Professional sea English language

Acquisition of skills of oral and written speech in sphere of professional sea English language. Communication at sea. The basic classes of ships. Parts of a ship and her measurement. Pilotage and pilots. Buoys and beacons. Tides and tidal streams.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид учебное пособие
Язык английский
Дата добавления 20.02.2012
Размер файла 4,9 M

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CONTENTS

UNIT 1. COMMUNICATION AT SEA

UNIT 2. TYPES OF SHIPS

UNIT 3. PARTS OF A SHIP AND HER MEASUREMENT

UNIT 4. PILOTAGE AND PILOTS

UNIT 5. LIGHTS

UNIT 6. BUOYS AND BEACONS

UNIT 7. DANGERS

UNIT 8. ANCHORAGES

UNIT 9. ANCHORING

UNIT 10. WEATHER

UNIT 11. TIDES AND TIDAL STREAMS

UNIT 12. DIRECTIONS7

UNIT 13. BERTHING AND LEAVING BERTH. TOWING

LITERATURE

PREFACE

Учебное пособие подготовлено в соответствии с программой учебной дисциплины «Английский язык», предусматривающей общий объем 216 часов (4 национальных кредита) и предназначено для подготовки курсантов и студентов по направлению 1003 «Судовождение и энергетика судов» профессиональной направленности «Судовождение». Пособие может быть использовано как для самостоятельной подготовки курсантов и студентов, так и для аудиторных занятий.

Целью пособия является приобретение навыков устной и письменной речи в сфере профессионального морского английского языка. Ключевым и наиболее сложным аспектом является тематическое введение профессиональных терминов на английском языке и различные пути их запоминания, а также использование их в ситуациях профессионального общения.

Учебное пособие состоит из 13 уроков, в каждом из которых отрабатывается определенная тема, раскрывающая различные профессиональные аспекты:

Communication at sea. VHF communication

Types of ships

Parts of a ship and her measurement

Pilotage and pilots

Lights

Buoys and beacons

Dangers

Anchorages

Anchoring

Weather

Tides and tidal streams

Directions

Berthing. Towing

Каждый урок состоит из нескольких частей, которые с точки зрения подачи и закрепления материала, имеют конкретную методическую направленность, выраженную в постепенном введении и отработки специализированной лексики, в связи с чем в основе каждой из них лежат тематические тексты, несущие основную информационную нагрузку. Они снабжены глоссарием, комментариями и комплексами упражнений. Каждый раздел содержит серию упражнений, направленных на развитие навыков аудирования навигационных терминов и стандартных фраз общения на море. Кроме восприятия и распознавания профессиональной лексики на слух, данная серия упражнений предполагает записывание курсантами их речи на пленку, воспроизведение услышанного и сопоставление речи курсанта и оригинала.

Следующая серия упражнений данного учебного пособия (в тексте пособия обозначается значком предполагает работу в компьютерном классе с мультимедийными программами по морскому английскому языку. Эти программы помогают проиллюстрировать новый материал на этапе его презентации или закрепления.

UNIT 1. COMMUNICATION AT SEA

PART I. Vocabulary and reading

Practise these words orally, and then read part one of the text

An aircraft - летательный объект

To avoid - избегать

confusion - путаница

Effective - качественный, эффективный

An error - ошибка

Essential - необходимый

Precise - точный

Unambiguous - недвусмысленный

Essential English for International Marine Use - Базовый курс английского языка для общения в море

Communication at sea is the essential part for the effective and safe running of the ship. It takes place within the ship herself, between the ship and shore stations, between the ship and other ships and sometimes between the ship and aircraft. All the mariners need to be sure that their speech communications are as precise, simple and unambiguous as possible and that language confusions and errors are avoided. Thus, Essential English for International Marine Use is required according to the International Agreement.

Exercise I. Read and translate the words from the left column. Find the appropriate synonyms from the right column

1.

exact

c) effective

2.

unequivocal

g) unambiguous

3.

to keep away

a) to avoid

4.

striking

f) precise

5.

obligatory

e) essential

6.

an embarrassment

b) a confusion

7.

a mistake

d) an error

PART 2. Vocabulary and reading

Practice these words orally, and then read part two of the text

To check the ship's chronometer - выверять показания хронометра

A distance - расстояние

To maintain - содержать, поддерживать в рабочем состоянии

Internal telephone system - внутренняя телефонная система связи

Maintenance - обеспечение, обслуживание

Responsibility - ответственность

To be responsible for- быть ответственным за

To take up with - справиться с ...

Visual and sound signals - визуальные и звуковые сигналы

There are different methods and techniques to provide efficient communication at sea: radio telephony, internal telephone systems, telegraph, e-net, visual or sound signals, etc.

Communications over long distances are sent by radio. Radio communications on board some ships are responsibility of the Radio department, although, in general, the Deck Officer performs duties of the Radio Officer. He's responsible to the Master for the efficient communication and maintenance of the communication equipment on board. A large part of the Deck Officer's duty is taken up with transmitting and receiving radio telegrams, navigational and weather messages, time signals for checking the ship's chronometer, social telegrams and press reports.

Exercise 2. Retell the text, using the expressions listed below

The text is headlined... .

The text deals with .... The aim of the text is to provide some information on....

The text describes... Further it is said that.... In conclusion ....

Using VHF radio Exercise 3. Study the diagram

Vocabulary and reading

Practise these words orally, and then read the text

In accordance with - в соответствии с Acknowledgement - подтверждение Announcement- объявление

A band- электрическая полоса частот Bearings - пеленги

To comply with - выполнять

To define the position - определять местоположение

DSC (Digital Selective Calling) - цифровой избирательный вызов, использование цифровых кодов для установления связи с другой станцией для передачи сообщений

То ensure - обеспечивать

GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System)- глобальная морская система связи

ITU- Международный Союз Радиосвязи

То regulate - регулировать

A regulation - правило

VHF - УКВ

The use of VHF radio at sea is regulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The person holding the authority of the ship must require each operator to comply with the ITU radio regulations and ensure that the radio station is always used in accordance with those regulations. The ITU conventions include: -proper selection of suitable radio frequency bands or channels, - standard ways of identifying oneself and addressing other ships or stations, - conventional ways of pronouncing the letters of the alphabet, numbers and other quantities, - also internationally-agreed conventions for speaking the time and for defining positions and bearings, - standard phrases and patterns.

Selection of suitable radio frequency bands or channels

Certain VHF channels are designated for particular purposes. These are given in ITU 'List of Coast Stations'.

