of control;
2. Test the effectiveness of the use of tests;
3. Identify difficulties in the testing process.
In our study involved the 7th grade students, secondary school №6 of Zyryanovsk. There are 24 people in class. Age of students is 12-13 years old.
Final student knowledge for the 1st quarter showed that the level of English proficiency in the whole class - intermediate.
It took 3 academic hours to conduct this study.
Theme of our lesson is «Sport». The first lesson we have set the following educational objectives:
1. To acquaint students with the most common sports in England.
2. Use this knowledge in reading and speaking.
3. Increase students' interest in learning English, to instill a culture of healthy lifestyle.
Equipment: interactive whiteboard, handout (text, new words), English - Russian and Russian - English dictionaries.
Advance Preparation: interactive whiteboard displays the new words and pictures (photos) sports in England.
The first phase of the lesson - organizational (greeting students, mark present, the definition of the theme and objectives of the lesson).
On the main stage of the lesson, we introduce students to the topic of the story through the teachers of the sport in England, using visual aids and new words.
Grass hockey - hockey
Equipment - equipment
Get out - issue
Put away - clean
Team - team
Captain - Captain
Soccer - football
Rugby - rugby
Rules - rules
Green space - green area
Take place - pass
Lesson students continue a brief story about the sport that they love.
Next, students hear the text for self - reading.
Sport in Great Britain.
The most popular sports in Great Britain are football and cricket.
Football, or soccer, is an example of a professional game. The game of football was first played in Britain, and later people began to play football in other countries.
British schoolchildren have two types of physical training lessons: gym (= gymnastics) lessons and games, especially team games. At the lessons they run and jump, they do exercises on the horse, they play volleyball or basketball.
Team games are very important in British schools. Boys play football and rugby in the winter, and cricket and tennis in the summer.
Almost every school has its football team and every boy in Britain knows a lot about the game. He can tell you the names of the players in the most important teams; he has pictures of them and knows the results of many matches.
Cricket has the same rules as the professional game. A typical cricket match takes place on a green and open space. It is played between two teams - the «home» team and the «visitors» who come from another school.
Girls play grass hockey in the coldest months of the year and tennis, volleyball and basketball in the summer.
Every team has a game's captain, that is, a pupil whom the pupils themselves have chosen to help the teacher to get out and put away the games equipment, and to organize the teams of her form.
Using this information the teacher, the new words on the interactive whiteboard and dictionaries, we asked all students to translate the text.
At the final stage, students of «chain» read one sentence from the text and offer their translation.
Students are assessed and receive homework: learn new words on the topic of the lesson creative task - in pairs to prepare a presentation about favorite sport.
In our second lesson consolidate their knowledge on the subject at the request of the students suggested: testing (group A) or written work (group B).
For test -14 students, 10 students - for the written work.
Test for the group A consists of 15 questions (Appendix 2) and the for group B of questions on the understanding of the text:
1. What is the most popular game in Britain?
2. Where was the game of football first played?
3. What types of physical training lesson British schoolchildren have?
4. What kind of sport boys prefer in summer?
5. What kind of sport boys prefer in winter?
6. Where does a typical cricket match take place?
7. What kind of sport girls prefer in the coldest months of the year?
8. What kind of sport girls prefer in summer?
Next, students complement the sports theme creative work in pairs - a presentation that is evaluated separately.
In the final third lesson, students are familiar with the results of the intermediate testing and unrestricted work.
Test knowledge of the subject we check the whole class through final testing, which includes 20 questions (Appendix 3).
This study showed that today the school's students, as well as society, divided into two parts in the perception of such thing as test system. It is the ability to bypass the psychological tension for the first group and for the other group - creativity is important because testing is not able to adequately and accurately assess their capabilities.
Based on the knowledge assessment system («5» - 13-15 correct answers, «4» -10-12 correct answers, «3» - 7-11 correct answers, «2» - 0-6 correct answers), the test's results of the group A showed the following results:
«5» - 4 students;
«4» - 6 students;
«3» - 3 students;
«2» - 1 student.