Distress, Safety, Urgency

first choice

Channel 16

Inter ship

Channel 6

Port operations (ship movements

and pilot services. NON private or

public correspondence)

Channel 10

Public Correspondence

first choice

С Channel 24, 25, 26, 27, 28

On-board (only on board the ship

itself mooring/unmooring and

cargo operations; between the ship

and its life rafts, or between a

group of vessels during towing

operations)

Channel 15, 17 (on low power)

Coast Radio Stations

Channels listed in ITU List of Coast Radio Stations

The Phonetic Alphabet

The phonetic alphabet must be used when giving call-signs when speaking a word or when speaking individual letters.

Listening 1

Exercise 4. Read the Phonetic alphabet silently while listening to the recording. Then repeat the phonetic alphabet orally. Record your voice, speaking the phonetic alphabet. Replay the original and your own version

Exercise 5. Say the following groups aloud, using the phonetic alphabet

l. SQV 4. JPZ 7.KFL

NAM 5. BWO 8. GLU

TTR 6. DEC 9. XH

Exercise 6. Replay the recording which consists of 15 ships' call signs. Write down the letters you hear and check the answers with the teacher

Structure of VHF message for making and maintaining contact

1. The name of the station you are calling + its call signs

e.g. m/v 'Atlantica' HPRK

2. Ship station identity / This is... /

e.g. This is m/v 'Batabano' COGX

3. Date and time /GMT/UTC/

e.g. time 15.35.GMT

4. Position

e.g. position: bearing two-seven- zero degrees true from West Cape, distance 6 mis

5. Over

NB: If the name of the ship is not known it should be addressed by the phrase
'ALL SHIPS (IN AREA) followed by the

ship-type and special features

position

course and speed

e.g. All ships in west Cape area, calling unknown ship, position: bearing:234 degrees true, from West Cape, distance 2 mis.

To ensure that you actually say what you want to, and that you eliminate unnecessary repetition, PLAN WHAT YOU WANT TO SAY BEFORE STARTING.

The Phonetic Alphabet

LETTER

WORD

PRONUNCIATION

A

Alpha

ALFAH

В

Bravo

BRAH VOH

С

Charlie

CHAR LEE

D

Delta

DELL. T AH

E

Echo

ECK OH

F

Foxtrot

FOKS TROT

G

Golf

GOLF

H

Hotel

HOHTELL

I

India

INDEEAH

J

Juliett

JEW LEEETT

К

Kilo

KEY LOH

L

Lima

LEE MAH

M

Mike

MIKE

N

November

NO VEM BER

0

Oscar

OSS САН

P

Papa

PAH PAH

Q

Quebec

KEHBECK

R

Romeo

ROW MEOH

S

Sierra

SEE AIR RAH

T

Tango

TANG GO

U

Uniform

YOU NEE FORM

V

Victor

VIK TAH

w

Whiskey

WISS KEY

X

X-ray

ECKS RAY

Y

Yankee

YANG KEY

z

Zulu

ZOO LOO

Listening 2

Exercise 7. Practise the following identification and calls, using a tape recorder to check your performance

e.g. Rattler GXBC to Niton Radio

'Niton Radio: this is Rattler Golf Xray Bravo

Charlie' Over.

Contacts between:

Shore/ coast Station and ships:

Elm Queen to Colombo Radio

Almoussa 9 KJS is calling Dubai Radio

Boguslav UFLR to Ostend Radio

Lands end Radio to Centaur DLCZ

Gothenburg Traffic to Dae Jin 6MB A

Daila I, HZJK is calling Maas Pilot

Dalibon YTRI is calling Yuokohama Port Radio

Ship and ship

Dimitriy Zhloba UQOB to Drill Fish FUOY.

Gold Bond Trail Blazer D5BW to Atlantica HPRK

Ambia Finjo ELBF5 is calling Genclik TCCF

Batabano COGX is calling Cluj YQSQ

Anco Chaser GTEX to Cattleya D7 AW

Dorg Bang GMGI is calling to Fenn Victory KHVU.

Ferg Xiang BOWK to Global Mariner

Ship and unknown ship

Annika N ( SYDM) is trying to call an unknown ship of Lash type with red funnels near the North Goodwin Buoy.

Bellyatriks ESSW is trying to call a car ferry in the sea area Maas approach, bearing 200 distance 2 miles from Maas Centre buoy.

Clytoneus GUWG is trying to contact an OBO ship in sea area Practicos Recalades course 126 degrees speed 13 knots.

Portable Station and Portable station (no call signs used)

Ferras bow is calling Ferras bridge.

Marinada stern to Marinada bow

Grand Youth gangway to Grand Youth bridge

Glomfjord bridge to 2nd Officer ashore

Coral Sea bridge calling coral Sea lifeboat

Canadia number 3 calling Canadia Number 1

Listening 3

Exercise 8. Read after the speaker.

Record your own voice, speaking Standard Marine Communication Phrases. Replay the original and your own version

What is your name (and call sign)?

How do you read me?

I read you...

Bad/1

Poor/2

Fair/3

Good/4

Excellent/5

Or other variant with signal strength...

1/ barely perceptible

2/ weak

3/ fairly good

4/ good

5/ very good

Stand by on channel...

Change to channel...

I cannot read you.

Trass your message through vessel...

Advise try channel...

I cannot understand you.

Please use the...

Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary/ International Code of Signals

I am passing a message for vessel...

Correction...

I am ready to receive your message

I am not ready to receive your message

I do not have channel...

Please use channel...

Каково название вашего судна и его позывные?

Как слышите?

Я слышу Вас...

Плохо/ на единицу Слабо/

на двойку Посредственно/

на тройку Хорошо/

на четверку Прекрасно/

на пятерку

С силой сигнала...

1/ едва различимо

2/слабо

3/ довольно хорошо

4/ хорошо

5/ очень хорошо

Слушайте на радиоканале...

Передайте на радиоканал...

Я вас не слышу / не разбираю

Передайте Ваше сообщение через судно...

Советую попытаться использовать канал...

Я не могу вас понять

Пожалуйста, используйте...

Стандартный морской навигационный словарь-разговорник/ международный свод сигналов.

Я передаю сообщение судна...

Поправка...

Я готов принять ваше сообщение.

Я не готов принять ваше сообщение

У меня нет канала...

Пожалуйста, используйте канал...

List of Standard Phrases defined by use and response

Making and maintaining contact

Standard phrase

Meaning

Translation

Response(phrase/action)

All ships in ... area

I request that all ships receiving this transmission listen to what follows

Всем судам, находящимся в ... зоне

All ships listen(if what follows is an attempt to make contact with an unknown ship, then the ship so addressed should respond in the normal way)

Calling...

I wish to speak to

Вызываю ...

Respondent replies using name, callsign

How do you read?

How well are you receiving me?

Как слышите меня?

I read you (1-5)

Interruption

I am being interrupted. I will take action to deal with it.

Меня прервали

Respondent waits on same channel while the interruption is dealt with.

Out

I'm terminating the conversation

Конец связи

Respondent switches back to normal watch channel.

Over

I've completed my transmission and I'm ready to receive yours.

Прием

Respondent transmits.

Stand by VHF channel...

Remain on VHF channel...

Продолжайте слушать на УКВ канале ...

Standing by VHF channel ...

Stop transmitting.

Stop transmitting on this VHF channel

Прекратите передачу на этом УКВ канале.

Respondent ceases to transmit on that channel

This is...

My name (or call-sign) is ...

Говорит название или позывные

Unknown ship... (details)... (always preceded by 'all ships')

I wish to make contact with the ship described. I don't know its name or callsign.

Неизвестное судно (детали)...

Respondent replies using name, callsign

Wait... minutes

Wait for ... minutes and do not terminate

Ждите ... минут

Respondent waits for ... minutes

Exercise 9. Choose the right variant

l.Bad

а) плохо

2. Poor

b) слабо

3. Fair

с) посредственно

4. Barely perceptible

а) едва различимо

5. Weak

а) слабо

6. Fairly good

довольно хорошо

Exercise 10. Choose the right variant

1. Я вас не слышу/ не разбираю a) I cannot read you.

2. Передайте ваше сообщение через судно b) Pass your message through vessel

3. Перейдите на радиоканал a) Change to channel

Exercise 11. Translate into Russian

Call sign.

Signal strength.

I am passing a message for a vessel

I'm ready to receive your message

Excellent

International Code of Signals.

Correction

I read you barely perceptible.

Wait 10 minutes and don't terminate.

Exercise 12. Translate into English

Как слышите меня?

Слушайте на радиоканале...

Передайте на радиоканал...

Пожалуйста, используйте СМНСР

Я готов принять ваше сообщение

У меня нет канала...

Я передаю сообщение для судна.

Конец связи.

Прием.

10.Прекратите передачу на этом радиоканале.

Exercise 13, Choose the synonym (a word, word combination or sentence with the same meaning) from the right column for the following sentences from the left one

1.1 read you bad. a) I read you with signal strength barely perceptible.

2.1 read you poor. b) I read you with signal strength very good.

3.1 read you fair. c) I read you with signal strength good.

4. I read you good. d) I read you with signal strength fairly good.

5.1 read you excellent. e) I read you with signal strength weak.

Exercise 14. Choose the antonym (a word, word combination or sentence with the same meaning) from the right column for the following sentences from the left one

1.1 read you bad. a) I cannot read you.

2.1 read you poor. b) I am not ready to receive your message.

3.1 am ready to receive you message. c) I cannot understand you.

4.1 can read you. d) I read you good.

5 Л can understand you. e) I read you excellent.

Exercise 15. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding questions in writing 1. (...)?- My ship's name is 'Utopia'

(...)?- My call sign is UNGR.

(...)?-! read you with signal strength poor.

(...)?-1 cannot read you.

(...)?- Standing by VHF channel one-two.

(...)?-1 read you poor.

(...)?-1 cannot understand you.

Exercise 16. Put in the missing element of the sentence where it's necessary

Stand (...) on VHF channel 12

Pass your message (...) 'Utopia'

Please use (...)

I do not (...) channel 12

All ships (...)

Change (...) channel 16

Advise (...) try channel

Wait (...) 5 minutes.

I'm not (...) to receive your message

10. 1 read you (...)

Exercise 17. Which of the standard phrases will you choose if..?

You are being interrupted.

You're terminating the conversation.

You wish to make contact with the ship described. You do not know its name or callsign.

You advise to change to another VHF channel.

You've made a mistake.

You remain on VHF channel 12

You've completed your transmission and ready to receive respondent's one.

Transmission of numbers, measurements and quantities

Vocabulary and reading Practise these words orally

Clearly -четко

A digit - цифра

A draught - осадка

A knot - узел

Length - длина

Measurement - измерение

To pronounce -произносить

Quantity - количество

Separately - отдельно

Numbers are pronounced as in normal English except for a few numbers listed below.

Trie decimal point is expressed by the word decimal (pronounced as de-see-mal)

Each digit must be given separately

If the number is a whole thousand, e.g. 23000, the number of thousand is given by separate digit followed by the word thousand.

e.g. 23000 - two-three thousand

If it is not a whole thousand, e.g., it is given by separate digits without using the word thousand.

e.g. 25256 - two-five-two-five-six

Listening 4

Exercise 18. The recording gives the required pronunciation of numbers. Listen and repeat. Record your own voice, speaking numbers. Replay the original and your own version

Figure

Spelling of numbers

Pronunciation guide

0

1

2 3 4 5

6 7 8

9 1000

zero

one

two three four five

six seven eight

nine Thousand

ZERO

WUN

TOO

TREE FOWER

FIFE

SIX SEVEN

AIT

NINE

TOUSAND

Exercise 19. Read the following numbers

Figure

Spelling of numbers as spoken

Pronunciation guide

2

Two

TOO

15

One-five

WIJN-FIFE

34

Three-four

TREE-FOWER

217

Two-one-seven

TOO-WUN-SEVEN

25000

Two-five-thousand

TWO-FIFE-TOUSAND

25256

Two-five-two five-six

TOO-F1FE-TOO-FIFE-SIX

250000

Two-five-zero-thousand

TOO-FIFE-ZERO-TOUSAND

36.04

Three-six decimal zero-four

TREE-SIX-DA YSEEMAL-ZERO-FOWER

Exercise 20. Say the following numbers and record your voice. Then check with the recording

13 30 300 103

99 19 191 909

70 170 117 777

21 120 111 435

Exercise 21. Work with the partner, read the following grid to each other. Repeat until there are no errors

23

75

108

39

24

A reads to В

87

155

6

234

12

В reads to A

372

59

18

4

9

A reads to В

35

528

197

2

65

В reads to A

222

41

82

10

256

A reads to В

95

43

68

5

188

В reads to A

Transmission of measurements and quantities

1. Measurements must always he given in the following order:

what is being measured (length, draught, speed, etc)

the numbers e.g. two-five-zero, etc)

the units of measurements (metres, knots, tones, etc) e.g. length: two-flve-zero metres

NB: bearings and courses are measured in 360-degrees/ three figure notation.