Written work, which was attended by the students in the group B, in turn, gave the following results:
3 students have 8 correct answers and grade «5», 4 students have 5-7 correct answers and grade «4», 2 students have 4 correct answers and grade «3» and 1 student has less than 4 correct answers and grade «2».
Thus, assessing the quality of students' knowledge of the formula (grades «4» and «5» divide by the number of students and multiply by 100%), we obtain the following results:
Group A - 71%;
Group B - 70%.
We conclude that the lesson's material students understood in the same way, despite the different form of control.
The final testing's results on the evaluation system of knowledge («5» - 17-20 correct answers, «4» -14-16 replies, «3» - 10-13 replies, «2» - 9-0 answers) found in the final lesson following:
The quality of knowledge of the group A was - 78%.
«5» - 6 students;
«4» - 5 students;
«3» - 3 students;
Group B - 60%.
«5» - 2 students;
«4» - 4 students;
«3» - 3 students;
«2» - 1 student.
It can be concluded that the students of the group A improved the quality of knowledge through participation in the intermediate testing, i.e. formed skills tests play quite important role in obtaining the final result. At the same time students are embarrassed to talk, were in the same situation with the «speakers.»
One more testing's positive thing is the objective assessment and, consequently, the equality of all students in passing tests, since they all get the same job (at the same time and in the same place) and have a certain amount of time to perform the same task. The next advantage of testing is more appropriate range of knowledge evaluation. For example, if the test consists of fifteen questions, the maximum number of points that a student can get in the correct answers - 15. If they are admitted mistakes, we will see how many mistakes he made and immediately understand how wide knowledge student has in the discipline. In the classic method a student can get the maximum grade - «5» and grade is not always corresponds to the actual level of knowledge.
Students in the group B encountered the problem of participation in various forms of control, which resulted in reduction in the quality of knowledge on the topic.
Despite the advantage of the test results, anyway, it is not clear to draw conclusions about the final choice of the form of control knowledge to the students as members of the group A (4 students of 14) poorly understood the materials. That is, in the tests as a form of control we can also identify some problems:
1. Students get used to ready answers and lose (not gain) the ability to freely express thoughts and competently.
(E.g. what are the most popular games in Britain?
a) Football and basketball
b) Rugby and tennis
c) Cricket and Football
d) Basketball and volleyball).
2. Unable to control the creative knowledge of students.
(E.g. put the missing word in the sentence:
Every team has a game's……
3. In a written response can well turn around and get a deeper response, while in the tests, the student answers templates without expressing his thoughts.
(E.g. put the missing word in the sentence:
Team games are very………in British schools.
4. Another disadvantage of the test is the fact that a particular question in the test has a list of possible answers from which to choose one or two correct.
(E.g. choose the antonym for word cold:
Sometimes students are able to «random» to put the right answer. Thus, some students may get undeserved evaluation… And in other, if the student guesses the answers, it certainly will not be able to guess all the remaining answers to the test questions.
The study showed that the test system should be used to verify the training of students in conjunction with the classical methods of knowledge assessment such as oral questioning and written work. This integrated approach allows to achieve the best results and to establish the level of training an apprentice.
control testing knowledge education
Kazakhstan's aspiration to correspond European standards of education has led to increased attention to the operating time of Western practitioners.
So, in school practice traditional forms of control of educational achievements of pupils (control work) replaced testing. Basic concept of testing is a test, which is a complex task, passed approbation and defining the level of development of skills and abilities of students. The test consists of tests' exercises, which include the presence of the following structural elements: the task instructions, a sample implementation, the material presented and the predicted response (usually served in the keys.
Types of tests are classified according to the principle of objectivity:
a) The objective of the test (multiple choice test alternative choice selection of pairs, the transfer of information, the permutation in a logical order, editing);
b) Subjective tests (filling gaps, close - tests, short answers).
Choice test format is determined to carry out testing on the basis of analysis and assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of this type of test.
Test development process goes through five stages:
1) A precise definition of the material to be included in the test items;
2) Selection of the appropriate form of the test;
3) Timing to the test;
4) Analysis of test items in terms of their correctness;
5) Organization of tests on the principle of increasing complexity.
Drafted test is analyzed to meet the essential requirements for quality:
- Reliability (stability of the results of the same test in its conduct in the same conditions in the presence of the same test items);
- Validity (measurement test of skills and abilities, the control of which was provided);
- Usability (ease of understanding of the task and content of the test, and inspection of the organization);
- Authenticity (compliance test parameters speech situation of real communication in the target language).
Summing up the results of our study, we concluded that the test form of control today remains the most urgent. According to statistics, the majority of students chooses testing, preferring his creative assignments, as it takes less time and requires less psychological stress. And the teacher is much easier to check student's knowledge by checking it with the correct answers. More tests and make carrying only a supervisory role rather than developmental, and easier.
But despite the advantages in this section, you must not forget about the full development of the individual student, who should be able to, first of all, to think and to express their point of view. Therefore, tests must be inherent not only in controlling potential, primarily develops. These tests perform such an important function as an increase in students' interest in the English language. And it certainly will improve the efficiency and quality of education.
List of references
1. Alan Davies Dictionary of Language Testing / Alan Davies, Annie Brown, Cathie Elder etc. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. - 272 p.
2. J. Alderson Language Test Construction and Evaluation / J. Alderson, Caroline Clapham, Dianne Wall - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. -310 p.
3. J. Charles Alderson Assessing Reading / J. Charles Alderson. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. - 398 p.
4. Lyle F. Bachman Language Testing in Practice: Designing and Developing Useful Language tests / Lyle F. Bachman - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. - 377 p.
5. Tim McNamara Language Testing / Tim McNamara - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. - 140 p.
6. А. Chrystaluk Testing Junior Pupils Achievements // English language and Culture / А. Chrystaluk - 2002. - №41. - 3-4 c.
7. E. Doroshenko Testing // English language and culture / E. Doroshenko - 2002. - №35. - 3-7 c.
8. G.V. Rogova Methods of Teaching English / G.V. Rogova - M: Просвещение, 1983. - 35c.
9. Tulupova S. Quizzes, Tests, and Exams // English Language and Culture / Tulupova S. - 2003. - №47. - 3 c.
10. Банкевич JI.В. Тестирование лексики иностранного языка: Учебное пособие / Банкевич JI.В. - М.: Высшая школа, 1981.
11. Барабанова Г.В. Когнитивно-коммуникативные аспекты обучения профессионально-ориентированному чтению в неязыковом вузе / Барабанова Г.В. - Симферополь: Таврия, 2003.
12. Горчев А.Ю. Тесты текущей успеваемости: Английский язык 1-2 классы: Учебное пособие для учителя общеобразовательных учреждений / Горчев А.Ю. - Обнинск: Титул, 1995. - 104 с.
13. Коккота В.А. Лингво-дидактическое тестирование: Науч.-теор. пособие / Коккота В.А. - М.: Высшая школа, 1989.
14. Контроль в обучении иностранным языкам в средней школе / Под ред. Слободчикова В.А. - М.:Просвещение, 1986.
15. Ляховицкий М.В. Методика преподавания иностранных языков / Ляховицкий М.В. - М.: Высшая школа, 1981. - 159 с.
16. Macлыко E.A. Настольная книга преподавателя иностранного языка: Справочное пособие / [Macлыко E.A., Бабинская П.К., Будько А.Ф., Петрова С.И.]. - Минск: Вышэйшая школа, 2000. - 522 с.
17. Пасько Л. Tests // English language and culture / Пасько Л. и др. - 2002. - №35. - 8 - 14 c.
18. Рапопорт И.А. Тесты в обучении иностранным языкам в средней школе: Пособие для учителей / Рапопорт И.А., Сельг Р., Соттер М. - Таллин: Валгус, 1987.
19. Тараненко I.A. Использование клоуз-тестов для актуализации лексики при обучении профессионально-ориентированному чтению в неязыковом вузе // Статьи по матеріалам докладов 5 Международной конференции «Проблемы формирования творческого и интеллектуального потенциала обучаемых» / Тараненко I.A. - Севастополь: Изд-во СевГТУ, 1998. - 132-135 c.
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