Never use 9° =nine degrees! Always use 009° zero-zero nine degrees!

2. Quantities of items (e.g. cylinders, brushes) must be expressed by the word quantity follow ed by the number and the name of the item.

e.g. 24 cylinder would be spoken as: quantity: two-four cylinders

3. Different ways of expressing the thing measured: If the measurement or quantity e.g. for draught: salt water draught, draught forward, draught aft, maxi mum draught, loaded draught; then the category used must be stated.

e.g. My salt water draught is: two-five metres

Exercise 22, The following pieces of information are not expressed in a form suitable for transmission. Convert each one to the form suitable for VHF procedures. Write them down and then practise transmitting the items orally Example: 9 -- zero-zero-nine degrees

Twenty-five metres deep= depth: two-five metres

Reduce speed to 5 knots ~ reduce speed: new speed five knots

90

one-hundred and twenty nautical miles

250 meters (length)

twenty four coils of rope

10 knots (wind speed)

increase speed to 10 knots

10 meters (salt water draught)

18 meters (draught)

My tonnage is 30000 GROSS

10. My ETA at buoy 25 is 17.00 GMT

Exercise 23. Convert the following items of information into the form suitable for VHF in writing

We proceed at a speed of 14 knots.

We'll get the anchorage in half an hour.

The depth at the anchorage is 18 fathoms.

My draught now is 8.2m. fore, 8.8m aft, length is 140m.

The total amount of bags is 3717.

Listening 5

Abbreviations

Exercise 24. Listen to the recording and repeat after the speaker. Learn them by heart

Abbreviations

Initials

From the spelling of:

Translation:

AC

Alternating current

Перпемеиный ток

AM

Amplitude modulation

Амплитудная модуляция

ВНР

Brake horsepower

Тормозная мощность

CG

Centre of gravity; or Coast Guard of US), or coastguard (UK)

Центр тяжести; береговая охрана (США), береговая охрана (Великобритания)

CPA

Closest point of approach

Точка кратчайшего сближения

C02

Carbon dioxide

Углекислота

CRT

Cathode ray tube

Катодно-лучевая трубка

DC

Direct current

Постоянный ток

DF

Direction finding

Пеленгатор

EP

Estimated position

Расчётное местоположение

ETA

Estimated Time of Arrival

Расчётное время прибытия

ETD

Estimated Time of Departure

Расчётное время отправления (отхода)

FM

Frequency modulation

Частотная модуляция

GM

Metacentric height

Метацентрическая высота

GMT

Greenwich Mean Time

Время, скоординированное по Гринвичу

HF

High frequency

Высокая частота

IHP

Indicated horsepower

Индикаторная мощность

MO

International Maritime Organization

Международная Морская Организация

LF

Low frequency

Низкая частота

LNG

Liquefied natural gas

Судно-газовоз для сжиженных природных газов

LOP

Line of position

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas

Судно-газовоз для сжиэюенных

нефтяных газов

MCT

Moment to change trim

Момент, изменяющий дифферент

MF

Medium frequency

Средняя частота

PPJ

Plan position indicator (radar screen)

Экран радара

RT

Radio telephony

Радиотелефония

SAR

Search and rescue

Поиск и спасение

SHP

Shaft horsepower

Валовая мощность

SSB

Single side band

TPC

Tones per centimeter

Тонны на сантиметр

TPI

Tones per inch

Тонны на дюйм

TRS

Tropical revolving storm

Тропический шторм

UHF

Ultra high frequency

Ультравысокая частота

ULCC

Ultra-large crude(oil) carrier

UN

United Nations

ООН

UTC

Co-ordinated universal time

Всемирно координированное время

VHF

Very high frequency

УКВ

VLCC

Very large crude (oil) carrier

VLF

Very low frequency

Очень низкая частота

WT

Wireless telegraphy

Беспроводная телеграфия

AMVER

Automated Mutual Vessel Rescue system

Автоматизированная спасательная система судов

IALA

International Association of Lighthouse Authorities

LASH

Lighter Aboard Ship system

Лихтеровоз

OBO

Oil/Bulk Ore ship

Нефтерудовоз

RAS

Replenishment At Sea

Ro-Ro

Roll On-Roll Off

SATCOM

SATellite COMmunication

Спутниковая коммуникация

SATNAV

SATellite NA Vigation

Спутниковая навигация

Exercise 25. Listen to the recording, which lists 6 abbreviations. They are spoken in three different sequences. Write them down in each case

Exercise 26. Say the abbreviations for the following terms

Search and Rescue

International Maritime Organization

Co-ordinated Universal Time

Satellite communication

Estimated Time of Departure -Roll On-Roll Off

Greenwich Mean Time

19

- Very High Frequency -Estimated Time of Arrival

Exercise 27. Give the full form for the following abbreviations

-ETA

-ETD

-GMT

-IMO

-Ro-Ro

-SAR

-SATCOM

-UTC

-VHF

Time, Periods of time and dates General rules

Time is given in the same way as other measurements. The word time or a phrase containing the word time (e.g. ETA, ETD) will precede the numbers used.

The unit of time may be GMT, UTC or local

e.g. time: One-five-zero-zero "1

Qyij I at sea, prior to entry to a port, harbour

time: One-five-zero-zero UTC J

e.g. time: One-five-zero-zero local} inside a port, harbour

Periods of time are to be given in the same way as other measurements. The word period will precede the numbers used.

The units are hours and minutes.

e.g. a delay of thirty minutes is to be spoken as: delay is period: three-zero minutes.

5. Dates are used with prefixes year, month, day, in that order

e.g. Sunday 13 May 2004

year: two-zero-zero-four, month: zero-five, day: one- three

NB: the day of the week (Sunday) is not used

Listening 6

Exercise 28. Convert the following items of information into the form suitable for VHF. Check your answer with the speaker. Practise transmitting them

local time 02:30.

local time 15:45.

one o'clock in the morning local time.

ETA (in UTC) 13:30.

ETA (local time) 11:00.

a delay of 45 minutes.

a delay of one and a half hours.

Estimated Time of Departure, two thirty in the afternoon.

9. Wednesday, 3rd October, 1984.

10. Thursday, April 19th, 1984.

List of Standard Phrases defined by use and response

Channel switching

Standard phrase

Meaning

Translation

Response (phrase/action)

On VHF channel...

I am calling on channel

Работаю на УКВ канале ...

Respondent answers on the same channel.

Switch to VHF channel ...

I suggest that we switch to channel...

Переходите на канал

Agree VHF channel

VHF channel unable

I cannot switch to channel

Не могу работать на ... УКВ канале

VHF channels ..., ..., ..., available.

lean transmit on these VHF channels ..., ..., ...

Могу работать на УКВ ...каналах

Which VHF channel?

Which channel do you suggest that we use?

На каком канале будем работать

Switch to VHF channel...

Agree VHF channel

I agree to transmit on channel...

Согласен

Outline diagram of a two-ship exchange /Stage 1,2/

Exercise 29. Recall 2 stages of each conversation. Write them down. Then work with the partner as A and В respectively. (See the diagram of a two ship exchange)

Veniamis SXTE - Vincent Gann WZR8 (ch. 16)

Kyriakov P3UT - Rattler GXXX (ch. 8)

Spyros C4B1 - Vincent Gann WZR8 (ch. 16)

Harriet GBOI - Olivia PBXQ (Olivia does not have ch. 04 but does have 08 to 12)

Star Vega AYLD - Northport Voyager M2ZO (Northport Voyager does not hear Star Vega indicate a working channel)

Now exchange roles (A becomes В, В becomes A) and repeat the exercise.

Methods of giving a position Clear and accurate transmission of positional information in an internationally-agreed standard form is essential

1. Latitude and longitude method (when clear of land, or near a featureless coast, when confusion with geographic names might arise)

e.g. 30° 50' N018° 25', 02 E

POSITION: LATITUDE: three-zero degrees five-zero minutes North LONGITUDE: zero-one eight degrees two-five decimal zero-two minute-East.

2. Bearing and Distance method (near land or a conspicuous sea mark)
e.g. 194° (T) from Cape Otway: distance; 12.4 miles

POSITION: BEARING: one-nine-four degrees TRUE -.from Cape Otway DISTANCE: one-two decimal four miles.

3. Reference to Navigational Mark (in those areas where designated Report ing Points have been marked on the charts)

POSITION: Northeast from Rangitoto Beacon POSITION: approaching Goeree Light Tower. POSITION: between buoy number: one-three and buoy number: one-five

4. By Reporting Points

e.g. Gammon, POSITION: point Alfa; TIME: one-zero-zero-one local

Listening 7

Convert the following into a form suitable for transmission over VHF. Listen to the recording and check your answer

Example: 30° 50' N 018°25\ 02 E; 23:30 UTC

Answer: position: at time: two-three-three zero UTC: latitude three-zero, degrees, five-zero minutes North, longitude: zero-one-eight degrees, two-five decimal zero-two minutes East.

1. Latitude and Longitude -03°46'N,08°48'E

-53°14.2'N,08°28,E

12°06'N, 68°56.2'W, 15:00 GMT

12°09'N, 69°01W, 01:00 GMT -63°54'N, 38°06'E, 10:00 GMT

2. Bearing and Distance

200° 3.1 miles from Cape Couronne.

340° 4.6 miles from Uinga Island West Point

220° 1.3 miles from Hoek Van Baarland

- 180° 2.1 miles from Fjard Hallan.

090° 0.1 miles from Red Fish Island South Point, 00:10 GMT.

3. Navigational Marks

Approaching Maas centre buoy

NE from Goeree light beacon

Between Eurogeul buoys E. 11 and E. 13.

Passing South from Deutsche Bucht light vessel

Leaving Barrow Deep

4. Reporting Points

Approaching waypoint T.5, Texas City. 11:11 local

Waypoint 10 Gryten. 12:00 local

Waypoint 30 Klubbensborg 06:30 local -Waypoint, buoy number 135: Finkenwerder,! 1:30 local

Crayfordness Point, 20:00 local

Exercise 30. Form the sentences rising the data of the position of a vessel with regard to Barr Head lighthouse

248°, 3.0 miles; 5. 140°, 5.2 miles;

359°, 4.1 miles; 6. 37°, 4.0 miles;

41°, 1.2 miles; 7. 127°, 2.5 miles;

86°, 0.9 miles; 8. 165°, 10 miles.

Exercise 31. Translate from Russian into English

В точке 15° 34' северной широты и 61° 29' западной долготы производятся спасательные работы.

Ваше место от маяка Бар-Хед по пеленгу 137° на расстоянии 2.4 мили.

Неизвестное судно находится к северо-востоку от мыса К. По пеленгу 125° на расстоянии 2 миль.

Мое местоположение 35° 23' северной широты и 47° восточной долготы.

Между СВ буями Е. 11 и Е. 15 плавают обломки судна.

Exercise 32. Define the position of your vessel and convey it in two ways. Begin with the words 'Myposition is... '

List of Standard Phrases defined by use and response

Conversation controls

Standard phrase

Meaning

Translation

Response (phrase/action)

Break

I must break into this conversation for urgent reasons

Прерываю.

Respondent allows user of the word break to change the subject or to terminate prematurely.

Nothing more

I have finished my message. You are free to change subject or terminate.

У меня все.

Respondent changes subject or terminates the conversation.

Please acknowledge

Indicate that you have received what I have just said.

Подтвердите прием.

Respondent gives the appropriate reply marker 'I received following information' or says 'understood'

Please read back

Read back to me the information I have just given.

Повторите

переданное

мною.

Read back

Stay on

Do not terminate this conversation or change the subject because I have more to say

Не прекращайте связь.

Respondent replies to the message 'you may continue the conversation' then says 'over'.

Understood

I received the following information which I shall now read back to you.

Я принял следующую информацию, которую повторю.

Readback is correct, (optional)

Correction

I have just made a mistake in this transmission. The information should be...

Исправляю.

Readbackis correct

You have received my information correctly.

Принято правильно.

Message Markers

Maritime messages should be short accurate and relevant and message markers are used to indicate the message type, to avoid confusions. So, after the ship's identity exchanges (2 stages) the operator can continue his transmission using message initiated by the message marker. Here're 7 types of message and reply markers:

MESSAGE MARKER

REPLY MARKER

QUESTION

e.g. Question: what is your ETA ?

ANSWER

e.g. Answer: My ETA is time: one-six-two-five GMT

INSTRUCTION

e.g. Instruction: go to berth number: two five.

INSTRUCTION-RECEIVED

e.g. Instruction-received, go to berth number: two five, positive.

ADVICE

e.g. Advice: please anchor, position: bearing: one-jive-four degrees true, from Keel Point: distance one mile.

ADVICE-RECEIVED

e.g Advice-received: anchor, position: bearing: one-five-four degrees true, from Keel Point. Distance one mile.

REQUEST

e.g. Request: please send, quantity: Jive cylinders.

REQUEST-RECEIVED

e.g. Request-received: Send, quantity: five cylinders.

INFORMATION

e.g. Information: the pilot is waiting now at position: near buoy number: two-six.

INFORMATION-RECEIVED

e.g. Information-received: the pilot is waiting now at position: near buoy number: two-six.

WARNING

e.g. Warning: buoy number: two bravo is not Hi

WARNING-RECEIVED

e.g. Warning-received: buoy number: two bravo is not lit.

INTENTION

e.g. Intention: I intend to reduce speed, new speed: six knots.

INTENTION-RECEIVED

e.g. Intention-received: you intend to reduce speed, new speed' six knots.

Listening 8

Exercise 33. Listen and read after the speaker. Choose the right variant

1. Question

Совет

просьба

вопрос

5.Intention

намерение

просьба

b) ответ

2.Answer

a) намерение

b) просьба

c) ответ

6.Warning

a) предупреждение

b) инструкция

c) совет

3. Request

a) просьба

b) совет

c) предупреждение

7. Advice

a) просьба

b) совет

c) ответ

4.1nformation

a) инструкция

b) вопрос

c) информация

8. Instruction

a) информация

b) инструкция

c) просьба

Exercise 34. Listen to the messages and define the type of a message marker in English

What is your position?

Do not overtake.

Advise you to pass astern of me.

Please send medical assistance.

My ETA at East Pier is 16:30 local time.

You are running into danger.

I intend to reduce speed, new speed: 5 knots.

Exercise 35. Put a suitable message marker in the blank spaces in the message below

1 Stop immediately

2 Steer course: one-seven-zero degrees true.

3 The ship ahead of you is not under command.

4 The leading lights are not lit.

5 Please send a doctor immediately

6 The wind direction is: NE, force: 6

7 The visibility is poor

8 What is the depth in the outer fairway?

9 I intend to change course. New course: two-two-zero de grees true.

10 Please give me a weather report.

11 Do not anchor near South point: reason: diving operations will begin at time: 09:30

Exercise 36. Construct messages using message markers in writing. Practise them orally (AJQuestions

Example: Ask a ship to give you her position. Question: what is your position?

Ask if buoy maintenance operations are completed in a fairway A.

Ask ship for her ETA at the harbour entrance.

Ask a shore station for your berth number*

Ask if the pilot service is operating normally.

Ask how many cranes are operational at berth thirty. (B)Instractions and Advice

Example: Instruct or advise a vessel to reduce speed before waypoint number three.

Instruction: reduce speed before waypoint number: three. Advice: reduce speed before waypoint number three.

Instruct or advise a vessel to stop her engines immediately.

Instruct or advise a vessel to change course to a new course of one-three-three degrees true.

3. Instruct or advise a vessel to make fast to the lock tail.

(C) Requests

Example: Ask the chandler to deliver the stores before two-thirty this afternoon.

Request: please deliver the stores before time: one-four- three-zero local.

Ask for permission to enter sector two.

Ask for a doctor

Make a request for fresh water (2,000 tones) (D)Piece of information and Warnings.

Example: Inform or Warn a ship that buoy number 33 is off position. Warning: buoy number: three - three is off position.

Inform or warn ships that the ice-breaker is aground.

Tell a shore station that your ETA at the pilot station is eleven o'clock in the morning (local time)

Inform ships that the pilot service is suspended.

4. Warn the coastguard that you are not under command.
(E) Intentions

Example: tell the ship behind you that you intend to reduce speed to five knots. Intention: I intend to reduce speed. Mew speed: five knots.

Tell the shore station that you will proceed to the anchorage.

Tell the harbour station that you intend to close down (radio) now.

Announce that you intend to change course to a new course of 210 degrees true.

Exercise 37. Using the information given below respond to the messages given in exercise 38. (A) Practise them orally

Exercise 38

(a)Example: give your position as bearing 2 70° true, from West Cape, distance 6 miles.

Answer: My position is bearing: two-seven-zero degrees true, from West Cape distance six miles.

Buoy maintenance operations are completed.(begin the message pattern with the word 'positive')

ETA is 12:00 GMT

Berth number is 14A

The service is operating normally

5. Three cranes are operational

(b)Responses to instruction or advice

Respond to the message as below:

Example: agree to comply with the instruction.

'Instruction:Received reduce speed before waypoint number: three, positive.

agree

disagree

3. agree

(c) Respond to the message as below:

Example: State that you are unable to deliver the supplies at that time. 'Request -received: deliver the supplies before time: one-four-three-zero local, negative'

agree to request (begin 'you are permitted to')

agree to send a doctor

agree to supply

(d) Respond to the message as below:

Example: acknowledge the warning.

Warning -received: buoy number three-three is off position

Acknowledge this warning

Acknowledge this information

Acknowledge this information

Acknowledge this warning

(e) Respond to the message as below:

Example: acknowledge the message

Intention -received: you intend to reduce speed, new speed: five knots.

Acknowledge this message

Acknowledge this message

Acknowledge this message

Exercise 39. Construct messages, giving reasons for the information provided Practise them orally

Example: Tell ships that the pilot service is suspended due to bad weather. 'Information: the pilot service is suspended, reason: bad weather'

1. Reply to the following instruction stating that you cannot leave because you have an engine breakdown.

'Instruction: leave berth number one-six immediately'

Ask for a doctor because a crewman has severe stomach pains.

Inform the harbour master that you are not able to leave at 07:30 local because bunkering is delayed.

Warn another ship (Eros) that you are unable to stop because of engine breakdown. Own ship name Spartan.

Warn ships to proceed with extreme caution because a dredger is operating in fairway.

List of Standard Phrases defined by use and response

Clarification

Standard phrase

Meaning

Translation

Response (phrase/action)

Correction

I've just made a mistake in this transmission. The information should be ...

Исправляю

Mistake

There is a mistake in your last transmission. The information should be...

В вашем последнем сообщении ошибка

Correction

Please speak in full

Do not abbreviate your messages.

Не пользуйтесь сокращениями

Respondent ceases to abbreviate.

Please speak slowly

Speak slowly. I'm having difficulty in following or understanding

Говорите медленнее.

Respondent speaks more slowly.

Please spell...

Spell... using the phonetic alphabet.

Прошу произнести по буквам

I spell...

I will spell...

Произношу по буквам.

Say again

Repeat your message

Повторите

1 say again

I say again

I will repeat...

Повторяю

Outline diagram of a two-ship exchange /Stage 3,4/

Step 9

Both listen for a short period on before switching back to the appropriate Watchkeeping VHF channel.

Exercise 40. Work in pairs. Make the correct Message transmission (step 6) and the correct respond to Message (step?) and the End procedure (steps 8, 9) as in the diagram

Now exchange roles and repeat the exercise.

DISTRESS/ URGENCY/ SAFETY MESSAGES

When to use Distress, Urgency and Safety procedure

DISTRESS

MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY

A ship or aircraft is threatened by grave and imminent danger, and requests immediate assistance.

Example: MAYDAY (3) The engine room is on fire! Require immediate assistance!

URGENCY

PAN PAN-PAN PAN-PAN PAN

The station sending it has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or the safety of a person.

Example: PAN PAN (3) Main engine breakdown. Not under command. Require towing.

SAFETY

SECURITE-SECURITE-SECURITE

(pronounced SAY-CURE-TAY) The station sending it has a message to transmit containing an important navigational or meteorological warning

Example: SECURITE (3) there is a dangerous wreck in position... Navigate with caution.

Listening 9

Read the following words after the speaker

- Distress

- Mayday

- Urgency

- Pan Pan

- Safety

- Securite

Exercise 41.

Choose the right variant

1. Distress

а)срочность

Ь)бедствие

с)безопасность

2. Urgency

а)безопасность

Ь)срочность

с)бедствие

3. Safety

а)бедствие

Ь)срочность

с)безопаснос!ъ

Exercise 42. What signal do you use for announcing the following assistance?

Engine room is on fire. Require immediate assistance.

Main engine breakdown. Not under command. Require towing.

Sighted unlightened derelict vessel adrift. Keep sharp lookout.

I have lost a man overboard. Help with search and rescue.

There is a dangerous wreck in position... navigate with caution.

I need help. I am sinking.

Exercise 43. Choose the right procedure

1. Your ship is sinking and you need a lifeboat to come to your rescue.

distress procedure

urgency procedure

safety procedure

2. Your propeller has dropped off in a gale two miles off Cape Guardafui with an onshore wind

distress procedure

urgency procedure

safety procedure

3. Your propeller has dropped off, one hundred miles from cape Guardfui, with an off-shore wind.

distress procedure

urgency procedure

safety procedure

4. You are not under command and you wish to warn other shipping to keep clear.

distress procedure

urgency procedure

safety procedure

5. You see a ship sinking, and you wish to advise the appropriate SAR(Search and Rescue) authorities.

distress procedure

urgency procedure

safety procedure

Example of an Initial Distress Message

distress signals MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY

name of the ship in distress this is RA TILER RA TILER

distress signal MAYDAY

name of the ship and its callsign Rattler, GOLFXRAYXRAYXRAY

Position of the ship in distress

Position: latitude: 039 degrees 20 minutes North, longitude: 039 degrees 20 minutes West.

Nature of distress Collision with iceberg, sinking.

The assistance which is required Request: immediate assistance. Over.

Example of an Urgency Message

PAN- PAN PAN-PAN PAN-PAN

This is VEGA VEGA VEGA

PAN- PAN

VEGA, SEVEN VICTOR ALFA TANGO

Position: bearing 090 degrees true, from Ras SARKAN; distance: 15 miles

Lost propeller

Require tow.

Over

Example of an Initial Safety Transmission

SECURITE SECURITE SECURITE

All ships (may be repeated if thought necessary)

This is Arcadia Arcadia Arcadia

Securite

Arcadia, Charlie, Alfa, Alfa, Alfa.

Navigational information; Decca warning

Switch to VHF channel 06

Over

Exercise 44. What they have in common is that they may have to be transmitted under pressure, without time to refer to a bridge book or other manual, and it is important that they are correctly handled

a) Write out the appropriate message for the following circumstances:

You are sinking, due to collision with a submerged object, which has punctured the hull in the area of nos. 4 and 5 and double bottom tanks. The ballast line non-return valves have failed, probably due to grit in the valve seatings. It is now 15:00 ship's time, and you are keeping zone +11. Your dead reckoning position is 25 degrees and ten minutes south, 160 and half degrees west.

b) Write out the appropriate message for the following circumstances:

Your chief engineer has fallen down an engine room ladder. He has broken both legs and is bleeding from the mouth. It is 03.20 in the afternoon and Quessant lighthouse is 8 miles bearing 195 from your ship. There is no doctor or proper medical facility on board

UNIT 2. TYPES OF SHIPS

PART I. Vocabulary and reading

Practise these words orally. Repeat them after the teacher. Learn them by heart

P»- Bulk cargo - массовый груз (насыпной, навалочный, наливной)

^ Commodity - предмет потребления, товар

r^ Compartment - отделение, отсек, перегородка

г^ Crane подъёмный кран

^ Crate - клеть

Ф* Crude oil - сырая (неочищенная) нефть

$>- Derrick - подъёмная стрела

fc** Discharge - разгружать

fe" Double bottom - двойное дно

(^ Dry bulk cargo - навалочный груз

$*¦ Edible oils - съедобное масло (растительное)

fa»* Fuel - топливо

fc" Freighter - 1. фрахтователь, 2. грузовое судно

\^ Fertilizer - удобрение

fc* General cargo - генеральный хруз

^ Gra6 - черпак, ковш

^ Graz'w - зерно

ft>* Heavy cargo - тяжеловесный груз

^ Hold -трюм

ft*- Homeport - порт базирования (приписки, регистрации)

^ Inland waterways внутренние водные пути

гЪ" ?/wer - лайнер, пароход, совершающий регулярные рейсы

^ Liquid cargo - жидкий груз

г^ То load- грузить

^ Longitudinal - (прил.) продольный, по долготе.

(сущ.) продольный элемент конструкции т^ Lubricating oil - смазочное масло ?>- Merchant - торговый, коммерческий fa* Ore - руда

г*" Petroleum - 1. нефть, 2. керосин г^ Рог? of call - порт захода г^ Port of destination - порт назначения fa3" Pre-arranged - подготовленный заранее ^ Го provide - обеспечивать ^ Pump - насос

$>¦ Refrigerated cargo - рефрижераторный груз г*" Schedule -- расписание, 1рафик, план, режим г*" Timber - лесоматериалы

ft*" Tramp трамповое судно (грузовое судно, не работающее на определённых рейсах)

ft^ Transverse - поперечный $*¦ Tweendeck - твиндек Р5^ Stability - (здесь) остойчивость ft5- Storage - хранение

Generally speaking a vessel can be classified to the purpose she serves. The most common purposes are:

transportation of cargo or/ and passengers;

assistance and service (by so called ''special purpose vessels");

the catching offish (fishermen);

peace keeping( war ships).

Liners and Tramps

Vessels that have been designed to transport cargo or/ and passengers are called merchant ships. They may be classified as liners or tramps.

A liner carries cargoes between two fixed destinations.

Her sailing schedule has been prearranged - she has a fixed homeport, port of destination andport(s) of call, and fixed ETA 's and ETD 's (Estimated Times of Arrival and Estimated Times of Departure). A liner-vessel is allowed to carry up to 12 passengers.

Freighters that carry cargoes according to schedules that are not fixed are called tramps.

Homeports, ports of destination, ports of call, ETA's and ETD's differ with every voyage.

A tramp is not allowed to carry any passengers.

Merchant ships may carry general cargoes, hulk cargoes, refrigerated cargoes, heavy cargoes, timber, and many many more.

General Cargo Ships

General cargo is cargo that has been packed in crates, boxes or bags, or cargo coming in pieces (unpacked cargo items).

Cargo is loaded and discharged by the vessel's own derricks or by shore based cranes.

The conventional general cargo ship has several tweendecks.

Bulk Carriers

Bulk cargo is unpacked cargo of one commodity.

Dry bulk cargo, such as grain, ore, fertilizers, etc. is carried in specially designed vessels with holds that have been divided into compartments by longitudinal and transverse separations, so that the ship's stability will not be affected by a full cargo.

Dry bulk cargo is loaded and discharged by cranes with grabs or by pumps.

Liquid cargoes such as crude oil, petroleum, edible oils, etc. are carried in tankers, for example in Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC's), chemical tankers, such as Liquefied Petroleum Gas tankers (LPG carriers) or Liquefied Natural Gas tankers (LNG carriers).

Product tankers are small tankers that carry different sorts of oils.

For safety reasons tankers must be fitted with double bottoms. These spaces also provide storage for fuel, lubricating oil and waters.

Dry Bulk Carrier LPG-carrier

VLCC

PART 2. Vocabulary and reading

Practise these words orally. Repeat them after the teacher and learn them by heart

Aft - 1. В кормовой части судна, на корме, 2. корма Р5" Abeam - на траверзе Р9" Athwartship поперек

P=" Bay - номер секции от носа к корме (для контейнеровозов) Р^ Bow (здесь) нос корабля

Р^ Cargo handling equipment - оборудования для обработки груза Р=" Coaster - судно прибрежного плавания, каботажное судно Р^ Fore - носовая оконечность; в носовой части $*¦ Gantry crane - портальный, эстакадный кран Р^ Humidity control - контроль влажности Р^ Layer - слой, пласт Р5" То measure - измерять Р5" Obstacle препятствие, помеха Р^ Perishable cargo - скоропортящийся груз Р^ Ramp - (здесь) аппарель, наклонная плоскость ffc" Ro'Ro cargo - колесный груз

Р=" Ro/Ro ship - ролкер, судно с горизонтальной грузообработкой Р=" Row ряд, порядковые номера в секции от правого до левого борта Р^ Stern - корма

Р^ Stow - 1. хранение, 2. хранилище; (гл. укладывать, размещать) Р=^ Tier - (сущ.) ряд, ярус, штабель; номер ряда (яруса) по высоте от днища судна

# (гл. располагать ярусами)

Container ships

Cargo that has been containerized is carried by container ships.

Containers are most often measured in Twenty Feet Equivalent Units (TEU 's) and are stowed in a cellular arrangement in Rows, Bays and Tiers.

The rows run abeam, or athwartship; the bays run fore to aft and the tiers are horizontal layers. The three-figure code on each container refers to this stowage system. Thus, each container can easily be found.

Container ships are sometimes equipped with their own gantry cranes that load and discharge the containers. Container ships may carry general cargoes, liquid cargoes or refrigerated cargoes.

Roll-on/Roll-off ships (Ro/Ro ships)

On a Ro/Ro ship cargo is rolled on and rolled off by lorries or trailers. The great advantage of this system is that no cargo handling equipment is required.

The loaded vehicles are driven aboard via ramps through special stern and bow doors and are properly secured for the passage. Upon arrival in the port of discharge, the vehicles are released and driven ashore to their destinations.

Coasters

A coaster carries cargo along the coast or on sea voyages. Trans-Atlantic voyages are quite common.

A coaster is of limited length and tonnage.

Her engine room is situated aft. Often there are no tweendecks and the cargo spaces have no obstacles, so that a variety of cargo can be handled.

Refrigerated-cargo vessels (Reefers)

Refrigerated-cargo vessels are ships that carry perishable cargoes, such as meat or fruit. These cargoes require cooling and must be stored in spaces that have precise temperature- and humidity controls during the voyage.

Reefers, as these ships are also called, are equipped with refrigerating plants.

РАКТ З. Vocabulary and reading

Practise these words orally. Repeat them after the teacher and learn them by heart

fe" Cargo handling gear - грузовое устройство

P=" Derelicts and wrecks - фрагменты судна, покинутые экипажем в результате потери плавучести судна Р^ Ferry - паром Р" То float - плавать

Р^ Heavy-load vessel - судно для перевозки тяжеловесных грузов Р" То hoist - поднимать Р=" Lash-vessel -- лихтеровоз типа ЛЭШ Р=" Lighter - лихтер, портовая баржа Р" Multi-purpose vessel - судно многоцелевого назначения Р" Raw material - сырьё Р" Route - маршрут, курс, путь Р^ То submerge - затоплять, погружать(ся) Р" То tow - буксировать Р^ Tug буксир

Lash-vessels

"Lash " stands for "'Lighter aboard Ship ". A Lash-vessel has a main deck that is flat and without any obstacles. A lighter is a container that floats in the water. The containers may be hoisted on board by the vessel's own heavy derricks that stack them on board.

Another way of loading the containers on board is by submerging the vessel first (for this she must be equipped with a powerful pumping-system), then have tugs or push boats tow or push the lighters over the Lash-vessel, after which the vessel will emerge again and will "pick up" the lighters. This type of vessel is also referred to as a "Seabee"

Heavy-load vessel

Heavy-load vessels have been designed to lift and carry extremely heavy cargo on the main deck.

Their most prominent features are very heavy derricks ("booms"), masts and lifting-blocks.

Their cargoes, such as drilling platforms, engines, yachts, trains, derelicts and wrecks, are loaded onto the main deck, which is free from any obstacles.

Timber Carriers

Timber is a raw material from which wood-products are manufactured. Vessels that carry timber can easily be recognized by their tall derricks. A timber carrier has been designed in such a way that she can carry a tall deck cargo.


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